January, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:


10939.  Arnold SJ, Osvath SR, Hall RA, King NJ, Sedger LM. Regulation of antigen processing and presentation molecules in West Nile virus-infected human skin fibroblasts. Virology. 2004 Jul 1;324(2):286-96.

10940.  Bourahoui A, De Seze J, Guttierez R, Onraed B, Hennache B, Ferriby D, Stojkovic T, Vermersch P. CSF isoelectrofocusing in a large cohort of MS and other neurological diseases. Eur J Neurol. 2004 Aug;11(8):525-9.

10941.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Jul 9;53(26):586-9.

10942.  Chen YC. Early induced IgM as a predictor and risk factor for severe disease outcome after West Nile virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;4(7):394-5.  

10943.  Paparounas K. Anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibody in peripheral nervous system disorders: pathophysiologic role and clinical relevance. Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1013-6. Review.

10944.  Stellrecht KA. Nucleic acid amplification technology for the diagnosis of genital herpes infection. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2004 Jul;4(4):485-93. Review.


10945.  Kawashima H, Morishima T, Togashi T, Yokota S, Yamanaka G, Ioi H, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Watanabe Y. Extraordinary changes in excitatory amino acid levels in cerebrospinal fluid of influenza-associated encephalopathy of children. Neurochem Res. 2004 Aug;29(8):1537-40.


10946.  Ip P, Chung BH, Wong VC, Chan KY. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children: prevalence in South China. Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Jul;31(1):46-51.


10947.  Lo Re V 3rd, Gluckman SJ. Travel immunizations. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jul 1;70(1):89-99. Review.



April, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

11397.     Bosma GP, Steens SC, Petropoulos H, Admiraal-Behloul F, van den Haak A, Doornbos J, Huizinga TW, Brooks WM, Harville A, Sibbitt WL Jr, van Buchem MA. Multisequence magnetic resonance imaging study of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Oct;50(10):3195-202.

11398.    Cosenza MA, Zhao ML, Lee SC. HIV-1 expression protects macrophages and microglia from apoptotic death. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2004 Oct;30(5):478-90.

11399.    Cunha BA, McDermott BP, Mohan SS. Prognostic importance of lymphopenia in West Nile encephalitis. Am J Med. 2004 Nov 1;117(9):710-1.

11400.    Cunha BA. Differential diagnosis of West Nile encephalitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;17(5):413-20. Review.

11401.    Debiasi RL, Tyler KL. Molecular methods for diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):903-25, table of contents. Review.

11402.     Langford D, Grigorian A, Hurford R, Adame A, Ellis RJ, Hansen L, Masliah E. Altered P-glycoprotein expression in AIDS patients with HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004 Oct;63(10):1038-47.

11403.     Munoz-Marmol AM, Mola G, Fernandez-Vasalo A, Vela E, Mate JL, Ariza A.JC virus early protein detection by immunohistochemistry in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a comparative study with in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004 Nov;63(11):1124-30.

11404.    Prakash M, Kumar S, Gupta RK. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in Japanese encephalitis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):756-61.

11405.   Purdy DE, Noga AJ, Chang GJ. Noninfectious recombinant antigen for detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus-specific antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Oct;42(10):4709-17.

11406.    Roberts ES, Masliah E, Fox HS.CD163 identifies a unique population of ramified microglia in HIV encephalitis (HIVE).J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004 Dec;63(12):1255-64.

11407.    Scheid R, Lincke T, Voltz R, von Cramon DY, Sabri O. Serial 18F-luoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1785-9. Review.

11408.     Storstein A, Monstad SE, Honnorat J, Vedeler CA. Paraneoplastic antibodies detected by isoelectric focusing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum.J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Oct;155(1-2):150-4.

11409.   Yoshikawa S, Suzuki S, Kanbayashi T, Nishino S, Tamai H. Hypersomnia and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Nov;31(5):367-70.


11410      Antony JM, van Marle G, Opii W, Butterfield DA, Mallet F, Yong VW, Wallace JL, Deacon RM, Warren K, Power C. Human endogenous retrovirus glycoprotein-mediated induction of redox reactants causes oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Oct;7(10):1088-95.

11411.   Custer B, Tomasulo PA, Murphy EL, Caglioti S, Harpool D, McEvoy P, Busch MP.Triggers for switching from minipool testing by nucleic acid technology to individual-donation nucleic acid testing for West Nile virus: analysis of 2003 data to inform 2004 decision making.Transfusion. 2004 Nov;44(11):1547-54.

11412.   Hogrefe WR, Moore R, Lape-Nixon M, Wagner M, Prince HE. Performance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using a West Nile virus recombinant antigen (preM/E) for detection of West Nile virus- and other flavivirus-specific antibodies.J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Oct;42(10):4641-8.

