January, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

11042.  Grant KM, Dunion MH, Yardley V, Skaltsounis AL, Marko D, Eisenbrand G, Croft SL, Meijer L, Mottram JC. Inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana CRK3 cyclin-dependent kinase: chemical library screen and antileishmanial activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Aug;48(8):3033-42.

11043.  Laharwal MA, Yasin SB, Ahmed SB. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by fine needle aspiration cytology. J Cytol 2004;21(2):103-5.


11044.  Al-Tawfiq JA, AbuKhamsin A. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: a 46-year study of the epidemiology and clinical features in Saudi Arabia (1956-2002). Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;8(4):244-50.


11045.  Rivas L, Moreno J, Canavate C, Alvar J. Virulence and disease in leishmaniasis: what is relevant for the patient? Trends Parasitol. 2004 Jul;20(7):297-301. Review.





April, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

11529.    Abdallah KA, Nour BY, Schallig HD, Mergani A, Hamid Z, Elkarim AA, Saeed OK, Mohamadani AA. Evaluation of the direct agglutination test based on freeze-dried Leishmania donovani promastigotes for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudanese patients. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1127-31.

11530.   Canh do G, Lin FY, Thiem VD, Trach DD, Trong ND, Mao ND, Hunt S, Schneerson R, Robbins JB, Chu C, Shiloach J, Bryla DA, Bonnet MC, Schulz D, Szu SC. Effect of dosage on immunogenicity of a Vi conjugate vaccine injected twice into 2- to 5-year-old Vietnamese children. Infect Immun. 2004 Nov;72(11):6586-8.

11531.   Clapp BR, Hingorani AD, Kharbanda RK, Mohamed-Ali V, Stephens JW, Vallance P, MacAllister RJ. Inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction involves reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidant stress. Cardiovasc Res. 2004 Oct 1;64(1):172-8. 

11532   Salerno-Goncalves R, Fernandez-Vina M, Lewinsohn DM, Sztein MB. Identification of a human HLA-E-restricted CD8+ T cell subset in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine. J Immunol. 2004 Nov 1;173(9):5852-62.


11533.    Asilian A, Sharif A, Faghihi G, Enshaeieh Sh, Shariati F, Siadat AH. Evaluation of CO laser efficacy in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 2004 Oct;43(10):736-8.

11534.    Bandyopadhyay S, Chatterjee M, Das T, Bandyopadhyay S, Sundar S, Mandal C. Antibodies directed against O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates accelerate complement activation in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. J Infect Dis. 2004 Dec 1;190(11):2010-9.

11535.    Dawoud HA. Identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Egypt by hybridization of PCR amplified mini-exon repeats. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004 Dec;34(3):881-92.

11536.    Diaz LA, Arteaga LA, Hilario-Vargas J, Valenzuela JG, Li N, Warren S, Aoki V, Hans-Filho G, Eaton D, dos Santos V, Nutman TB, de Mayolo AA, Qaqish BF, Sampaio SA, Rivitti EA; Cooperative Group on Fogo Selvagem Research. Anti-desmoglein-1 antibodies in onchocerciasis, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease suggest a possible etiological link to Fogo selvagem. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Dec;123(6):1045-51.

11537.    Disch J, Oliveira MC, Orsini M, Rabello A. Rapid clearance of circulating Leishmania kinetoplast DNA after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 2004 Nov-Dec;92(3):279-83.

11538.    Hailu A, van der Poll T, Berhe N, Kager PA. Elevated plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-gamma inducing cytokines, and IFN-gamma inducible CXC chemokines in visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):561-7.

11539.    Mary C, Faraut F, Lascombe L, Dumon H. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA by a real-time PCR assay with high sensitivity. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Nov;42(11):5249-55.

11540.    Potestio M, D'Agostino P, Romano GC, Milano S, Ferlazzo V, Aquino A, Di Bella G, Caruso R, Gambino G, Vitale G, Mansueto S, Cillari E. CD4+ CCR5+ and CD4+ CCR3+ lymphocyte subset and monocyte apoptosis in patients with acute visceral leishmaniasis. Immunology. 2004 Oct;113(2):260-8.



  July, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  
  1. de Souza Dias S, da Costa Pinheiro PH, Katz S, dos Santos MR, Barbieri CL. A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi suitable for serodiagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Feb;72(2):126-32.

  2. Kassi M, Kasi PM. Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 66 cases. Trop Doct. 2005 Jan;35(1):50-1.

  3. Saha S, Mazumdar T, Anam K, Ravindran R, Bairagi B, Saha B, Goswami R,  Pramanik N, Guha SK, Kar S, Banerjee D, Ali N. Leishmania promastigote membrane antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting for differential diagnosis of Indian post-kala-azar  dermal leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Mar;43(3):1269-77.


  1. Kubar J, Fragaki K. Recombinant DNA-derived leishmania proteins: from the laboratory to the field. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;5(2):107-14. Review.

  1. Davis AJ, Kedzierski L. Recent advances in antileishmanial drug development. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Feb;6(2):163-9. Review.

