January, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

10917.  Amar CF, East C, Maclure E, McLauchlin J, Jenkins C, Duncanson P, Wareing DR. Blinded application of microscopy, bacteriological culture, immunoassays and PCR to detect gastrointestinal pathogens from faecal samples of patients with community-acquired diarrhoea. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;23(7):529-34.

10918.  Bair MJ, Hwang KP, Wang TE, Liou TC, Lin SC, Kao CR, Wang TY, Pang KK. Clinical features of human intestinal capillariasis in Taiwan. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Aug 15;10(16):2391-3.

10919.  Berni Canani R, Rapacciuolo L, Romano MT, Tanturri de Horatio L, Terrin G, Manguso F, Cirillo P, Paparo F, Troncone R.  Diagnostic value of faecal calprotectin in paediatric gastroenterology clinical practice. Dig Liver Dis. 2004 Jul;36(7):467-70.

10920.  Delgado J, Delgado B, Fich A, Odes S. Microscopic colitis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2004 Aug;6(8):482-4. Review.

10921.  Fritscher-Ravens A, Swain CP, von Herbay A. Refractory Whipple's disease with anaemia: first lessons from capsule endoscopy. Endoscopy. 2004 Jul;36(7):659-62.

10922.  Harewood GC, Holub JL, Lieberman DA. Variation in small bowel biopsy performance among diverse endoscopy settings: results from a national endoscopic database. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;99(9):1790-4.

10923.  Helmy MM, Rashed LA, el-Garhy MF. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates obtained from humans. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004 Aug;34(2):447-58.

10924.  Iijima Y, Asako NT, Aihara M, Hayashi K. Improvement in the detection rate of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in human stool specimens by a rapid real-time PCR assay. J Med Microbiol. 2004 Jul;53(Pt 7):617-22.

10925.  Johnson EH, Windsor JJ, Clark CG. Emerging from obscurity: biological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Jul;17(3):553-70, table of contents. Review.

10926.  Kelkar SD, Zade JK. Group B rotaviruses similar to strain CAL-1, have been circulating in Western India since 1993. Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Aug;132(4):745-9.

10927.  Marshall JK, Cawdron R, Zealley I, Riddell RH, Somers S, Irvine EJ. Prospective comparison of small bowel meal with pneumocolon versus  ileo-colonoscopy for the diagnosis of ileal Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul;99(7):1321-9.

10928.  Nakajima H, Koike M, Kamisawa T, Fujiwara T, Sanaka M. Giardia lamblia in colonic biopsy specimens. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004 Jul;60(1):104.

10929.  Sebire NJ, Malone M, Shah N, Anderson G, Gaspar HB, Cubitt WD. Pathology of astrovirus associated diarrhoea in a paediatric bone marrow transplant recipient. J Clin Pathol. 2004 Sep;57(9):1001-3.

10930.  Talley NJ, Howell S, Poulton R. Obesity and chronic gastrointestinal tract symptoms in young adults: a birth cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;99(9):1807-14.

10931.  Wang LH, Fang XC, Pan GZ, Rodriguez E. Bacillary dysentery as a causative factor of irritable bowel syndrome and its pathogenesis. Gut. 2004 Aug;53(8):1096-101.Erratum in: Gut. 2004 Sep;53(9):1390.

10932.  Zheng L, Keller SF, Lyerly DM, Carman RJ, Genheimer CW, Gleaves CA, Kohlhepp SJ, Young S, Perez S, Ye K. Multicenter evaluation of a new screening test that detects Clostridium difficile in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Aug;42(8):3837-40.

10933.  Zuetenhorst JM, Korse CM, Bonfrer JM, Peter E, Lamers CB, Taal BG. Daily cyclic changes in the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in patients with carcinoid tumors. Clin Chem. 2004 Sep;50(9):1634-9.


10934.  Drudy D, Calabi E, Kyne L, Sougioultzis S, Kelly E, Fairweather N, Kelly CP. Human antibody response to surface layer proteins in Clostridium difficile infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004 Jul 1;41(3):237-42.

10935.  Greig ER, Boot-Handford RP, Mani V, Sandle GI. Decreased expression of apical Na+ channels and basolateral Na+, K+-ATPase in ulcerative colitis. J Pathol. 2004 Sep;204(1):84-92.

