Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:




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January 2003

6124.  Awad WI, Graves TD, White VC, Wong K. Airway obstruction complicating mediastinal tuberculosis: a life-threatening presentation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002 Jul;74(1):261-3.

-We discuss the case of a young man with mediastinal tuberculosis who presented with pericarditis, thymic involvement, and respiratory failure because of upper airway obstruction. Although mediastinal tuberculosis is not uncommon, the simultaneous occurrence of these complications is exceedingly rare and in this patient resulted in an acute life-threatening illness. The diagnosis and treatment of this condition can be complex, and these aspects of the patient's care are discussed.

6125.  Gupta K, Sehgal A, Puri MM, Sidhwa HK. Microfilariae in association with other diseases. A report of six cases. Acta Cytol. 2002 Jul-Aug;46(4):776-8.

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in tropical countries. Earlier reports have reported microfilariae as an incidental finding in body fluids and fine needle aspiration smears from various sites. CASES: The findings of body fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration smears from six patients with microfilariae in association with other conditions—tubercular pleural effusion/lymphadenitis, pregnancy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma—are presented. Three patients demonstrated an associated eosinophilic cellular exudate. Adherence of inflammatory cells to microfilariae was seen in two patients. CONCLUSION: Although microfilariae in cytologic smears are considered incidental findings, the association of microfilariae with debilitating conditions suggests that it is an opportunistic infection and needs further study.


6126.  Handa U, Palta A, Mohan H, Punia RP. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Trop Doct. 2002 Jul;32(3):147-9.


The diagnosis and management of peripheral lymph node tuberculosis remains a major problem in most of the developing countries. We retrieved 584 cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis from a total 1124 lymph node aspirations done over a period of 3 years (1995-1998). Overall acid-fast bacillus positivity was 37.4%, being highest in the cases in which purulent material was aspirated. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of tuberculous lymphadenopathy provided a high level of diagnostic accuracy as shown by 1.7% false negative and a zero false positive rate. FNA is reliable as an initial evaluating procedure for diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis making it suitable for wider application in developing countries with scant resources.

6127.  Malich A, Boehm T, Facius M, Freesmeyer M, Azhari T, Werner B, Anderson R, Kaiser WA. Electrical impedance scanning of lymph nodes: initial clinical and technical findings. Clin Radiol. 2002 Jul;57(7):579-86.


PURPOSE: The sonographic differentiation between inflammatory and malignant lymph node enlargement remains imprecise. Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is of more value in malignant breast lesions, and this study was undertaken to determine if it was of use in differentiating nodal enlargement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six sonographically suspicious lymph nodes (146 patients) of mean size 18 x 11 x 11 mm mean depth 9 mm were examined using a commercially available electrical impedance imaging system. The following locations of lymph nodes were included in the study: cervical, axillary, inguinal, supraclavicular and chest/abdominal wall. The EIS results were compared to histopathological, serological or follow up findings. RESULTS: Using EIS 105/115 malignant nodes were correctly diagnosed, while 70/121 inflammatory or benign lymph nodes were correctly identified as benign by EIS (10 false negative, 51 false-positive). Sensitivity (91.3%) and specificity (57.9%) were obtained. Corresponding negative and positive predictive values were 87.5% and 67.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this initial study suggest potential value for EIS as an imaging adjunct in the differentiation of sonographically equivocal lesions. Best accuracy was achieved at chest/abdominal wall and inguinal locations. Due to technical restrictions with the present system, the examination of inframandibular and para-aortal lymph nodes should be limited to special cases. Copyright 2002 The Royal College of Radiologists.


6128.  Muttarak M, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chaiwun B. Mammographic features of tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis. Australas Radiol. 2002 Sep;46(3):260-3.

The clinical and mammographic findings of 10 patients with pathologically proven tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis were reviewed. The cases were identified from 10 173 mammograms performed over 6 years at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital. The 10 patients were aged 31-65 years. All cases were initially diagnosed to have breast carcinoma with axillary nodal metastases. Eight patients presented with axillary swelling, while two presented with breast enlargement. None of these cases had a palpable breast mass. Associated supraclavicular, cervical or groin nodes were found in seven cases, and two patients had evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. All lesions were unilateral, affecting the right side in eight cases and left side in two cases. On mammogram, the axillary nodes were enlarged and homogeneously dense. The nodes were sized 2.5-5 cm. Nodal margins were variable. Some nodes were matted. Macrocalcifications were noted in three cases. Ipsilateral breast oedema without mass or microcalcifications was present in two cases. Patients with tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis have large homogeneously dense nodes with either well- or ill-defined margins. It is impossible to differentiate tuberculous from malignant nodes. The presence of macrocalcifications might suggest tuberculous axillary lynphadenitis. Biopsy of enlarged axillary nodes is necessary to determine its aetiology.