11413.   Niehues T, Reichenbach J, Neubert J, Gudowius S, Puel A, Horneff G, Lainka E, Dirksen U, Schroten H, Doffinger R, Casanova JL, Wahn V. Nuclear factor kappaB essential modulator-deficient child with immunodeficiency yet without anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Dec;114(6):1456-62.

11414.   Norberg P, Bergstrom T, Rekabdar E, Lindh M, Liljeqvist JA. Phylogenetic analysis of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates identified three genetic groups and recombinant viruses.J Virol. 2004 Oct;78(19):10755-64.

11415.  Pugachev KV, Guirakhoo F, Mitchell F, Ocran SW, Parsons M, Johnson BW, Kosoy OL, Lanc iotti RS, Roehrig JT, Trent DW, Monath TP. Construction of yellow fever/St. Louis encephalitis chimeric virus and the use of chimeras as a diagnostic tool.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):639-45.


July, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:
  1. de Bode S, Firestine A, Mathern GW, Dobkin B.  Residual motor control and cortical representations of function following hemispherectomy: effects of etiology. J Child Neurol. 2005 Jan;20(1):64-75. 

  2. de Jong MD, Bach VC, Phan TQ, Vo MH, Tran TT, Nguyen BH, Beld M, Le TP, Truong HK, Nguyen VV, Tran TH, Do QH, Farrar J.  Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 17;352(7):686-91.

  3. Gendelman HE, Persidsky Y.  Infections of the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Jan;4(1):12-3. Review.

  4. Harloff A, Rauer S, Hofer M, Klisch J, Els T. Fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking acute bacterial menigoencephalitis. Eur J Neurol. 2005 Jan;12(1):67-9.

  5. Mutlu GM, Kuzniar T, Factor P.  A 41-year-old man with altered mental status and acute flaccid paralysis. Chest. 2005 Jan;127(1):391-4.

  6. Oh SJ, Gurtekin Y, Dropcho EJ, King P, Claussen GC. Anti-Hu antibody neuropathy: a clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Jan;116(1):28-34.

  7. Salanova V, Markand O, Worth R. Temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis of failures and the role of reoperation. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005 Feb;111(2):126-33. 

  8. Schankin CJ, Birnbaum T, Linn J, Bruning R, Kretzschmar HA, Straube A, Krebs B.  A fatal encephalitis. Lancet. 2005 Jan 22;365(9456):358.

  9. Sellal F, Stoll-Keller F. Rabies: ancient yet contemporary cause of encephalitis. Lancet. 2005 Mar 12;365(9463):921-3.

  10. Tallur KK, Johnson DA, Kirk JM, Sandercock PA, Minns RA.  Folate-induced reversal  of leukoencephalopathy and intellectual decline in methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: variable response in siblings. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005 Jan;47(1):53-6.

  1. Etzioni A, Eidenschenk C, Katz R, Beck R, Casanova JL, Pollack S. Fatal varicella associated with selective natural killer cell deficiency. J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3):423-5.


  1. Bradbury J. Toll gate for West Nile virus brain entry. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;5(1):9.


October, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Steiner I, Budka H, Chaudhuri A, Koskiniemi M, Sainio K, Salonen O, Kennedy PG. Viral encephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management. Eur J Neurol. 2005 May;12(5):331-43

Laboratory of Neurovirology, Department of Neurology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. isteiner@md2.huji.ac.il

Viral encephalitis is a medical emergency. The spectrum of brain involvement and the prognosis are dependent mainly on the specific pathogen and the immunological state of the host. Although specific therapy is limited to only several viral agents, correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy has a dramatic influence upon survival and reduces the extent of permanent brain injury in survivors. We searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine) for relevant literature from 1966 to May 2004. Review articles and book chapters were also included. Recommendations are based on this literature based on our judgment of the relevance of the references to the subject. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. Diagnosis should be based on medical history, examination followed by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for protein and glucose contents, cellular analysis and identification of the pathogen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (recommendation level A) and serology (recommendation level B). Neuroimaging, preferably by magnetic resonance imaging, is an essential aspect of evaluation (recommendation level B). Lumbar puncture can follow neuroimaging when immediately available, but if this cannot be obtained at the shortest span of time it should be delayed only in the presence of strict contraindications. Brain biopsy should be reserved only for unusual and diagnostically difficult cases. All encephalitis cases must be hospitalized with an access to intensive care units. Supportive therapy is an important basis of management. Specific, evidence-based, anti-viral therapy, acyclovir, is available for herpes encephalitis (recommendation level A). Acyclovir might also be effective for varicella-zoster virus encephalitis, gancyclovir and foscarnet for cytomegalovirus encephalitis and pleconaril for enterovirus encephalitis (IV class of evidence). Corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment for acute viral encephalitis are not generally considered to be effective and their use is controversial. Surgical decompression is indicated for impending uncal herniation or increased intracranial pressure refractory to medical management.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

12621. Bendszus M, Bartsch A, Stoll G. Is the disruption of the blood-brain barrier a prerequisite for cellular infiltration in autoimmune encephalitis? Brain. 2005 Apr;128(Pt 4):E25.