10936.  Okhuysen PC, Jiang ZD, Carlin L, Forbes C, DuPont HL. Post-diarrhea chronic intestinal symptoms and irritable bowel syndrome in North American travelers to Mexico. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;99(9):1774-8.

10937.  Taormina PJ, Dorsa WJ. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked meats. J Food Prot. 2004 Jul;67(7):1537-47. Review.

10938.  Uauy R, Araya M. Novel oligosaccharides in human milk: understanding mechanisms may lead to better prevention of enteric and other infections. J Pediatr. 2004 Sep;145(3):283-5.




April, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Hetzel M, Bonfoh B, Farah Z, Traore M, Simbe CF, Alfaroukh IO, Schelling E, Tanner M, Zinsstag J. Diarrhoea, vomiting and the role of milk consumption: perceived and identified risk in Bamako (Mali). Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct; 9(10):1132-8.

Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland. manuel.hetzel@unibas.ch

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the public health impact of milk contamination in Bamako, Mali. METHODS: A case-control study assessed the risk-factors for food-borne toxi-infections with diarrhoea and vomiting as main clinical picture. A total of 131 schoolchildren between 5 and 20 years of age were interviewed by trained interviewers in schools in Bamako. A structured questionnaire was used to record health problems, food and particularly milk consumption habits and socio-economic indicators. RESULTS: Final multivariate logistic regression analysis identified regular consumption of boiled milk [odds ratio(OR) = 4.38; 95% CI = 1.15-16.71], age between 5 and 10 years (OR vs. age group 11-15 years = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.09-9.85) and the existence of dry latrines in the household (OR = 7.65; 95% CI = 1.92-30.55) as risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting. Other milk products and the socio-economic level of the household were not significantly associated with the outcome. Many people were unaware of the potential risks of milk consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Milk products may be a risk factor for food-borne toxi-infections. Attention has to be paid to products considered 'safe', such as boiled or pasteurized milk. The low awareness of potential risks of many people may increase the risk of milk consumption. To achieve a sustainable increase in local milk production in Africa, milk quantity and production and transformation quality should be improved simultaneously.


Cleary TG. The role of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Oct; 15(4):260-5. Review.

Center for Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Thomas.G.Cleary@uth.tmc.edu

The Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli represent a major class of pathogens that have been defined over the last twenty years. They cause distinctive clinical manifestations such as afebrile bloody diarrhea with severe abdominal pain (hemorrhagic colitis) and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with renal failure (hemolytic uremic syndrome). The most common Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli is serotype O157:H7, although at least one hundred different serotypes share the virulence traits and clinical manifestations with this organism. Understanding the pathophysicology, improving diagnostic tools, and developing a treatment strategy are important areas of ongoing investigations.


Schwetz I, Bradesi S, Mayer EA. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Minerva Med. 2004 Oct;95(5):419-26. Review.

Center of Neurovisceral Sciences and Women's Health (CNS), Division of Digestive Diseases and Brain Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Recent studies have provided evidence to suggest a possible role for mucosal immune activation in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On the other hand, novel findings using functional brain-imaging techniques support the concept that altered perception of visceral stimuli plays a key role in IBS symptom generation. These seemingly contradictory findings have revived the discussion about the relative contribution of peripheral versus central mechanisms in the symptom generation of IBS. In this review, we will provide evidence for the hypothesis that, in the absence of changes in visceral perception and alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, chronic inflammatory mucosal changes in the gut are not a plausible mechanism to explain the presence of chronic abdominal pain, a clinical hallmark of IB.


Butzler JP. Campylobacter, from obscurity to celebrity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Oct; 10(10):868-76. Review.

Department of Human Ecology, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. jean-paul.butzler@pandora.be

After its successful isolation from stools in the 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni has rapidly become the most commonly recognised cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Reported cases of human campylobacteriosis represent only a small fraction of the actual number. In industrialised countries, the incidence of C. jejuni/Campylobacter coli infections peaks during infancy, and again in young adults aged 15-44 years. Acute self-limited gastrointestinal illness, characterised by diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps, is the most common presentation of C. jejuni/C. coli infection. The introduction of selective media has made the diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis a simple procedure. In general, Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease which seldom requires antimicrobial therapy, although one in 1000 infections may lead to the Guillain-Barre syndrome. In industrialised countries, most infections are acquired through the handling and consumption of poultry meat. In developing countries, where the disease is confined to young children, inadequately treated water and contact with farm animals are the most important risk factors. Many infections are acquired during travel. Fluoroquinolone resistance has been reported in C. jejuni since the late 1980s in Europe and Asia, and since 1995 in the USA. The use of fluoroquinolones to treat animals used for food has accelerated this trend of resistance. In Australia, where fluoroquinolones have not been licensed for use in food production animals, C. jejuni remains susceptible to fluoroquinolones. The public health burden of Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni/C. coli remains unmeasured. Better diagnostic methods may reveal the true health burden of these organisms.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

