Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis, Immunodiagnostics:

8634.  Agrawal V, David RJ, Harris VJ. Classification of acute respiratory disorders of all newborns in a tertiary care center. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003 Jul;95(7):585-95.

8635.  Broor S, Pandey RM, Ghosh M, Maitreyi RS, Lodha R, Singhal T, Kabra SK : Risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in under-five children.  Indian Pediat 2001; 38(11): 1361-9.

8636.  Bulow M, Olsson R, Ekberg O. Videoradiographic analysis of how carbonated thin liquids and thickened liquids affect the physiology of swallowing in subjects with aspiration on thin liquids. Acta Radiol. 2003 Jul;44(4):366-72.

8637.  Burkhardt O, Merker HJ, Shakibaei M, Lode H. Electron microscopic findings in BAL of a fire-eater after petroleum aspiration. Chest. 2003 Jul;124(1):398-400.

8638.  Canovas SJ, Lim E, Dalmau MJ, Bueno M, Buendia J, Hornero F, Gil O, Garcia R, Paya R, Perez J, Echanove I, Montero J. Midterm clinical and echocardiographic results with patch glue repair of left ventricular free wall rupture. Circulation. 2003 Sep 9;108 Suppl 1:II237-40.

8639.  Cima-Cabal MD, Mendez FJ, Vazquez F, Aranaz C, Rodriguez-Alvarez J, Garcia-Garcia JM, Fleites A, Martinez Gonzalez-Rio J, Molinos L, de Miguel D, de los Toyos JR. Immunodetection of pneumolysin in human urine by ELISA. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Jul;54(1):47-55.

8640.  Engle WD, Jackson GL, Sendelbach DM, Stehel EK, Ford DM, McHugh KM, Norris MR, Vedro DA, Velaphi S, Michelow IC, Olsen KD. Pneumonia in term neonates: laboratory studies and duration of antibiotic therapy. J Perinatol. 2003 Jul-Aug;23(5):372-7.

8641.  Fartoukh M, Maitre B, Honore S, Cerf C, Zahar JR, Brun-Buisson C. Diagnosing pneumonia during mechanical ventilation: the clinical pulmonary infection score revisited. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Jul 15;168(2):173-9. Epub 2003 May 08.

8642.  Fernandez-Sabe N, Roson B, Carratala J, Dorca J, Manresa F, Gudiol F. Clinical diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia revisited: evaluation of the Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group scoring system. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Aug 15;37(4):483-9. Epub 2003 Jul 28.

8643.  Fireman E. Induced sputum as a diagnostic tactic in pulmonary diseases. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003 Jul;5(7):524-7. Review.

8644.  Gessner C, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Lange T, Engelmann L, Schauer J, Wirtz H.  Exhaled breath condensate nitrite and its relation to tidal volume in acute lung injury. Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):1046-52.

8645.  Haller AA, Mitiku M, MacPhail M. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and fusion proteins protects hamsters from challenge with human PIV3 and RSV. J Gen Virol. 2003 Aug;84(Pt 8):2153-62.

8646.  Jassal DS, Lee C, Silversides C, Tam JW. Can structured clinical assessment using modified Duke's criteria improve appropriate use of echocardiography in patients with suspected infective endocarditis? Can J Cardiol. 2003 Aug;19(9):1017-22.

8647.  Kabra SK, Kabra M, Lodha R, Shastri S, Ghosh M, Pandey RM, Kapil A, Aggarwal G, Kapoor V. Clinical profile and frequency of delta f508 mutation in Indian children with cystic fibrosis. Indian Pediatr. 2003 Jul;40(7):612-9.

8648.  Leth-Larsen R, Nordenbaek C, Tornoe I, Moeller V, Schlosser A, Koch C, Teisner B, Junker P, Holmskov U. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) serum levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia small star, filled. Clin Immunol. 2003 Jul;108(1):29-37.

8649.  Lockman S, Hone N, Kenyon TA, Mwasekaga M, Villauthapillai M, Creek T, Zell E, Kirby A, Thacker WL, Talkington D, Moura IN, Binkin NJ, Clay L, Tappero JW. Etiology of pulmonary infections in predominantly HIV-infected adults with suspected tuberculosis, Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003 Aug;7(8):714-23.