6129.  Patzina RA, de Andrade HF Jr, de Brito T, Filho HC, Kauffman MR, Pagliari C, Lucena A, Ribeiro da Matta VL, Seixas Duarte MI. Molecular and standard approaches to the diagnosis of mycobacterial granulomatous lymphadenitis in paraffin-embedded tissue. Lab Invest. 2002 Aug;82(8):1095-7.  No abstract.

6130.  Ridder GJ, Boedeker CC, Technau-Ihling K, Grunow R, Sander A. Role of cat-scratch disease in lymphadenopathy in the head and neck. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Sep 15;35(6):643-9.


Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD), which usually manifests as acute regional lymphadenopathy. The causes of cervical lymphadenopathy, with special regard to CSD, were investigated in a study of 454 patients who presented with unclear masses in the head and neck from January 1997 through January 2001. Sixty-one patients (13.4%) experienced CSD; 54 (11.9%) had primary lymphadenopathy due to other infectious agents, and 41 (9.0%) had lymphadenopathy that occurred in association with primary infections of other organs. For 171 patients (37.7%), the cause of the cervical lymph node enlargement could not be found. B. henselae DNA was detected in extirpated lymph nodes only during the first 6 weeks of lymphadenopathy, which indicates that the results of polymerase chain reaction strongly depend on the duration of illness. CSD should be included in the differential diagnosis of adenopathy in the otorhinolaryngologic patient population, to avoid unnecessary treatment.


6131.  Shibuya N, Shibuya K, Kato H, Yanagisawa M. Kawasaki disease before kawasaki at Tokyo university hospital. Pediatrics. 2002 Aug;110(2 Pt 1):e17.


OBJECTIVE: Kawasaki disease (KD) was first reported by Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967 in Japan. Large-scale nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted continuously by the Japan Kawasaki Disease Research Committee; however, there were very few reports of KD before 1967. This study was performed to clarify when KD appeared in Japan. DESIGN: We investigated the medical charts of patients who had been hospitalized at Tokyo University Hospital between 1940 and 1965. RESULTS: We identified 10 patients whose clinical signs fulfilled the criteria for KD. The ages of the patients ranged from 8 months to 5 years, and their final diagnoses were Stevens-Johnson syndrome, allergic toxic erythema, Izumi fever, scarlet fever, and cervical lymphadenitis. These 10 patients presented between 1950 and 1964, and no confirmed cases were seen between 1940 and 1949. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that KD patients were rare before 1950 in Japan.

6132.  Starck T, Madsen BW. Positive polymerase chain reaction and histology with borderline serology in Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. Cornea. 2002 Aug;21(6):625-7.


PURPOSE: To report a case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome (POS) in which, despite a borderline serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for a conjunctival biopsy was positive for Bartonella henselae, a source of cat-scratch disease. A Steiner silver stain demonstrated the organism. METHODS: Case Report. RESULTS: A 65-year-old man was seen for a foreign body in his left eye (OS) associated with chemosis and a preauricular node. CONCLUSION: B. henselae is a known cause of POS. This gram-negative pleomorphic rod has been more frequently discovered in connection with this syndrome due to improved diagnostic testing such as indirect immunofluorescence antibody and PCR testing. Frequently, serology is positive if the organism is present. This report describes a patient with clinical findings of POS who, despite borderline serology, had pleomorphic rods on Steiner silver stain and positive PCR testing compatible with Bartonella henselae.


6133.  Steinkamp HJ, Wissgott C, Rademaker J, Felix R. Current status of power Doppler and color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of lymph node lesions. Eur Radiol. 2002 Jul;12(7):1785-93.


The use of Power Doppler sonography in nodal diseases provides an improvement of early and noninvasive diagnosis of regional metastatic involvement. By using Power Doppler sonography it is possible to characterize lymph nodes as reactively enlarged, metastases, malignant lymphoma, tuberculosis and to study cervical cysts. The high diagnostic accuracy is based on perfusion-characteristics of these lymph nodes. Reactive lymph nodes show increased central perfusion of the hilum, whereas metastases tend to show increased peripheral perfusion. Affected lymph nodes in patients with by malignant lymphoma are highly perfused in the center but also peripheral. Power Doppler sonography is still not able to discriminate small (<8 mm) nonnecrotic metastasis or micrometastases from reactive lymph nodes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current status of power Doppler and Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of lymph nodes.