12622.  Burgoon MP, Keays KM, Owens GP, Ritchie AM, Rai PR, Cool CD, Gilden DH.  Laser-capture microdissection of plasma cells from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain reveals intrathecal disease-relevant antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 17;102(20):7245-50.

12623.  Fauci AS, Touchette NA, Folkers GK. Emerging infectious diseases: a 10-year perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;11(4):519-25.

12624.  Feldmann J, Menasche G, Callebaut I, Minard-Colin V, Bader-Meunier B, Le Clainche L, Fischer A, Le Deist F, Tardieu M, de Saint Basile G. Severe and progressive encephalitis as a presenting manifestation of a novel missense perforin mutation and impaired cytolytic activity. Blood. 2005 Apr 1;105(7):2658-63.

12625.  Freeman JM. Rasmussen's syndrome: progressive autoimmune multi-focal encephalopathy. Pediatr Neurol. 2005 May;32(5):295-9. Review.

12626.  Imaizumi T, Nishizaka S, Ayabe M, Shoji H, Ichiyama T, Sugita Y. Probable chronic viral encephalitis with microglial nodules in the entire brain: a case report with necropsy. Med Sci Monit. 2005 May;11(5):CS23-26. Epub 2005 Apr 28.

12627.  Miyazaki M, Nishimura M, Toda Y, Saijo T, Mori K, Kuroda Y. Long-term follow-up of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis successfully treated with intrathecal interferon alpha. Brain Dev. 2005 Jun;27(4):301-3.

12628.  Okumura A, Nakano T, Fukumoto Y, Higuchi K, Kamiya H, Watanabe K, orishima T. Delirious behavior in children with influenza: its clinical features and EEG findings. Brain Dev. 2005 Jun;27(4):271-4.

12629.    Sporer B, Seelos K, Asmus F, Boetzel K, Pfister HW. Posterior fossa tremor induced by HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Eur Neurol. 2005;53(2):96-7.

12630.  Steiner I, Budka H, Chaudhuri A, Koskiniemi M, Sainio K, Salonen O, Kennedy PG. Viral encephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management. Eur J Neurol. 2005 May;12(5):331-43. Review.


12631.  Anlar B, Guven A, Kose G, Okur H, Kose O, Aydin OF, Kabakus N, Altunbasak S, Herguner O, Sonmez M, Serdaroglu A. Lymphocyte subsets, TNF alpha and interleukin-4 levels in treated and untreated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Jun;163(1-2):195-8.

12632.  Chen Y, Mizuguchi H, Yao D, Ide M, Kuroda Y, Shigematsu Y, Yamaguchi S, Yamaguchi M, Kinoshita M, Kido H. Thermolabile phenotype of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II variations as a predisposing factor for influenza-associated encephalopathy. FEBS Lett. 2005 Apr 11;579(10):2040-4.

12633.  Habegger de Sorrentino A, Lopez R, Motta P, Marinic K, Sorrentino A, Iliovich E, Rubio AE, Quarleri J, Salomon H. HLA class II involvement in HIV-associated Toxoplasmic encephalitis development. Clin Immunol. 2005 May;115(2):133-7.

12634.   Lademann M, Gabelin P, Lafrenz M, Wernitz C, Ehmke H, Schmitz H, Reisinger EC. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Plasmodium falciparum malaria caused by varicella zoster virus reactivation. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Apr;72(4):478-80.

12635.  Roos KL. Fatal encephalitis due to rabies virus transmitted by organ transplantation. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):855-6.

12636.  Stevenson J, Hymas W, Hillyard D. Effect of sequence polymorphisms on performance of two real-time PCR assays for detection of herpes simplex virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 May;43(5):2391-8.

12637. Weydt P, Moller T. Neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuroreport. 2005 Apr 25;16(6):527-31. Review.


12638.  Gump WC, Walsh JW. Intrathecal colistin for treatment of highly resistant Pseudomonas ventriculitis. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2005 May;102(5):915-7. Review.

12639.   Kuehn BM. CDC: new repellents for West Nile fight. JAMA. 2005 Jun 1;293(21):2583.