8650.  Metersky ML. Is the lateral decubitus radiograph necessary for the management of a parapneumonic pleural effusion? Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):1129-32.

8651.  Nettagul R, Visitsunthorn N, Vichyanond P. A case of IgG subclass deficiency with the initial presentation of transient hypogammaimmuno-globulinemia of infancy and a review of IgG subclass deficiencies. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Jul;86(7):686-92.

8652.  Oikonomou A, Muller NL, Nantel S. Radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of influenza virus pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003 Aug;181(2):507-11.

8653.  Okimoto N, Kurihara T, Honda Y, Ohba H. Cause of basophilic pleural effusion. South Med J. 2003 Jul;96(7):726-7.

8654.  Stark PC, Burge HA, Ryan LM, Milton DK, Gold DR. Fungal levels in the home and lower respiratory tract illnesses in the first year of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Jul 15;168(2):232-7. Epub 2003 Apr 30.

8655.  Yendamuri S, Fulda GJ, Tinkoff GH. Admission hyperglycemia as a prognostic indicator in   trauma. J Trauma. 2003 Jul;55(1):33-8.


8656.  Atzori C, Clerici M, Trabattoni D, Fantoni G, Valerio A, Tronconi E, Cargnel A. Assessment of immune reconstitution to Pneumocystis carinii in HIV-1 patients under different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Aug;52(2):276-81. Epub 2003 Jul 01.

8657.  Blue CE, Paterson GK, Kerr AR, Berge M, Claverys JP, Mitchell TJ. ZmpB, a novel virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae that induces tumor necrosis factor alpha production in the respiratory tract. Infect Immun. 2003 Sep;71(9):4925-35.

8658.  Charalambous S, Day JH, Fielding K, De Cock KM, Churchyard GJ, Corbett EL. HIV infection and chronic chest disease as risk factors for bacterial pneumonia: a case-control study. AIDS. 2003 Jul 4;17(10):1531-7.

8659.  Lee CY, Chiu CH, Huang YC, Chung PW, Su LH, Wu TL, Lin TY. Invasive pneumococcal infections: a clinical and microbiological analysis of 53 patients in Taiwan. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003 Jul;9(7):614-8.

8660.  Loens K, Ieven M, Ursi D, Foolen H, Sillekens P, Goossens H. Application of NucliSens Basic Kit for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Jul;54(1):127-30.

8661.  Nahimana A, Rabodonirina M, Helweg-Larsen J, Meneau I, Francioli P, Bille J, Hauser PM. Sulfa resistance and dihydropteroate synthase mutants in recurrent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jul;9(7):864-7.

8662.  Sallenave JM, Cunningham GA, James RM, McLachlan G, Haslett C. Regulation of pulmonary and systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide responses in transgenic mice expressing human elafin. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul;71(7):3766-74.

8663.  Zeitoun SS, de Barros AL, Diccini S. A prospective, randomized study of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients using a closed vs. open suction system. J Clin Nurs. 2003 Jul;12(4):484-9.


8664.  Mundy LM, Leet TL, Darst K, Schnitzler MA, Dunagan WC. Early mobilization of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):883-9.

8665.  Wunderink RG. " 'Tis a gift to be simple...". Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):777-8.



  Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis, Immunodiagnostics:

9306.  Beck KD, Gastmeier P. Clinical or epidemiologic diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia: is there any difference? Am J Infect Control. 2003 Oct;31(6):331-5.

9307.  Crothers K, Huang L. Recurrence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an HIV-infected patient: apparent selective immune reconstitution after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2003 Oct;4(4):346-9.

9308.  Datta D, Ali SA, Henken EM, Kellet H, Brown S, Metersky ML. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: the time course of clinical and radiographic improvement. Chest. 2003 Nov;124(5):1820-3.

9309.  d'Escrivan T, Roussel-Delvallez M, Alfandari S, Guery B. High level of resistance to levofloxacin of Streptococcus pneumoniae following fluoroquinolone therapy. Infection. 2003 Oct;31(5):366.

9310.  Franquet T, Lee KS, Muller NL. Thin-section CT findings in 32 immunocompromised patients with cytomegalovirus pneumonia who do not have AIDS. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003 Oct;181(4):1059-63.

