January, 2005

        Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

11057.  Cisse S. Diagnosis of malaria should be considered by U.S. physicians. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jul 15;70(2):260-1.

11058.  Dev V. Relative utility of dipsticks for diagnosis of malaria in mesoendemic area for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in northeastern India. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004 Summer;4(2):123-30.

11059.  Djimde AA, Dolo A, Ouattara A, Diakite S, Plowe CV, Doumbo OK. Molecular diagnosis of resistance to antimalarial drugs during epidemics and in war zones. J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;190(4):853-5.

11060.  Kumar KA, Oliveira GA, Edelman R, Nardin E, Nussenzweig V. Quantitative Plasmodium sporozoite neutralization assay (TSNA). J Immunol Methods. 2004 Sep;292(1-2):157-64.

11061.  Nandwani S. Evaluation of the direct acridine orange staining method for diagnosis of malaria [letter]. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2004 Jan; 22(1): 68. 

11062.  Rawat DS, Sharma I, Jalah R, Lomash S, Kothekar V, Pasha ST, Sharma YD. Identification, expression, modeled structure and serological characterization of Plasmodium vivax histone 2B. Gene. 2004 Aug 4;337:25-35.


11063.  Cameron A, Read J, Tranter R, Winter VJ, Sessions RB, Brady RL, Vivas L, Easton A, Kendrick H, Croft SL, Barros D, Lavandera JL, Martin JJ, Risco F, Garcia-Ochoa S, Gamo FJ, Sanz L, Leon L, Ruiz JR, Gabarro R, Mallo A, Gomez de las Heras F.  Identification and activity of a series of azole-based compounds with lactate dehydrogenase-directed anti-malarial activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 23;279(30):31429-39.

11064.  Hermsen CC, de Vlas SJ, van Gemert GJ, Telgt DS, Verhage DF, Sauerwein RW. Testing vaccines in human experimental malaria: statistical analysis of parasitemia measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Aug;71(2):196-201.

11065.  Keller CC, Kremsner PG, Hittner JB, Misukonis MA, Weinberg JB, Perkins DJ. Elevated nitric oxide production in children with malarial anemia: hemozoin-induced nitric oxide synthase type 2 transcripts and nitric oxide in blood mononuclear cells. Infect Immun. 2004 Aug;72(8):4868-73.

11066.  Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Cramer JP, Otchwemah RN, Anemana SD, Goltz K, Mylius F, Dietz E, Eggelte TA, Bienzle U. Hemoglobin C and resistance to severe malaria in Ghanaian children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1;190(5):1006-9.

11067.  Nanda R, Mishra PK, Das UK, Rout SB, Mohapatra PC, Panda A. Evaluating role of oxidative stress in determining the pathogenesis of falciparum malaria induced acute renal failure.  Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2004 Jan; 19(1): 93-6. 

11068.  Smith TG, Kain KC. Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum by photodynamic excitation of heme-cycle intermediates derived from delta-aminolevulinic acid. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 1;190(1):184-91.


11069.  Ballou WR, Arevalo-Herrera M, Carucci D, Richie TL, Corradin G, Diggs C, Druilhe P, Giersing BK, Saul A, Heppner DG, Kester KE, Lanar DE, Lyon J, Hill AV, Pan W, Cohen JD. Update on the clinical development of candidate malaria vaccines. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Aug;71(2 Suppl):239-47.


11070.  Ntoumi F, Djimde AA, Mbacham W, Egwang T.  The importance and future of malaria research in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Aug;71(2 Suppl):IV.




April, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Amexo M, Tolhurst R, Barnish G, Bates I. Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. Lancet. 2004 Nov 20;364(9448):1896-8.  

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

CONTEXT: Effective and affordable treatment is recommended for all cases of malaria within 24 h of the onset of illness. Most cases of "malaria" (ie, fever) are self-diagnosed and most treatments, and deaths, occur at home. The most ethical and cost-effective policy is to ensure that newer drug combinations are only used for true cases of malaria. Although it is cost effective to improve the accuracy of malaria diagnosis, simple, accurate, and inexpensive methods are not widely available, particularly in poor communities where they are most needed. STARTING POINT: In a recent study in Uganda, Karin Kallander and colleagues emphasise the difficulty in making a presumptive diagnosis of malaria, and highlight the urgent need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community and primary-care level, especially in poorer populations (Acta Trop 2004; 90: 211-14). WHERE NEXT? Health systems need strengthening at referral and community level, so that rapid accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is available for those who are least able to withstand the consequences of illness. Indirect evidence strongly suggests that misdiagnosis of malaria contributes to a vicious cycle of increasing ill-health and deepening poverty. Much better direct evidence is needed about why and how misdiagnosis affects the poor and vulnerable.


Mackintosh CL, Beeson JG, Marsh K. Clinical features and   pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):597-603.

Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

A major change in recent years has been the recognition that severe malaria, predominantly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is a complex multi-system disorder presenting with a range of clinical features. It is becoming apparent that syndromes such as cerebral malaria, which were previously considered relatively clear cut, are not homogenous conditions with a single pathological correlate or pathogenic process. This creates challenges both for elucidating key mechanisms of disease and for identifying suitable targets for adjunctive therapy. The development of severe malaria probably results from a combination of parasite-specific factors, such as adhesion and sequestration in the vasculature and the release of bioactive molecules, together with host inflammatory responses. These include cytokine and chemokine production and cellular infiltrates. This review summarizes progress in several areas presented at a recent meeting.


Richter J, de Bernardis C, Sagir A, Walter S, Savalli E, Haussinger D. Is ultrasound a useful adjunct for assessing malaria patients? Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):349-53.

Tropical Medicine Unit, Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

The value of ultrasonography as an adjunct for diagnosis and monitoring malaria was investigated. In all, 118 patients (male/female 65/53; age 2-78 years, median 29 years) with malaria underwent a standardised abdominal ultrasound examination at baseline. In 62 out of 118 patients, ultrasonography was repeated 21 days later. In the results at baseline, huge splenomegaly with firm organ consistency, consistent with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly syndrome, was observed in two Cameroonese children. In the other 116 patients, the most common finding was non-specific splenomegaly (96/116, 82.76%), occurring more frequently in non-immune patients (71/78, 91.03%) than in patients who had grown up in malaria-endemic areas (25/38, 65.79%; P<0.002). No correlation was found between liver or spleen size and any clinical parameter. The results on day 21 show that, although splenomegaly after therapy persisted more frequently in patients with malaria recrudescence or relapse (8/8, 100%) than in patients cured (32/54, 59.26%; P<0.0421), the practical value of this finding is questionable. Ultrasonography cannot be regarded as a first-line diagnostic method in patients with malaria.


Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Sasiprapha T, Sangkharomya S, Khaewsathien P, Supakalin P, Tang DB, Jarasrumgsichol P, Cherdchu C, Edstein MD, Rieckmann KH, Brewer TG. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;190(8):1456-63.

Department of Immunology and Medicine, United States Army Medical Component, Bangkok, Thailand.

We assessed monthly doses of tafenoquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 205 Thai soldiers received either a loading dose of tafenoquine 400 mg (base) daily for 3 days, followed by single monthly 400-mg doses (n = 104), or placebo (n = 101), for up to 5 consecutive months. In volunteers completing follow-up (96 tafenoquine and 91 placebo recipients), there were 22 P. vivax, 8 P. falciparum, and 1 mixed infection. All infections except 1 P. vivax occurred in placebo recipients, giving tafenoquine a protective efficacy of 97% for all malaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%), 96% for P. vivax malaria (95% CI, 76%-99%), and 100% for P. falciparum malaria (95% CI, 60%-100%). Monthly tafenoquine was safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in preventing P. vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in Thai soldiers during 6 months of prophylaxis. Copyright 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America


Ayi K, Turrini F, Piga A, Arese P. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant erythrocytes: a common mechanism that may explain protection against falciparum malaria in sickle trait and beta-thalassemia trait. Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3364-71.

Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Italy.

High frequency of erythrocyte (red blood cell [RBC]) genetic disorders such as sickle cell trait, thalassemia trait, homozygous hemoglobin C (Hb-C), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in regions with high incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and case-control studies support the protective role of those conditions. Protection has been attributed to defective parasite growth or to enhanced removal of the parasitized RBCs. We suggested enhanced phagocytosis of rings, the early intraerythrocytic form of the parasite, as an alternative explanation for protection in G6PD deficiency. We show here that P falciparum developed similarly in normal RBCs and in sickle trait, beta- and alpha-thalassemia trait, and HbH RBCs. We also show that membrane-bound hemichromes, autologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3c fragments, aggregated band 3, and phagocytosis by human monocytes were remarkably higher in rings developing in all mutant RBCs considered except alpha-thalassemia trait. Phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant RBCs was predominantly complement mediated and very similar to phagocytosis of senescent or damaged normal RBCs. Trophozoite-parasitized normal and mutant RBCs were phagocytosed similarly in all conditions examined. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant RBCs may represent the common mechanism for malaria protection in nonimmune individuals affected by widespread RBC mutations, while individuals with alpha-thalassemia trait are likely protected by a different mechanism.


Crabb BS, Cooke BM. Molecular approaches to malaria: MAM 2004 and beyond. : Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):547.