11377.     Abrol P, Mehta U, Lal H. Vitamin Astatus in children with diarrhoea. Indian J Clin Biochem 2002, 17 (1), 64-8.

11378.     Butzler JP. Campylobacter, from obscurity to celebrity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Oct;10(10):868-76. Review.

11379.   Chen HL, Chiou SS, Hsiao HP, Ke GM, Lin YC, Lin KH, Jong YJ. Respiratory adenoviral infections in children: a study of hospitalized cases in southern Taiwan in 2001--2002.J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Oct;50(5):279-84.

11380.    Chiang CH, Shih JF, Su WJ, Perng RP. Eight-month prospective study of 14 patients with hospital-acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Nov;79(11):1372-9.

11381.    Chuang HY, Tsai SY, Chao KY, Lian CY, Yang CY, Ho CK, Wu TN.The influence of milk intake on the lead toxicity to the sensory nervous system in lead workers. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Dec;25(6):941-9.

11382.    Cleary TG. The role of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;15(4):260-5. Review.

11383.     Helton T, Rolston DD. Which adults with acute diarrhea should be evaluated? What is the best diagnostic approach? Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Oct;71(10):778-9, 783-5

11384.    Mermin J, Lule J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Kaharuza F, Culver D, Kizito F, Bunnell R, Kigozi A, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Quick R. Effect of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load in HIV infection in rural Uganda.Lancet. 2004 Oct 16;364(9443):1428-34.

11385.     Niv Y.Chronic diarrhea.Gastroenterology. 2004 Dec;127(6):1862;

11386.    Oldfield EC 3rd.Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: risk factors, diagnostic methods, and treatment.Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2004 Fall;4(4):186-95.

11387.   Schwetz I, Bradesi S, Mayer EA.The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.Minerva Med. 2004 Oct;95(5):419-26. Review.

11388.  Timmerman HM, Koning CJ, Mulder L, Rombouts FM, Beynen AC. Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics--A comparison of functionality and efficacy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004 Nov 15;96(3):219-33. Review.


11389.    Clark B, McKendrick M. A review of viral gastroenteritis.Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;17(5):461-9. Review.

11390.    Gurumurthy P, Ramachandran G, Hemanth Kumar AK, Rajasekaran S, Padmapriyadarsini C, Swaminathan S, Bhagavathy S, Venkatesan P, Sekar L, Mahilmaran A, Ravichandran N, Paramesh P. Decreased bioavailability of rifampin and other antituberculosis drugs in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4473-5.

11391.   Hetzel M, Bonfoh B, Farah Z, Traore M, Simbe CF, Alfaroukh IO, Schelling E, Tanner M, Zinsstag J. Diarrhoea, vomiting and the role of milk consumption: perceived and identified risk in Bamako (Mali).Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1132-8.

11392.  Jensen PK, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A. Is there an association between bacteriological drinking water quality and childhood diarrhoea in developing countries? Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Nov;9(11):1210-5.

11393.    Mackie SL, Keat A. An unusual complication of appendicitis.Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Nov;63(11):1526. Review.

11394.  Morrow AL, Rangel JM. Human milk protection against infectious diarrhea: implications for prevention and clinical care. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;15(4):221-8. Review.

11395.    Nataro JP. Vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;15(4):272-9. Review.

11396.    Tzipori S, Sheoran A, Akiyoshi D, Donohue-Rolfe A, Trachtman H. Antibody therapy in the management of shiga toxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):926-41, table of contents. Review.




July, 2005

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

  1. Brandt LJ. Bloody diarrhea in an elderly patient. Gastroenterology. 2005 Jan;128(1):157-63.

  2. Delmee M, Van Broeck J, Simon A, Janssens M, Avesani V. Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a plea for culture. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Feb;54(Pt 2):187-91. Review.