9311.  Freudenberger TD, Madtes DK, Curtis JR, Cummings P, Storer BE, Hackman RC. Association between acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in  recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Blood. 2003 Nov 15;102(10):3822-8. Epub 2003 Jul 17.

9312.  Fukuda T, Hackman RC, Guthrie KA, Sandmaier BM, Boeckh M, Maris MB, Maloney DG, Deeg HJ, Martin PJ, Storb RF, Madtes DK. Risks and outcomes of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after nonmyeloablative and conventional conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2003 Oct 15;102(8):2777-85. Epub 2003 Jul 10.

9313.  Golpe R, Mateos A. Rifampicin induced pneumonitis or bronchogenic spread of tuberculous empyema through a bronchopleural fistula? Thorax. 2003 Oct;58(10):910.

9314.  Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi M, Leinonen M. Serologically indicated pneumococcal pneumonia in children: a population-based study in primary care settings. APMIS. 2003 Oct;111(10):945-50.

9315.  Hoffman JA, Mason EO, Schutze GE, Tan TQ, Barson WJ, Givner LB, Wald ER, Bradley JS, Yogev R, Kaplan SL. Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the neonate. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):1095-102. Review.

9316.  Hunninghake GW, Lynch DA, Galvin JR, Gross BH, Muller N, Schwartz DA, King TE Jr, Lynch JP 3rd, Hegele R, Waldron J, Colby TV, Hogg JC.  Radiologic findings are strongly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia. Chest. 2003 Oct;124(4):1215-23.

9317.  Kaplan V, Angus DC. Community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly. Crit Care Clin. 2003 Oct;19(4):729-48.

9318.  Karnath BM, Luh JY. Diagnostic and prognostic testing in pneumonia. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec 2;139(11):955.

9319.  Krell S, Adams I, Arnold U, Kalinski T, Aumann V, Konig W, Konig B. Influenza B pneumonia with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection associated with parvovirus B19 and concomitant agranulocytosis. Infection. 2003 Oct;31(5):353-8.

9320.  Laundy M, Ajayi-Obe E, Hawrami K, Aitken C, Breuer J, Booy R. Influenza A community-acquired pneumonia in East London infants and young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Oct;22(10 Suppl):S223-7.

9321.  Linden PK, Kusne S, Coley K, Fontes P, Kramer DJ, Paterson D. Use of parenteral colistin for the treatment of serious infection due to antimicrobial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):e154-60. Epub 2003 Oct 29.

9322.  Lo AW, Tse GM, Chu WC, Chan AB. Pulmonary tumour microembolism clinically mimicking alveolitis. J Clin Pathol. 2003 Nov;56(11):866-7.

9323.  Lode H, Grossman C, Choudhri S, Haverstock D, McGivern J, Herman-Gnjidic Z, Church D. Sequential IV/PO moxifloxacin treatment of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Respir Med. 2003 Oct;97(10):1134-42.

9324.  Majeski EI, Paintlia MK, Lopez AD, Harley RA, London SD, London L.  Respiratory reovirus 1/L induction of intraluminal fibrosis, a model of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, is dependent on T lymphocytes. Am J Pathol. 2003 Oct;163(4):1467-79.

9325.  Managoli S, Chaturvedi P. Kawasaki disease with coronary artery aneurysm and symptomatic pneumonia. Indian Pediatr. 2003 Nov;40(11):1106-7.

9326.  Mandell LA, Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Whitney C; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):1405-33. Epub 2003 Nov 03.

9327.  McIntosh ED. How many episodes of hospital care might be prevented by widespread uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine? Arch Dis Child. 2003 Oct;88(10):859-61.

9328.  Nadrous HF, Antonios VS, Terrell CL, Ryu JH. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in nonimmunocompromised patients. Chest. 2003 Dec;124(6):2143-7.

9329.  Namiduru M, Karaoglan I, Aktaran S, Dikensoy O, Baydar I. A case of septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus bovis type II. Int J Clin Pract. 2003 Oct;57(8):735-6.

9330.  Neuman MI, Harper MB. Evaluation of a rapid urine antigen assay for the detection of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Pediatrics. 2003 Dec;112(6 Pt 1):1279-82.