This special issue of Trends in Parasitology comprises a collection of timely reviews arising from the 2nd Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting held 1-5 February 2004 in Lorne, Australia, four years after the successful inaugural meeting. As the name suggests, Molecular Approaches to Malaria focused on the latest molecular developments in malaria research, and their biological and clinical implications. By no means is this special issue intended to represent a comprehensive recapitulation of all of the presentations at the meeting. Rather, the articles address, in more general terms, recent advances on broader themes that were prominent at Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting 2004

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

11550.    Abegunde AT. Monkey malaria in man. Lancet. 2004 Oct 2;364(9441):1217.

11551.    Adam I, Ali DA, Alwaseila A, Kheir MM, Elbashir MI. Mefloquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria during pregnancy in Eastern Sudan. Saudi Med J. 2004 Oct;25(10):1400-2.

11552.   Amexo M, Tolhurst R, Barnish G, Bates I. Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. Lancet. 2004 Nov 20;364(9448):1896-8.

11553.   Attaran A. Rescuing malaria treatment, or not? Lancet. 2004 Nov 27;364(9449):1922-3.

11554.   Bharat Bhushan. Measurement of blood glucose level at the time of admission in severe and complicated malaria. Indian Med J 2003, 97 (60): 158-9.

11555.   Bhattarai A, Maini-Thapar M, Ali AS, Bjorkman A. Amodiaquine during pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;4(12):721-2; discussion 722.

11556.   Challis K, Osman NB, Cotiro M, Nordahl G, Dgedge M, Bergstrom S. Impact of a double dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to reduce prevalence of pregnancy malaria in southern Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1066-73.

11557.   Chayani N, Das B, Sur M, Bajoria S. Comparison of Parasite lactate dehydrogenase based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (optimal) with microscopy for detection of malaria parasites. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2004 Apr; 22(2): 104-106.

11558.   Demirev PA. Mass spectrometry for malaria diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2004 Nov;4(6):821-9. Review.

11559.    Ganesh K N, Urmila J, Vijayan V A. Pyrethroid susceptibility & enzyme activity in two malaria vectors, Anoheles stephensi (Liston). Indian J med Res 2003, 117 (Jan), 30-8.

11560.   Mackintosh CL, Beeson JG, Marsh K. Clinical features and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):597-603. Review.

11561.   Menendez C, Schellenberg D, Quinto L, Kahigwa E, Alvarez L, Aponte JJ, Alonso PL.  The effects of short-term iron supplementation on iron status in infants in malaria-endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):434-40.

11562.    Nsungwa-Sabiiti J, Kallander K, Nsabagasani X, Namusisi K, Pariyo G, Johansson A, Tomson G, Peterson S. Local fever illness classifications: implications for home management of malaria strategies. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Nov;9(11):1191-9.

11563.   Okeke IN. Stopping the spread of drug-resistant malaria. Science. 2004 Dec 17;306(5704):2039-40; author reply 2039-40.

11564.   Orduna TA. Mapping malaria. CMAJ. 2004 Oct 26;171(9):1023; author reply 1023-4.

11565.   Owusu-Ofori A, Agbenyega T, Ansong D, Scheld WM. Routine lumbar puncture in children with febrile seizures in Ghana: should it continue? Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov;8(6):353-61.

11566.   Ozsoy MF, Oncul O, Pekkafali Z, Pahsa A, Yenen OS. Splenic complications in malaria: report of two cases from Turkey. J Med Microbiol. 2004 Dec;53(Pt 12):1255-8. Review.

11567.   Pamba A, Maitland K. Capillary refill: prognostic value in Kenyan children. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Oct;89(10):950-5.

11568.   Pavithra SR, Banumathy G, Joy O, Singh V, Tatu U. Recurrent fever promotes Plasmodium falciparum development in human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 5;279(45):46692-9.

11569.   Pilkington H, Mayombo J, Aubouy N, Deloron P. Malaria, from natural to supernatural: a qualitative study of mothers' reactions to fever (Dienga, Gabon). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Oct;58(10):826-30.

11570.   Ravi Kumar K, Sudarshan KS. Clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit (Paracheck-Pf) for diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum in Karnataka state of India.  Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine. 2004 Jan-Jun; 35(1 and 2): 10-14.

11571.  Richter J, de Bernardis C, Sagir A, Walter S, Savalli E, Haussinger D. Is ultrasound a useful adjunct for assessing malaria patients? Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):349-53.

11572.   Richter J, Gobels K, Muller-Stover I, Hoppenheit B, Haussinger D. Co-reactivity of plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 and aldolase on a combined immuno-chromographic-malaria dipstick (ICT) as a potential semi-quantitative marker of high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):384-5.

11573.   Rwagacondo CE, Karema C, Mugisha V, Erhart A, Dujardin JC, Van Overmeir C, Ringwald P, D'Alessandro U. Is amodiaquine failing in Rwanda? Efficacy of amodiaquine alone and combined with artesunate in children with uncomplicated malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1091-8.

11574.   Schellenberg D, Kahigwa E, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Mshinda H, Alonso P, Menendez C. A randomized comparison of two anemia treatment regimens in Tanzanian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):428-33.

11575.   Smithuis F, Shahmanesh M, Kyaw MK, Savran O, Lwin S, White NJ. Comparison of chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine and mefloquine-artesunate for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Kachin State, North Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Nov;9(11):1184-90.