  3. Goulet CJ, Moseley RH, Tonnerre C, Sandhu IS, Saint S.  Clinical problem-solving. The unturned stone. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 3;352(5):489-94.

  4. Hirschowitz BI, Simmons J, Mohnen J. Clinical outcome using lansoprazole in acid hypersecretors with and without Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a 13-year prospective study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jan;3(1):39-48.

  5. Karmo M, Goh J, Boulton R, Sanders DS. An unusual cause of diarrhoea in a patient with colitis. Gut. 2005 Jan;54(1):77, 96.

  6. Lakatos PL, Gyori G, Halasz J, Fuszek P, Papp J, Jaray B, Lukovich P, Lakatos L.   Mucocele of the appendix: an unusual cause of lower abdominal pain in a patient with ulcerative colitis. A case report and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan 21;11(3):457-9. Review. 

  7. Nataro JP. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli pathogenesis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan;21(1):4-8. Review. 

  1. Boedeker EC.  Enteric infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan;21(1):1-3.

  2. Bouvier G. Nutrition. How important is glutamine supplementation in HIV infection? HIV Clin. 2005 Winter;17(1):7.

  3. Frost FJ, Roberts M, Kunde TR, Craun G, Tollestrup K, Harter L, Muller T.   How clean must our drinking water be: the importance of protective immunity. J Infect Dis. 2005 Mar 1;191(5):809-14.

  4. Gonzalez-Escalona N, Cachicas V, Acevedo C, Rioseco ML, Vergara JA, Cabello F, Romero J, Espejo RT.  Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;11(1):129-31.

  5. Huang DB. Contagious acute gastrointestinal infections. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 24;352(12):1267-8; author reply 1267-8.

  6. McGuigan J, Robertson S, Isles C. Life threatening hyperkalaemia with diarrhoea during ACE inhibition. Emerg Med J. 2005 Feb;22(2):154-5.

  7. Palmeira P, Carbonare SB, Amaral JA, Tino-De-Franco M, Carneiro-Sampaio MM. Colostrum from healthy Brazilian women inhibits adhesion and contains IgA antibodies reactive with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Jan;164(1):37-43.

  8. Schoenfeld PS. Evidence-based medicine in practice: applying intention-to-treat analysis and perprotocol analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan;100(1):3-4.

  9. Sherman PM, Tarr PI.  Confirmation of an old adage: you find what you seek. J Pediatr. 2005 Jan;146(1):11-3.   

  10. Spiller R. Probiotics: an ideal anti-inflammatory treatment for IBS? Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar;128(3):783-5. Review.

  11. Sullivan A, Nord CE. Probiotics and gastrointestinal diseases. J Intern Med. 2005 Jan;257(1):78-92. Review.

  12. Widdowson MA, Bresee JS, Gentsch JR, Glass RI. Rotavirus disease and its prevention. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan;21(1):26-31. Review.

  1. Lucas ME, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, Wang XY, Ampuero J, Puri M, Ali M, Ansaruzzaman M, Amos J, Macuamule A, Cavailler P, Guerin PJ, Mahoudeau C, Kahozi-Sangwa P, Chaignat CL, Barreto A, Songane FF, Clemens JD.  Effectiveness of mass oral cholera vaccination in Beira, Mozambique. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 24;352(8):757-67.  

  1. Evans ML, Pritts E, Vittinghoff E, McClish K, Morgan KS, Jaffe RB. Management of postmenopausal hot flushes with venlafaxine hydrochloride: a randomized, controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jan;105(1):161-6.

  2. Ohl ME, Stevermer JJ, Meadows S, Tribuna J, Chek K. Clinical inquiries. What are effective therapies for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea? J Fam Pract. 2005 Feb;54(2):176-8. Review.

  3. Ulrickson M. Oral rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis. JAAPA. 2005 Jan;18(1):24-9; quiz 39-40. Review.



October, 2005

Some Selected Abstracts:


Baysan A, Lynch E.The use of ozone in dentistry and medicine. Prim Dent Care. 2005 Apr;12(2):47-52.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, GKT, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. aylin.baysan@kcl.ac.uk

There is growing interest in the use of ozone in oral healthcare and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) is at present reviewing the evidence for its effectiveness in the management of occlusal and plain surface caries. These are only two of the clinical problems for which ozone can, and has, been used; it has also been employed for a wide variety of other purposes in both dentistry and medicine. This pale blue-coloured gas plays an important role as a natural constituent in the higher layer of the Earth's atmosphere. There is growing evidence that it can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent. This paper reviews its therapeutic uses to date and suggests its possible future clinical applications. Consumer demands for this strong oxidant may increase as the general public becomes increasingly aware of its therapeutic capacity and the non-invasive manner in which it can be administered.