9331.  Ohnishi H, Yokoyama A, Yasuhara Y, Watanabe A, Naka T, Hamada H, Abe M, Nishimura K, Higaki J, Ikezoe J, Kohno N. Circulating KL-6 levels in patients with drug induced pneumonitis. Thorax. 2003 Oct;58(10):872-5.

9332.  Pappas G, Bosilkovski M, Akritidis N, Mastora M, Krteva L, Tsianos E. Brucellosis and the respiratory system. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;37(7):e95-9. Epub 2003 Sep 08.

9333.  Parada JP, Deloria-Knoll M, Chmiel JS, Arozullah AM, Phan L, Ali SN, Goetz MB, Weinstein RA, Campo R, Jacobson J, Dehovitz J, Berland D, Bennett CL. Relationship between health insurance and medical care for patients hospitalized with human immunodeficiency virus-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 1995-1997: Medicaid, bronchoscopy, and survival. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):1549-55. Epub 2003 Nov 06.

9334.  Pene F, Merlat A, Vabret A, Rozenberg F, Buzyn A, Dreyfus F, Cariou A, Freymuth F, Lebon P. Coronavirus 229E-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;37(7):929-32. Epub 2003 Sep 08.

9335.  Pham TT, Burchette JL Jr, Hale LP. Fatal disseminated adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003 Oct;120(4):575-83.

9336.  Plouffe JF, Breiman RF, Fields BS, Herbert M, Inverso J, Knirsch C, Kolokathis A, Marrie TJ, Nicolle L, Schwartz DB. Azithromycin in the treatment of Legionella pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):1475-80. Epub 2003 Oct 29.

9337.  Reidy MF, Wright JR. Surfactant protein A enhances apoptotic cell uptake and TGF-beta1 release by inflammatory alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Oct;285(4):L854-61. Epub 2003 Jun 06.

9338.  Sethi S. Gatifloxacin in community-acquired respiratory tract infection. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Oct;4(10):1847-55. Review.

9339.  Uziel Y, Hashkes PJ, Kassem E, Gottesman G, Wolach B. "Unresolving pneumonia" as the main manifestation of atypical Kawasaki disease. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Oct;88(10):940-2.

9340.  Vassallo R, Jensen EA, Colby TV, Ryu JH, Douglas WW, Hartman TE, Limper AH. The overlap between respiratory bronchiolitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonia in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: high-resolution CT, histologic, and functional correlations. Chest. 2003 Oct;124(4):1199-205.

9341.  White ES, Lazar MH, Thannickal VJ. Pathogenetic mechanisms in usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Pathol. 2003 Nov;201(3):343-54. Review.

9342.  Wong CC, Brown D, Howling SJ, Parker NE. Hydroxyurea-induced pneumonitis in a patient with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis after prolonged drug exposure. Eur J Haematol. 2003 Nov;71(5):388-90.


9343.  Ali F, Lee ME, Iannelli F, Pozzi G, Mitchell TJ, Read RC, Dockrell DH.  Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated human macrophage apoptosis after bacterial internalization via complement and Fcgamma receptors correlates with intracellular bacterial load. J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 15;188(8):1119-31. Epub 2003 Oct 10.

9344.  Esposito S, Droghetti R, Faelli N, Lastrico A, Tagliabue C, Cesati L, Bianchi C, Principi N. Serum concentrations of pneumococcal anticapsular antibodies in children with pneumonia associated with Streptococcus pneumonia infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 1;37(9):1261-4. Epub 2003 Sep 30.

9345.  Hemsley C, Joyce E, Hava DL, Kawale A, Camilli A. MgrA, an orthologue of Mga, Acts as a transcriptional repressor of the genes within the rlrA pathogenicity islet in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2003 Nov;185(22):6640-7.

9346.  Kamp DW. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the inflammation hypothesis revisited. Chest. 2003 Oct;124(4):1187-90. Review.

9347.  Miyamoto H, Yoshida S, Taniguchi H, Shuman HA. Virulence conversion of Legionella pneumophila by conjugal transfer of chromosomal DNA. J Bacteriol. 2003 Nov;185(22):6712-8.