11576.   Stepniewska K, Taylor WR, Mayxay M, Price R, Smithuis F, Guthmann JP, Barnes K, Myint HY, Adjuik M, Olliaro P, Pukrittayakamee S, Looareesuwan S, Hien TT, Farrar J, Nosten F, Day NP, White NJ.  In vivo assessment of drug efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: duration of follow-up. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4271-80.

11577.   Vokaer M, Bier JC, David P, Grand S, Supiot F, Ventura M, Bartholome EJ. Striatal lesions: an underestimated complication of cerebral malaria? Eur J Neurol. 2004 Oct;11(10):715-6.

11578.   Vreugdenhil CJ, Scheper FY, Hoogstraatte SR, Smolders M, Gikunda S, Cobelens FG, Kager PA. Comparison of the parasitologic efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Bungoma District of western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):537-41.

11579.   Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Sasiprapha T, Sangkharomya S, Khaewsathien P, Supakalin P, Tang DB, Jarasrumgsichol P, Cherdchu C, Edstein MD, Rieckmann KH, Brewer TG.   Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;190(8):1456-63. 

11580.   Willcox ML, Bodeker G. Traditional herbal medicines for malaria. BMJ. 2004 Nov 13;329(7475):1156-9. Review. 

11581. Williams HA, Durrheim D, Shretta R. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies. Health Policy Plan. 2004 Nov;19(6):356-70. Review.


11582.     Ayi K, Turrini F, Piga A, Arese P. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant erythrocytes: a common mechanism that may explain protection against falciparum malaria in sickle trait and beta-thalassemia trait. Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3364-71.

11583.   Baird JK. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4075-83. Review.

11584.   Becker K, Kirk K. Of malaria, metabolism and membrane transport. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):590-6. Review.

11585.   Blackman MJ. Proteases in host cell invasion by the malaria parasite. Cell Microbiol. 2004 Oct;6(10):893-903. Review.

11586.   Borrmann S, Issifou S, Esser G, Adegnika AA, Ramharter M, Matsiegui PB, Oyakhirome S, Mawili-Mboumba DP, Missinou MA, Kun JF, Jomaa H, Kremsner PG. Fosmidomycin-clindamycin for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 1;190(9):1534-40.

11587.   Cooke BM, Coppel RL. Blue skies or stormy weather: what lies ahead for malaria research? Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):611-4. Review.

11588.   Cooke BM, Lingelbach K, Bannister LH, Tilley L. Protein trafficking in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):581-9. Review.

11589.   Coppel RL, Roos DS, Bozdech Z. The genomics of malaria infection. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):553-7. Review.

11590.   Crabb BS, Cooke BM. Molecular approaches to malaria: MAM 2004 and beyond. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):547.

11591.   Craig MH, Kleinschmidt I, Le Sueur D, Sharp BL. Exploring 30 years of malaria case data in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: part II. The impact of non-climatic factors. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1258-66.

11592.   Deitsch KW, Hviid L. Variant surface antigens, virulence genes and the pathogenesis of malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):562-6. Review.

11593.   Dodd RY. Current safety of the blood supply in the United States. Int J Hematol. 2004 Nov;80(4):301-5. Review.

11594.   Dorsey G, Gasasira AF, Machekano R, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Hubbard A. The impact of age, temperature, and parasite density on treatment outcomes from antimalarial clinical trials in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):531-6.

11595.   Ehrhardt S, Wichmann D, Hemmer CJ, Burchard GD, Brattig NW. Circulating concentrations of cardiac proteins in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1099-103.

11596.   Eipe N. Malaria and postoperative fever. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004 Oct;48(9):1217.

11597.   Gatton ML, Cheng Q. Modeling the development of acquired clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infect Immun. 2004 Nov;72(11):6538-45.

11598.   Guyatt HL, Snow RW. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):760-9.

11599.   Hallett RL, Sutherland CJ, Alexander N, Ord R, Jawara M, Drakeley CJ, Pinder M, Walraven G, Targett GA, Alloueche A. Combination therapy counteracts the enhanced transmission of drug-resistant malaria parasites to mosquitoes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Oct;48(10):3940-3.

11600.   Hampton T. Malaria vaccine shows promise. JAMA. 2004 Dec 8;292(22):2703-4.

11601.   Khan SM, Waters AP. Malaria parasite transmission stages: an update. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):575-80. Review.

11602.   Mebrahtu T, Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Jape JK, Savioli L, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM. Low-dose daily iron supplementation for 12 months does not increase the prevalence of malarial infection or density of parasites in young Zanzibari children. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3037-41.

11603.   Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Gellert S, Otchwemah RN, Dietz E, Anemana SD, Bienzle U. Alpha(+)-thalassemia protects African children from severe malaria. Blood. 2004 Oct 1;104(7):2003-6.