Ciliberto H, Ciliberto M, Briend A, Ashorn P, Bier D, Manary M. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2005 May 14;330(7500):1109.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Children's Hospital, One Children's Place, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in preventing kwashiorkor in a population of Malawian children at high risk of developing kwashiorkor. DESIGN: Prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial randomised by household. SETTING: 8 villages in rural southern Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: 2372 children in 2156 households aged 1-4 years were enrolled; 2332 completed the trial. INTERVENTION: Daily supplementation with an antioxidant powder containing riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine in a dose that provided about three times the recommended dietary allowance of each nutrient or placebo for 20 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the incidence of oedema. Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for weight and length and the number of days of infectious symptoms. RESULTS: 62 children developed kwashiorkor (defined by the presence of oedema); 39/1184 (3.3%) were in the antioxidant group and 23/1188 (1.9%) were in the placebo group (relative risk 1.70, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.42). The two groups did not differ in rates of weight or height gain. Children who received antioxidant supplementation did not experience less fever, cough, or diarrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant supplementation at the dose provided did not prevent the onset of kwashiorkor. This finding does not support the hypothesis that depletion of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine, or riboflavin has a role in the development of kwashiorkor.


Morrow AL, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Jiang X, Newburg DS Human-milk glycans that inhibit pathogen binding protect breast-feeding infants against infectious diarrhea. J Nutr. 2005 May;135(5):1304-7

Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH, USA. ardythe.morrow@cchmc.org

Breast-feeding is a highly effective strategy for preventing morbidity and mortality in infancy. The human-milk glycans, which include oligosaccharides in their free and conjugated forms, constitute a major and an innate immunologic mechanism by which human milk protects breast-fed infants against infections. The glycans found in human milk function as soluble receptors that inhibit pathogens from adhering to their target receptors on the mucosal surface of the host gastrointestinal tract. The alpha1,2-linked fucosylated glycans, which require the secretor gene for expression in human milk, are the dominant glycan structure found in the milk of secretor mothers, who constitute the majority ( approximately 80%) of mothers worldwide. In vitro and in vivo binding studies have demonstrated that alpha1,2-linked fucosylated glycans inhibit binding by campylobacter, stable toxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and major strains of caliciviruses to their target host cell receptors. Consistent with these findings, recently published epidemiologic data demonstrate that higher relative concentrations of alpha1,2-linked fucosylated glycans in human milk are associated with protection of breast-fed infants against diarrhea caused by campylobacter, caliciviruses, and stable toxin of enterotoxigenic E. coli, and moderate-to-severe diarrhea of all causes. These novel data open the potential for translational research to develop the human-milk glycans as a new class of antimicrobial agents that prevent infection by acting as pathogen anti-adhesion agents.


Zerr DM, Blume HK, Berg AT, Del Beccaro MA, Gospe SM Jr, Allpress AL, Christakis DA.Nonfebrile illness seizures: a unique seizure category? Epilepsia. 2005 Jun;46(6):952-5.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. zerr@u.washington.edu

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics of children with a first-time nonfebrile seizure in the setting of mild illness and to test the hypothesis that these seizures are associated with illness characterized by diarrhea. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed in a pediatric emergency department. Patients ages 6 months to 6 years who were evaluated with first-time seizures were eligible for inclusion. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of symptoms accompanying their seizure: febrile (temperature, >38.0 degrees C with seizure), unprovoked (no symptoms of illness), and nonfebrile illness (no fever at the time of seizure, but other symptoms of illness present). RESULTS: Of the 323 children with first-time seizures, 247 (76%) had febrile seizure, 37 (12%) had unprovoked seizures, and 39 (12%) had nonfebrile illness seizures. Children with nonfebrile illness seizures were more likely than children with febrile seizures to have diarrheal illnesses accompanying their seizure (44 vs. 16%; p=0.001). Frequency of cough, rhinorrhea, and rash did not differ significantly between children with febrile and nonfebrile illness seizures. Diagnostic testing for infectious etiologies was not performed frequently in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Nonfebrile illness seizures may represent a distinct group of seizures with unique epidemiology. Further study to define this seizure group better is warranted.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics: 

12586.   Anderson RP. Coeliac disease. Aust Fam Physician. 2005 Apr;34(4):239-42. Review.

12587.  Baker DE. Rationale for using serotonergic agents to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005 Apr 1;62(7):700-11; quiz 712-3. Review.