9348.  Nahimana A, Rabodonirina M, Zanetti G, Meneau I, Francioli P, Bille J, Hauser PM. Association between a specific Pneumocystis jiroveci dihydropteroate synthase mutation and failure of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients. J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;188(7):1017-23. Epub 2003 Sep 26.

9349.  O'Carroll MR, Kidd TJ, Coulter C, Smith HV, Rose BR, Harbour C, Bell SC. Burkholderia pseudomallei: another emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 2003 Dec;58(12):1087-91.

9350.  Ricart M, Lorente C, Diaz E, Kollef MH, Rello J. Nursing adherence with evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov;31(11):2693-6.

9351.  Sader HS, Fritsche TR, Mutnick AH, Jones RN. Contemporary evaluation of the in vitro activity and spectrum of cefdinir compared with other orally administered antimicrobials tested against common respiratory tract pathogens (2000-2002). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003 Nov;47(3):515-25.

9352.  Stokes HL, Easton AJ, Marriott AC. Chimeric pneumovirus nucleocapsid (N) proteins allow identification of amino acids essential for the function of the respiratory syncytial virus N protein. J Gen Virol. 2003 Oct;84(Pt 10):2679-83.

9353.  Takahashi H, Oishi K, Yoshimine H, Kumatori A, Moji K, Watanabe K, Nalwoga H, Tugume SB, Kebba A, Mugerwa R, Mugyenyi P, Nagatake T.  Decreased serum opsonic activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Ugandan adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1;37(11):1534-40. Epub 2003 Nov 06.


9354.  Herzog NS, Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Jiang H, Nsa W, Shook C, Weingarten SR. Effects of previous influenza vaccination on subsequent readmission and mortality in elderly patients hospitalized with pneumonia. Am J Med. 2003 Oct 15;115(6):454-61.


9355.  Bauer TT. Nosocomial pneumonia: therapy is just not good enough. Chest. 2003 Nov;124(5):1632-4.

9356.  Benninger MS. Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium extended release tablets: a new antimicrobial for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Oct;4(10):1839-46. Review.

9357.  Fine MJ, Stone RA, Lave JR, Hough LJ, Obrosky DS, Mor MK, Kapoor WN. Implementation of an evidence-based guideline to reduce duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med. 2003 Oct 1;115(5):343-51.

9358.  Rello J, Lorente C, Diaz E, Bodi M, Boque C, Sandiumenge A, Santamaria JM. Incidence, etiology, and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU patients requiring percutaneous tracheotomy for mechanical ventilation. Chest. 2003 Dec;124(6):2239-43.

9359.  Silber SH, Garrett C, Singh R, Sweeney A, Rosenberg C, Parachiv D, Okafo T. Early administration of antibiotics does not shorten time to clinical stability in patients with moderate-to-severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2003 Nov;124(5):1798-804.

9360.  Wunderink RG, Rello J, Cammarata SK, Croos-Dabrera RV, Kollef MH. Linezolid vs vancomycin: analysis of two double-blind studies of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia. Chest. 2003 Nov;124(5):1789-97.  

9361.  Ziss DR, Stowers A, Feild C. Community-acquired pneumonia: compliance with centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, national guidelines, and factors associated with outcome. South Med J. 2003 Oct;96(10):949-59.



Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis, Immunodiagnostics:

10033.  Aslanyan S, Weir CJ, Diener HC, Kaste M, Lees KR; GAIN International Steering Committee and Investigators. Pneumonia and urinary tract infection after acute ischaemic stroke: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International trial. Eur J Neurol. 2004 Jan;11(1):49-53.

10034.  Aspa J, Rajas O, Rodriguez de Castro F, Blanquer J, Zalacain R, Fenoll A, de Celis R, Vargas A, Rodriguez Salvanes F, Espana PP, Rello J, Torres A; Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Spain Study Group.   Drug-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia: clinical relevance and related factors. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 15;38(6):787-98.

10035.  Chong PY, Chui P, Ling AE, Franks TJ, Tai DY, Leo YS, Kaw GJ, Wansaicheong G, Chan KP, Ean Oon LL, Teo ES, Tan KB, Nakajima N, Sata T, Travis WD. Analysis of deaths during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Singapore: challenges in determining a SARS diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004 Feb;128(2):195-204.