11604.   Newman RD, Parise ME, Barber AM, Steketee RW. Malaria-related deaths among U.S. travelers, 1963-2001. Ann Intern Med. 2004  Oct 5;141(7):547-55. Review.

11605.   Rich SM. The unpredictable past of Plasmodium vivax revealed in its genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 2;101(44):15547-8.

11606.   Schapira A. DDT still has a role in the fight against malaria. Nature. 2004 Nov 25;432(7016):439.

11607.   Sharma SK, Chattopadhyay R, Chakrabarti K, Pati SS, Srivastava VK, Tyagi PK, Mahanty S, Misra SK, Adak T, Das BS, Chitnis CE. Epidemiology of malaria transmission and development of natural immunity in a malaria-endemic village, San Dulakudar, in Orissa state, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):457-65.

11608.   Smith JD, Deitsch KW. Pregnancy-associated malaria and the prospects for syndrome-specific antimalaria vaccines. J Exp Med. 2004 Nov 1;200(9):1093-7.

11609.   Tarantola AP, Rachline AC, Konto C, Houze S, Lariven S, Fichelle A, Ammar D, Sabah-Mondan C, Vrillon H, Bouchaud O, Pitard F, Bouvet E; Group d'Etude des Risques d'Exposition des Soignants aux agents infectieux. Occupational malaria following needlestick injury. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;10(10):1878-80

11610.   Vernick KD, Waters AP. Genomics and malaria control. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 28;351(18):1901-4. Review.

11611. Yuda M, Ishino T. Liver invasion by malarial parasites--how do malarial parasites break through the host barrier? Cell Microbiol. 2004 Dec;6(12):1119-25. Review.


11612.   Van de Perre P, Dedet JP. Vaccine efficacy: winning a battle (not war) against malaria. Lancet. 2004 Oct 16;364(9443):1380-3.


11613.   Bhatnagar S, Natchu UC. Zinc in child health and disease. Indian J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;71(11):991-5. Review.

11614.   Bradbury J. Synthetic antimalaria drug enters clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;4(10):598.

11615.   Cyranoski D. Campaign to fight malaria hit by surge in demand for medicine. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):259.

11616.   Dondorp AM, Newton PN, Mayxay M, Van Damme W, Smithuis FM, Yeung S, Petit A, Lynam AJ, Johnson A, Hien TT, McGready R, Farrar JJ, Looareesuwan S, Day NP, Green MD, White NJ. Fake antimalarials in Southeast Asia are a major impediment to malaria control: multinational cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of fake antimalarials. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1241-6.

11617.   Duong S, Lim P, Fandeur T, Tsuyuoka R, Wongsrichanalai C. Importance of protection of antimalarial combination therapies. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1754-5.

11618.   Goklany IM. Climate change and malaria. Science. 2004 Oct 1;306(5693):55-7; author reply 55-7.

11619.   Graham K. New tools to control malaria in refugee camps. J R Soc Health. 2004 Nov;124(6):253-5.

11620.   Haynes RK, Krishna S. Artemisinins: activities and actions. Microbes Infect. 2004 Nov;6(14):1339-46. Review.

11621.   Hien TT, Davis TM, Chuong LV, Ilett KF, Sinh DX, Phu NH, Agus C, Chiswell GM, White NJ, Farrar J. Comparative pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artesunate and artemether in patients with severe falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4234-9.

11622.   Korenromp EL, Armstrong-Schellenberg JR, Williams BG, Nahlen BL, Snow RW. Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1050-65. Review.

11623.   Maitland K, Makanga M, Williams TN. Falciparum malaria: current therapeutic challenges. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;17(5):405-12. Review.

11624.   Meyer CG, Marks F, May J. Editorial: Gin tonic revisited. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1239-40.

11625.   Nathan R, Masanja H, Mshinda H, Schellenberg JA, de Savigny D, Lengeler C, Tanner M, Victora CG. Mosquito nets and the poor: can social marketing redress inequities in access? Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1121-6.

11626.   Noor N, Rattani A. Chlorproguanil-dapsone for malaria. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1753-4.

11627.   Pussard E, Straczek C, Kabore I, Bicaba A, Balima-Koussoube T, Bouree P, Barennes H. Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4422-6.

11628.   Standing JF, Wong IC. Chlorproguanil-dapsone for malaria. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1752-3; author reply 1753.

11629.   Yasir M, Mahmood A. Quinine based combination therapy (QCT): first choice! J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Oct;14(10):643.




July, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Aceng JR, Byarugaba JS, Tumwine JK. Rectal artemether versus intravenous quinine for the treatment of cerebral malaria in children in Uganda: randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2005 Feb 12;330(7487):334.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere Medical School, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of rectal artemether with intravenous quinine in the treatment of cerebral malaria in children. DESIGN: Randomised, single blind, clinical trial. SETTING: Acute care unit at Mulago Hospital, Uganda's national referral and teaching hospital in Kampala. PARTICIPANTS: 103 children aged 6 months to 5 years with cerebral malaria. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised to either intravenous quinine or rectal artemether for seven days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to clearance of parasites and fever; time to regaining consciousness, starting oral intake, and sitting unaided; and adverse effects. RESULTS: The difference in parasitological and clinical outcomes between rectal artemether and intravenous quinine did not reach significance (parasite clearance time 54.2 (SD 33.6) hours v 55.0 (SD 24.3) hours, P = 0.90; fever clearance time 33.2 (SD 21.9) hours v 24.1(SD 18.9 hours, P = 0.08; time to regaining consciousness 30.1 (SD 24.1) hours v 22.67 (SD 18.5) hours, P = 0.10; time to starting oral intake 37.9 (SD 27.0) hours v 30.3 (SD 21.1) hours, P = 0.14). Mortality was higher in the quinine group than in the artemether group (10/52 v 6/51; relative risk 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.01). No serious immediate adverse effects occurred. CONCLUSION: Rectal artemether is effective and well tolerated and could be used as treatment for cerebral malaria.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

  1. Aceng JR, Byarugaba JS, Tumwine JK. Rectal artemether versus intravenous quinine for the treatment of cerebral malaria in children in Uganda: randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2005 Feb 12;330(7487):334.

  2. Ayoola OO, Adeyemo AA, Osinusi K. Concurrent bacteraemia and malaria in febrile Nigerian infants. Trop Doct. 2005 Jan;35(1):34-6.

  3. Depoortere E, Guthmann JP, Presse J, Sipilanyambe N, Nkandu E, Balkan S, de Pecoulas PE, Legros D. Efficacy and effectiveness of the combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and a 3-day course of artesunate for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a refugee settlement in Zambia. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):139-45.

  4. Ergonul O, Willke A, Azap A, Tekeli E. Revised definition of 'fever of unknown origin': limitations and opportunities. J Infect. 2005 Jan;50(1):1-5.

  5. Kayentao K, Kodio M, Newman RD, Maiga H, Doumtabe D, Ongoiba A, Coulibaly D, Keita AS, Maiga B, Mungai M, Parise ME, Doumbo O.  Comparison of intermittent preventive treatment with chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in Mali. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;191(1):109-16.

  6. Khichi QK, Channar MS, Wairraich MI, Butt A. Chloroquine resistant malaria in neonates. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005 Jan;15(1):34-6.

  7. Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, Kochar SK, Kumar SV, Das A. Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;11(1):132-4.

  8. Maitland K, Pamba A, English M, Peshu N, Levin M, Marsh K, Newton CR. Pre-transfusion management of children with severe malarial anaemia: a randomised controlled trial of intravascular volume expansion. Br J Haematol. 2005 Feb;128(3):393-400.

  9. Shah I, Deshmukh C T. A bedside dipstick method to detect plasmodium falciparum. Indian Pediat 2004, 41(11), 1148-51. ISA 005708 Vol. 41(6).

  10. Vinoth S, Koradia P, Kansara A, Patel S A, Kadri N M. Malarial myositis with pharyngeal palsy with myoglobinuria and acute renal failure in severe falciparum malaria. Indian J clin Pract 2004, 15(6), 12-16.

  11. Yeung S, White NJ. How do patients use antimalarial drugs? A review of the evidence. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):121-38. Review.


  1. Dominguez-Bello MG, Blaser MJ. Are iron-scavenging parasites protective against malaria? J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 15;191(4):646.

  2. Engwerda CR, Beattie L, Amante FH. The importance of the spleen in malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2005 Feb;21(2):75-80. Review.


  1. D'Alessandro U, Talisuna A, Boelaert M. Editorial: Should artemisinin-based combination treatment be used in the home-based management of malaria? Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jan;10(1):1-2.

  2. Dunavan CP. A piece of my mind. Jambo, Jahi. JAMA. 2005 Mar 23;293(12):1430-1.

  3. Fleck F. Rich nations should pay more to developing countries. BMJ. 2005 Jan 22;330(7484):161.

  4. Whitty CJ, Ansah E, Reyburn H. Treating severe malaria. BMJ. 2005 Feb 12;330(7487):317-8.  



  October, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Berkley JA, Maitland K, Mwangi I, Ngetsa C, Mwarumba S, Lowe BS, Newton CR, Marsh K, Scott JA, English M.Use of clinical syndromes to target antibiotic prescribing in seriously ill children in malaria endemic area: observational study. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):995. Epub 2005 Mar 29.