12588.  Barta Z, Miltenyi Z, Toth L, Illes A. Hypokalemic myopathy in a patient with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and dermatitis herpetiformis Duhring: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr 7;11(13):2039-40.

12589.  Chen MJ, Wang TE, Chang WH, Tsai SJ, Liao WS. Endoscopic findings in a patient with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr 21;11(15):2354-6.

12590.  Ciliberto H, Ciliberto M, Briend A, Ashorn P, Bier D, Manary M. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2005 May 14;330(7500):1109.

12591.  Ciliberto MA, Sandige H, Ndekha MJ, Ashorn P, Briend A, Ciliberto HM, Manary MJ. Comparison of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food with standard therapy in the treatment of malnourished Malawian children: a controlled, clinical effectiveness trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):864-70.

12592.  Fasano A. Clinical presentation of celiac disease in the pediatric population. Gastroenterology. 2005 Apr;128(4 Suppl 1):S68-73. Review.

12593.  Gupte S, Gupte S, Ravinder Kumar. Antibiotic-induced diarrhoea. Pediat Today 2004; 7(4): 218-23.

12594.  Gustavsson P, Gerhardsson L. Intoxication from an accidentally ingested lead shot retained in the gastrointestinal tract. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Apr;113(4):491-3.

12595.  Hegde MM, Ahluwalia NK. Rare presentation of a common illness. Campylobacter jejuni infection. Gut. 2005 Jun;54(6):758, 763.

12596.  Isbister GK, Kiernan MC. Neurotoxic marine poisoning. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Apr;4(4):219-28. Review.

12597.  Ito Y, Toda K, Hatakeyama H, Nakamura T, Kiyama S, Katagiri Y, Mimoto H, Onitsuka A, Mori H. Escherichia coli O157 infection mimicking acute appendicitis: usefulness of computed tomography for differential diagnosis. J Infect Chemother. 2005 Apr;11(2):93-6.

12598.  Kellermayer R, Siitonen HA, Hadzsiev K, Kestila M, Kosztolanyi G. A patient with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and all features of RAPADILINO. Arch Dermatol. 2005 May;141(5):617-20.

12599.  Leeper NJ, Wener LS, Dhaliwal G, Saint S, Wachter RM. Clinical problem-solving. One surprise after another. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 7;352(14):1474-9.

12600. Olaogun AA, Ayandiran O, Olasode OA, Adebayo A, Omokhodion F.  Home management of childhood febrile illnesses in a rural community in Nigeria. Aust J Rural Health. 2005 Apr;13(2):97-101.

12601.  Otegbayo JA, Otegbeye FM, Rotimi O. Microscopic colitis syndrome--a review article. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 May;97(5):678-82. Review.

12602.  Sher L, Arguedas A, Husseman M, Pichichero M, Hamed KA, Biswas D, Pierce P, Echols R. Randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter, comparative study of gatifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanate in recurrent otitis media and acute otitis media treatment failure in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Apr;24(4):301-8.

12603.  Sotiriadis A, Makrydimas G, Papatheodorou S, Ioannidis JP. Expectant, medical, or surgical management of first-trimester miscarriage: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;105(5 Pt 1):1104-13. Review.

12604.  Webb A, Starr M. Acute gastroenteritis in children. Aust Fam Physician. 2005 Apr;34(4):227-31. Review.

12605.   Zerr DM, Blume HK, Berg AT, Del Beccaro MA, Gospe SM Jr, Allpress AL, Christakis DA. Nonfebrile illness seizures: a unique seizure category? Epilepsia. 2005 Jun;46(6):952-5.


12606.  Alderman J. Diarrhea in palliative care. J Palliat Med. 2005 Apr;8(2):449-50.

12607.  Diamond JA, Diamond WJ. Common functional bowel problems. What do homeopathy, Chinese medicine and nutrition have to offer? Adv Nurse Pract. 2005 May;13(5):31-4, 72. Review.

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