10036.  Craven DE. Blood cultures for community-acquired pneumonia: piecing together a mosaic for doing less. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Feb 1;169(3):327-8.

10037.  Franquet T, Muller NL, Oikonomou A, Flint JD. Aspergillus infection of the airways: computed tomography and pathologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Jan-Feb;28(1):10-6.

10038.  Henrickson KJ, Hoover S, Kehl KS, Hua W. National disease burden of respiratory viruses detected in children by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jan;23(1 Suppl):S11-8.

10039.  Hui JY, Hon TY, Yang MK, Cho DH, Luk WH, Chan RY, Chan KS, Loke TK, Chan JC. High-resolution computed tomography is useful for early diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus pneumonia in patients with normal chest radiographs. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Jan-Feb;28(1):1-9.

10040.  Julian E, Matas L, Alcaide J, Luquin M. Comparison of antibody responses to a potential combination of specific glycolipids and proteins for test sensitivity improvement in tuberculosis serodiagnosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Jan;11(1):70-6.

10041.  Kelly MG, Sharkey RA, Moles KW, Daly JG. Severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAP) - a potentially fatal illness. J Med Microbiol. 2004 Jan;53(Pt 1):83-4.

10042.  Kuroki H, Morozumi M, Chiba N, Ubukata K. Characterization of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection detected by rapid polymerase chain reaction technique. J Infect Chemother. 2004 Feb;10(1):65-7.

10043.  Lodha R, Puanik M, Chandra U, Natchu M, Kabra SK. Persistent pneumonia in children. Indian Pediat 2003; 40(10): 967-70.

10044.  Noyola DE, Rodriguez-Moreno G, Sanchez-Alvarado J, Martinez-Wagner R, Ochoa-Zavala JR. Viral etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in Mexico. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Feb;23(2):118-23.

10045.  Porcel JM, Vives M, Esquerda A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in pleural fluid: a marker of complicated parapneumonic effusions. Chest. 2004 Jan;125(1):160-4.

10046.  Teramoto S, Yamamoto H, Yamaguchi Y, Ouchi Y, Matsuse T. A novel diagnostic test for the risk of aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Chest. 2004 Feb;125(2):801-2.

10047.  Torres A, Ewig S. Diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 29;350(5):433-5.

10048.  Tse GM, Hui PK, Ma TK, Lo AW, To KF, Chan WY, Chow LT, Ng HK. Sputum cytology of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). J Clin Pathol. 2004 Mar;57(3):256-9.


10049.  Altclas J, Salgueira C, Di Martino A. Pneumococcal bacteremia in a single center in Argentina. Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan;8(1):53-8.

10050.  Askarian M, Hosseini RS, Kheirandish P, Assadian O. Incidence and outcome of nosocomial infections in female burn patients in Shiraz, Iran. Am J Infect Control. 2004 Feb;32(1):23-6.

10051.  Heckerling PS, Gerber BS, Tape TG, Wigton RS. Use of genetic algorithms for neural networks to predict community-acquired pneumonia. Artif Intell Med. 2004 Jan;30(1):71-84.

10052.  Swartz MN. Commentary:Rosenow EC. Studies in pneumonia and pneumococcus infection. J Infect Dis 1904; 1:280-312. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 1;189(1):128-31.

10053.  van Elden LJ, van Loon AM, van Alphen F, Hendriksen KA, Hoepelman AI, van Kraaij MG, Oosterheert JJ, Schipper P, Schuurman R, Nijhuis M. Frequent detection of human coronaviruses in clinical specimens from patients with respiratory tract infection by use of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15;189(4):652-7.

10054.  Ye RD. Leukocyte inflammatory mediators and lung pathophysiology: an update. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Mar;286(3):L461-2. Review.


10055.  Prosser LA, Ray GT, O'Brien M, Kleinman K, Santoli J, Lieu TA.  Preferences and willingness to pay for health states prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics. 2004 Feb;113(2):283-90.


10056.  Bantar C. How much evidence do we have to recommend oral doxycycline for empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia? Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;38(3):459-60.

10057.  Carriere KC, Jin Y, Marrie TJ, Predy G, Johnson DH. Outcomes and costs among seniors requiring hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jan;52(1):31-8.