  2. Kafetzis DA, Velissariou IM, Stabouli S, Mavrikou M, Delis D, Liapi G.  Treatment of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis: amphotericin B or pentavalent antimony compounds? Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Jan;25(1):26-30. 

  3. Saravia NG, Hazbon MH, Osorio Y, Valderrama L, Walker J, Santrich C,  Cortazar T, Lebowitz JH, Travi BL. Protective immunogenicity of the paraflagellar rod protein 2 of Leishmania mexicana. Vaccine. 2005 Jan 11;23(8):984-95.



  October, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


1.       Oliveira JG, Novais FO, de Oliveira CI, da Cruz Junior AC, Campos LF, da Rocha AV, Boaventura V, Noronha A, Costa JM, Barral A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 2005 Apr;94(1):55-9

Fundacao Hospital do Acre, Distrito Industrial, Rio Branco, Brazil.

We evaluated the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in an endemic area in Acre, Brazil, where Leishmania braziliensis is present. Leishmania DNA was detected 34 of 35 cases, yielding a positivity rate of 97.1%, which was higher than the positivity rates for all of the other diagnostic methods studied, namely Montenegro skin test (MST), anti-Leishmania serological testing and microscopic examination of lesion biopsy specimens. These findings have led us to propose guidelines for the diagnosis of ML that use PCR as the principal method of parasitological confirmation of cases.


Vergel C, Walker J, Saravia NG Amplification of human DNA by primers targeted to Leishmania kinetoplast DNA and post-genome considerations in the detection of parasites by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Apr;72(4):423-9.

Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Medicas, Cali, Colombia. carover@cideim.org.co carover@cideim.org.co

We evaluated the Leishmania Viannia-specific primers B1-B2 to detect Leishmania in normal skin and peripheral blood monocytes of patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis. Southern blotting and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products confirmed the specificity of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) amplification from tissue fluid from healthy skin, whereas the PCR with monocytes also amplified a human sequence of a size similar (718 basepairs) to the expected kDNA product (750 basepairs), resulting in false-positive results. Although B1 was not homologous to any human DNA sequence, B2 showed homology to a human chromosome 2 intergenic region (AC010878) at positions 35,881-36,599, which are spaced 718 nucleotides apart. Amplification of the human artifact from monocyte DNA was confirmed using the primer B2 alone. Examination of other primers reported for the PCR of kDNA from various species of Leishmania showed that six of seven were homologous to human DNA sequences. These findings underscore the importance of exploiting sequencing, bioinformatics, and DNA probes to refine molecular amplification techniques and to validate the performance of primers when used for new applications.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

 12733.  Eidsmo L, Nylen S, Khamesipour A, Hedblad MA, Chiodi F, Akuffo H. The contribution of the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in ulcer formation during Leishmania major-induced cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Am J Pathol. 2005 Apr;166(4):1099-108.

12734.  Oliveira JG, Novais FO, de Oliveira CI, da Cruz Junior AC, Campos LF, da Rocha AV, Boaventura V, Noronha A, Costa JM, Barral A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 2005 Apr;94(1):55-9.

12735. Sinha PK, Pandey K, Bhattacharya SK. Diagnosis & management of leishmania/HIV co-infection. Indian J Med Res. 2005 Apr;121(4):407-14. Review.

12736. Vergel C, Walker J, Saravia NG. Amplification of human DNA by primers targeted to Leishmania kinetoplast DNA and post-genome considerations in the detection of parasites by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Apr;72(4):423-9.


12737.  Bader KA, Schnur LF, Nasereddin A, Pratlong F, Dedet JP, Shaheen L, Yousef O, Greenblatt CL. Palestinian infantile visceral leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of Leishmania infantum belonging to a new zymodeme. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):618-20.

12738.  Bal AM. Visceral leishmaniasis--an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;5(4):196-7; discussion 197.

12739.  Coler RN, Reed SG. Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol. 2005 May;21(5):244-9. Review.

12740.  Garg R, Gupta SK, Tripathi P, Naik S, Sundar S, Dube A. Immunostimulatory cellular responses of cured Leishmania-infected patients and hamsters against the integral membrane proteins and non-membranous soluble proteins of a recent clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Apr;140(1):149-56.

12741.  Jorquera A, Gonzalez R, Marchan-Marcano E, Oviedo M, Matos M. Multiplex-PCR for detection of natural Leishmania infection in Lutzomyia spp. captured in an endemic region for cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Sucre, Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Feb;100(1):45-8.

12742.  Murray HW. Prevention of relapse after chemotherapy in a chronic intracellular infection: mechanisms in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15;174(8):4916-23.


12743.  Mazumdar T, Anam K, Ali N. Influence of phospholipid composition on the adjuvanticity and protective efficacy of liposome-encapsulated Leishmania donovani antigens. J Parasitol. 2005 Apr;91(2):269-74.


12744.  Hartzell JD, Aronson N. Case 4-2005: sodium stibogluconate for cutaneous leishmaniasis. N Engl J Med. 2005 May 5;352(18):1929.

12745.  Sundar S, Murray HW. Availability of miltefosine for the treatment of kala-azar in India. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 May;83(5):394-5.