Centre for Geographic Medicine Research (coast), PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVES: To determine how well antibiotic treatment is targeted by simple clinical syndromes and to what extent drug resistance threatens affordable antibiotics. DESIGN: Observational study involving a priori definition of a hierarchy of syndromic indications for antibiotic therapy derived from World Health Organization integrated management of childhood illness and inpatient guidelines and application of these rules to a prospectively collected dataset. SETTING: Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: 11,847 acute paediatric admissions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of invasive bacterial infection (bacteraemia or meningitis) or Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia; antimicrobial sensitivities of isolated bacteria. RESULTS: 6254 (53%) admissions met criteria for syndromes requiring antibiotics (sick young infants; meningitis/encephalopathy; severe malnutrition; very severe, severe, or mild pneumonia; skin or soft tissue infection): 672 (11%) had an invasive bacterial infection (80% of all invasive bacterial infections identified), and 753 (12%) died (93% of all inpatient deaths). Among P falciparum infected children with a syndromic indication for parenteral antibiotics, an invasive bacterial infection was detected in 4.0-8.8%. For the syndrome of meningitis/encephalopathy, 96/123 (76%) isolates were fully sensitive in vitro to penicillin or chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical syndromes effectively target children admitted with invasive bacterial infection and those at risk of death. Malaria parasitaemia does not justify withholding empirical parenteral antibiotics. Lumbar puncture is critical to the rational use of antibiotics.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

12771.  Adongo PB, Kirkwood B, Kendall C. How local community knowledge about malaria affects insecticide-treated net use in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Apr;10(4):366-78.

12772.  Ali MS, Yousif AG, Mustafa MS, Ibrahim MH. Evaluation of malaria parasite screening procedures among Sudanese blood donors. Clin Lab Sci. 2005 Spring;18(2):69-73.

12773.  Baird JK. Effectiveness of antimalarial drugs. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1565-77. Review.

12774.  Berkley JA, Maitland K, Mwangi I, Ngetsa C, Mwarumba S, Lowe BS, Newton CR, Marsh K, Scott JA, English M. Use of clinical syndromes to target antibiotic prescribing in seriously ill children in malaria endemic area: observational study. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):995.

12775.  Carter JA, Mung'ala-Odera V, Neville BG, Murira G, Mturi N, Musumba C, Newton CR. Persistent neurocognitive impairments associated with severe falciparum malaria in Kenyan children. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;76(4):476-81.

12776.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Congenital malaria--Nassau County, New York, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Apr 22;54(15):383-4.

12777.  Durrani N, Leslie T, Rahim S, Graham K, Ahmad F, Rowland M. Efficacy of combination therapy with artesunate plus amodiaquine compared to monotherapy with chloroquine, amodiaquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in Afghanistan. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):521-9.

12778.  Gokhale S. Saving private ryan: The Indian scenario (rapid diagnosis of malaria at regimental aid post). Med J Armed Forces India 2004;60(2):137-41.

12779. Gollogly S. Do as I say, not as I do. Lancet. 2005 Apr 23-29;365(9469):1499.

12780.  Greenwood BM, Bojang K, Whitty CJ, Targett GA. Malaria. Lancet. 2005 Apr 23-29;365(9469):1487-98. Review.

12781.  Kulkarni AG, Suryakar AN, Sardeshmukh AS, Rathi DB. Studies on biochemical changes with special reference to oxiant and antioxidants in malaria patients. Indian J Clin Biochem 2003;18(2):136-49.

12782.  Mabuza A, Govere J, La Grange K, Mngomezulu N, Allen E, Zitha A, Mbokazi F, Durrheim D, Barnes K. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. S Afr Med J. 2005 May;95(5):346-9.

12783.  Marx A, Pewsner D, Egger M, Nuesch R, Bucher HC, Genton B, Hatz C, Juni P.  Meta-analysis: accuracy of rapid tests for malaria in travelers returning from endemic areas. Ann Intern Med. 2005 May 17;142(10):836-46.

12784.  Mehta SR, Swamy AJ, Muthukrishnan J, Malviya AK. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Med J Armed Forces India 2004;60(2):184-5.

12785.  Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Dzisi SY, Teun Bousema J, Wassilew N, Schreiber J, Anemana SD, Cramer JP, Otchwemah RN, Sauerwein RW, Eggelte TA, Bienzle U.  A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone or combined with artesunate or amodiaquine in uncomplicated malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):512-20.

12786.  Mohapatra PK, Prakash A, Taison K, Negmu K, Gohain AC, Namchoom NS, Wange D, Bhattacharyya DR, Goswami BK, Borgohain BK, Mahanta J. Evaluation of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) therapy in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indo-Myanmar border areas. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 May;10(5):478-83.

12787.  Mwangi TW, Mohammed M, Dayo H, Snow RW, Marsh K. Clinical algorithms for malaria diagnosis lack utility among people of different age groups. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):530-6.

12788.   Nandwani S. Evaluation of the direct acridine orange staining method for diagnosis of malaria. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004;22(1):68.

12789.  Ofovwe GE, Ibadin MO, Okunola PO, Ofoegbu B. Pattern of emergency neurologic morbidities in children. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Apr;97(4):488-92.