10058.  Powers JH, Cooper CK. Evaluating combination therapy in community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2004 Jan;125(1):353.

10059.  Stralin K, Sjoberg L, Holmberg H. Short-course beta-lactam treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 1;38(5):766-7.

10060.  van der Steen JT, Ribbe MW, Mehr DR, van der Wal G. Do findings of high mortality from pneumonia in the elderly make it the old man's friend? Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 26;164(2):224-5; author reply 225.




     Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis, Immunodiagnostics:  

     10636.  Albillos A, de-la-Hera A, Alvarez-Mon M. Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein prediction of severe bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Lancet. 2004 May 15;363(9421):1608-10.

10637.  Allaouchiche B, Boselli E. Soluble TREM-1 and the diagnosis of pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 29;350(18):1904-5.

10638.  Almirall J, Bolibar I, Toran P, Pera G, Boquet X, Balanzo X, Sauca G; Community-Acquired Pneumonia Maresme Study Group. Contribution of C-reactive protein to the diagnosis and assessment of severity of community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2004 Apr;125(4):1335-42.

10639.  Alves DW, Kennedy MT. Community-acquired pneumonia in casualty: etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management (or a look at the "new" in pneumonia since 2002). Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004 May;10(3):166-70. Review.

10640.  Aviram G, Boiselle PM. Imaging features of bacterial respiratory infections in AIDS. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004 May;10(3):183-8. Review.

10641.  Aziz ZA, Wells AU, Hansell DM, Bain GA, Copley SJ, Desai SR, Ellis SM, Gleeson FV, Grubnic S, Nicholson AG, Padley SP, Pointon KS, Reynolds JH, Robertson RJ, Rubens MB. HRCT diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease: inter-observer variation. Thorax. 2004 Jun;59(6):506-11.

10642.  Croce MA, Fabian TC, Mueller EW, Maish GO 3rd, Cox JC, Bee TK, Boucher BA, Wood GC. The appropriate diagnostic threshold for ventilator-associated pneumonia using quantitative cultures. J Trauma. 2004 May;56(5):931-4; discussion 934-6.

10643.  Ewig S, de Roux A, Bauer T, Garcia E, Mensa J, Niederman M, Torres A.  Validation of predictive rules and indices of severity for community acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2004 May;59(5):421-7.

10644.  Flanders SA, Stein J, Shochat G, Sellers K, Holland M, Maselli J, Drew WL, Reingold AL, Gonzales R. Performance of a bedside C-reactive protein test in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults with acute cough. Am J Med. 2004 Apr 15;116(8):529-35.

10645.  Georges H, Leroy O, Guery B. Soluble TREM-1 and the diagnosis of pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 29;350(18):1904-5.

10646.  Larsen HH, Huang L, Kovacs JA, Crothers K, Silcott VA, Morris A, Turner JR, Beard CB, Masur H, Fischer SH. A prospective, blinded study of quantitative touch-down polymerase chain reaction using oral-wash samples for diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189(9):1679-83.

10647.  Luna CM. C-reactive protein in pneumonia: let me try again. Chest. 2004 Apr;125(4):1192-5.

10648.  Mejias A, Chavez-Bueno S, Rios AM, Saavedra-Lozano J, Fonseca Aten M, Hatfield J, Kapur P, Gomez AM, Jafri HS, Ramilo O. Anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibody decreases lung inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine RSV model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May;48(5):1811-22.

10649.  Nicholson AG, Addis BJ, Bharucha H, Clelland CA, Corrin B, Gibbs AR, Hasleton PS, Kerr KM, Ibrahim NB, Stewart S, Wallace WA, Wells AU.  Inter-observer variation between pathologists in diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Thorax. 2004 Jun;59(6):500-5.

10650.  Ruggeberg JU, Ketteler K, MacKenzie CR, Von Kries R, Reinert RR, Schroten H. Blood culture sampling rates at a German pediatric university hospital and incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease. Infection. 2004 Apr;32(2):78-81.

10651.  Saito K, Nakayamada S, Nakano K, Tokunaga M, Tsujimura S, Nakatsuka K, Adachi T, Tanaka Y. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii by DNA amplification in patients with connective tissue diseases: re-evaluation of clinical features of P. carinii pneumonia in rheumatic diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 Apr;43(4):479-85.