12790.  Ogutu BR, Nzila AM, Ochong E, Mithwani S, Wamola B, Olola CH, Lowe B, Kokwaro GO, Marsh K, Newton CR. The role of sequential administration of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine following quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in children. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 May;10(5):484-8.

12791.  Padial MM, Subirats M, Puente S, Lago M, Crespo S, Palacios G, Baquero M. Sensitivity of laser light depolarization analysis for detection of malaria in blood samples. J Med Microbiol. 2005 May;54(Pt 5):449-52.

12792.  Rizvi MA, Sharma AS, Puri SK, Dutta GP. Tissue schizontocidal efficacy of a novel anti-malarial compound against plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Proc Natn Acad Sci India- Sect B 2004;74(Pt II):114-122.

12793.  Skeet J. Malaria: its causes, treatment and methods of prevention. Nurs Times. 2005 May 17-23;101(20):43-5. Review.

12794.  Summer AP, Stauffer WM, Fischer PR. Pediatric malaria in the developing world. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;16(2):105-15. Review.


12795.  Aleem MA. Epilepsy in malaria. Epilepsia. 2005 Apr;46(4):601;

12796.  Enserink M. Microbiology. Mosquito-killing fungi may join the battle against malaria. Science. 2005 Jun 10;308(5728):1531-3.

12797.  Hales S, Woodward A. Global climate change and malaria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 May;5(5):258-9;

12798.  Michalakis Y, Renaud F. Malaria: fungal allies enlisted. Nature. 2005 Jun 16;435(7044):891-3.

12799.  Newton PN, Chaulet JF, Brockman A, Chierakul W, Dondorp A, Ruangveerayuth R, Looareesuwan S, Mounier C, White NJ. Pharmacokinetics of oral doxycycline during combination treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Apr;49(4):1622-5.

12800.  Orjih AU. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum growth in sickle cells in low oxygen environment and candle-jar. Acta Trop. 2005 Apr;94(1):25-34.

12801.  Pati SS, Panigrahi J, Mishra SK, Mohanty S, Mohapatra DN, Das BS. Severe complications and death in cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sickle-cell trait. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005 Apr;99(3):317-20.

12802.  Stoute JA. Complement-regulatory proteins in severe malaria: too little or too much of a good thing? Trends Parasitol. 2005 May;21(5):218-23. Review.

12803.  Tiffert T, Lew VL, Ginsburg H, Krugliak M, Croisille L, Mohandas N. The hydration state of human red blood cells and their susceptibility to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum. Blood. 2005 Jun 15;105(12):4853-60.

12804. Van den Enden E. Prophylaxis against rabies. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1608-10;


12805.  Hisaeda H, Yasutomo K, Himeno K. Malaria: immune evasion by parasites. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Apr;37(4):700-6. Review.

12806.  James E. Apoptosis: key to the attenuated malaria vaccine? J Infect Dis. 2005 May 15;191(10):1573-5.


12807.  Bates I. Presumptive malaria treatment in immunisation programmes. Lancet. 2005 Apr 23-29;365(9469):1443-4.

12808.  Birbeck GL, Taylor TE. Severe malaria: still counting the costs. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;76(4):467-8.

12809.  Brierley R. Roll Back Malaria issue first global report. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;5(6):332-3.

12810.  Churchill WD. The medical practice of the sexed body: women, men and disease in Britain, circa 1600-1740. Soc Hist Med. 2005 Apr;18(1):3-22.

12811.  Das P. New combination drug to treat malaria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 May;5(5):267.

12812.  Dunne MW, Singh N, Shukla M, Valecha N, Bhattacharyya PC, Dev V, Patel K, Mohapatra MK, Lakhani J, Benner R, Lele C, Patki K. A multicenter study of azithromycin, alone and in combination with chloroquine, for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. J Infect Dis. 2005 May 15;191(10):1582-8.

12813.  Marquino W, Ylquimiche L, Hermenegildo Y, Palacios AM, Falconi E, Cabezas C, Arrospide N, Gutierrez S, Ruebush TK 2nd. Efficacy and tolerability of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 May;72(5):568-72.

12814.  Oguonu T, Okafor HU, Obu HA. Caregivers's knowledge, attitude and practice on childhood malaria and treatment in urban and rural communities in Enugu, south-east Nigeria. Public Health. 2005 May;119(5):409-14.

12815.  Pagnoni F, Kengeya-Kayondo J, Ridley R, Were W, Nafo-Traore F, Namboze J, Sirima S. Artemisinin-based combination treatment in home-based management of malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):621-2.

12816.  Ring R. Taking a (mosquito) bite out of malaria. J Clin Invest. 2005 Apr;115(4):791. Royall J. Faces of change. Am J Public Health. 2005 Apr;95(4):559-61.

12817.  Schwartz E. Malaria--a disease that refuses to die but continues to kill. Isr Med Assoc J. 2005 Jun;7(6):404-5.