10652.  Tuuminen T, Edelstein I, Punin A, Kislova N, Stratchounski L. Use of quantitative and objective enzyme immunoassays to investigate the possible association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies and asthma. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Apr;10(4):345-8.

10653.  Vijay D; Vijay Prakash Kumar GM. Chlamydia trachomatis serology in fertility and abortion cases: preliminary study. Antiseptic. 2004 Jan; 101(1): 9


10654.  Agusti C, Torres A. Dying from pneumonia: what gene is the culprit? Crit Care Med. 2004 May;32(5):1225-6. Review.

10655.   Chow KC, Hsiao CH, Lin TY, Chen CL, Chiou SH. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in pneumocytes of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004 Apr;121(4):574-80.

10656.  Groneberg DA, Witt H, Adcock IM, Hansen G, Springer J. Smads as intracellular mediators of airway inflammation. Exp Lung Res. 2004 Apr-May;30(3):223-50. Review.

10657.  Hedberg CL, Adcock K, Martin J, Loggins J, Kruger TE, Baier RJ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha -- 308 polymorphism associated with increased sepsis mortality in ventilated very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 May;23(5):424-8.

10658.  Ibrahim YM, Kerr AR, McCluskey J, Mitchell TJ. Role of HtrA in the virulence and competence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun;72(6):3584-91.

10659.  Jakubzick C, Choi ES, Carpenter KJ, Kunkel SL, Evanoff H, Martinez FJ, Flaherty KR, Toews GB, Colby TV, Travis WD, Joshi BH, Puri RK, Hogaboam CM. Human pulmonary fibroblasts exhibit altered interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 receptor subunit expression in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Am J Pathol. 2004 Jun;164(6):1989-2001.

10660.  Oldfield C, Bonella H, Renwick L, Dodson HI, Alderson G, Goodfellow M.  Rapid determination of vapA/vapB genotype in Rhodococcus equi using a differential polymerase chain reaction method. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2004 May;85(4):317-26.

10661.   Zar HJ. Pneumonia in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in developing countries: epidemiology, clinical features, and management. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004 May;10(3):176-82. Review.


10662.  Bosompra K, Ashikaga T, Ruby A. Attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions: a needs assessment study of the influenza immunization intentions of elderly citizens in Vermont. J Rural Health. 2004 Spring;20(2):125-30.

10663.  Quinley JC, Shih A. Improving physician coverage of pneumococcal vaccine: a randomized trial of a telephone intervention. J Community Health. 2004 Apr;29(2):103-15.


10664.  Agarwal G, Awasthi S, Kabra SK, Kaul A, Singhi S, Walter SD; ISCAP Study Group. Three day versus five-day treatment with amoxicillin for non-severe pneumonia in young children: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2004 Apr 3;328(7443):791.

10665.  Brooks WA, Yunus M, Santosham M, Wahed MA, Nahar K, Yeasmin S, Black RE. Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 May 22;363(9422):1683-8.

10666.  Buising KL, Thursky KA, Black JF, Brown GV. Are the Australian guidelines asking too much of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI)? Med J Aust. 2004 May 3;180(9):486-7.

10667.  Feldman C. Clinical relevance of antimicrobial resistance in the management of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia. J Lab Clin Med. 2004 May;143(5):269-83. Review.

10668.  File TM Jr. Shorter course therapy of serious respiratory infections: new data for new approaches to management. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;17(2):105-7. Review.

10669.  Gozum S, Unsal A. Use of herbal therapies by older, community-dwelling women. J Adv Nurs. 2004 Apr;46(2):171-8.

10670.  Loeb M. Pneumonia in the elderly. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;17(2):127-30. Review.

10671.  Low DE. Quinolone resistance among pneumococci: therapeutic and diagnostic implications. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38 Suppl 4:S357-62.

10672.  Macfarlane JT, Boldy D. 2004 update of BTS pneumonia guidelines: what's new? Thorax. 2004 May;59(5):364-6.

10673.  Martinez FJ. Monotherapy versus dual therapy for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38 Suppl 4:S328-40.