6134.  Chian CA, Arrese JE, Pierard GE. Skin manifestations of Bartonella infections. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;41(8):461-6. Review.  No abstract.

6135.  Geissmann F, Dieu-Nosjean MC, Dezutter C, Valladeau J, Kayal S, Leborgne M, Brousse N, Saeland S, Davoust J. Accumulation of immature Langerhans cells in human lymph nodes draining chronically inflamed skin. J Exp Med. 2002 Aug 19;196(4):417-30.


The coordinated migration and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) such as intraepithelial Langerhans cells (LCs) is considered critical for T cell priming in response to inflammation in the periphery. However, little is known about the role of inflammatory mediators for LC maturation and recruitment to lymph nodes in vivo. Here we show in human dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL), which features an expanded population of LCs in one draining lymph node associated with inflammatory lesions in its tributary skin area, that the Langerin/CD207(+) LCs constitute a predominant population of immature DCs, which express CD1a, and CD68, but not CD83, CD86, and DC-lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP)/CD208. Using LC-type cells generated in vitro in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, we further found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, as a prototype proinflammatory factor, and a variety of inflammatory stimuli and bacterial products, increase Langerin expression and Langerin dependent Birbeck granules formation in cell which nevertheless lack costimulatory molecules, DC-LAMP/CD208 and potent T cell stimulatory activity but express CCR7 and respond to the lymph node homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. This indicates that LC migration and maturation can be independently regulated events. We suggest that during DL, inflammatory stimuli in the skin increase the migration of LCs to the lymph node but without associated maturation. Immature LCs might regulate immune responses during chronic inflammation.


6136.  Liou JM, Wang JT, Wang MH, Wang SS, Hsueh PR. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala species in immunocompromised hosts. J Formos Med Assoc. 2002 Jul;101(7):523-6.


Exophiala species are rarely implicated in clinical diseases. In the past 2 years, we have treated phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala species in three immunocompromised patients. Two of these patients presented with subcutaneous abscess or cutaneous verrucous lesions due to Exophiala jeanselmei. The former, an 81-year-old woman, had pulmonary tuberculosis and the latter, a 62-year-old man, had undergone heart transplantation and was receiving immunosuppressive treatment. The third patient, a 62-year-old woman, had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and developed lymphadenitis due to Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis. In each case, the fungus was discovered on a Gram stain of the aspirated material and was identified by conventional tests. One patient died of bacterial pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and the other two were treated successfully with surgical excision and antifungal agents. With the more frequent and widespread use of immunosuppressive agents, the incidence of Exophiala infection will certainly increase. Surgical excision or debridement with or without antifungal agents may offer the possibility of cure for phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala species.


6137.  Amir AR, Amr SS, Sheikh SS. Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease: report of familial occurrence in two human leucocyte antigen-identical non-twin sisters. J Intern Med  2002 Jul;252(1):79-83.


Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease (KFD) is a self-limiting condition usually presenting as cervical lymphadenopathy, with fever and leukopenia, in young adult females. No specific aetiology has been identified yet, although some authors believe that KFD is a 'forme fruste' of systemic lupus erythematosus. Certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types have also been associated with KFD. We herein report KFD in two non-twin sisters with HLA-identical phenotype, who presented 10 years apart. Neither patient had evidence of recent infection or connective tissue disease. The familial occurrence emphasizes the possibility of genetic predisposition and calls for a more extensive search for a specific cause of KFD.

6138.  Chesney PJ. Nontuberculous mycobacteria. Pediatr Rev  2002 Sep;23(9):300-9 No abstract.

6139.  Khanna R, Prasanna GV, Gupta P,  Kumar M, Khanna S, Khanna AK Mammary tuberculosis: report on 52 cases. Postgrad Med J  2002 Jul;78(921):422-4.

Fifty two cases of tuberculosis of the breast encountered over a 15 year period and accounting for 3% of all breast lesions are reported. The classic presentation was a breast lump with associated sinus in 39%, isolated breast lump in 23%, sinus without lump in 12%, and tender nodularity in 23% of the patients. Associated axillary lymphadenopathy was found in 41%. Diagnosis was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or histology in all the cases and antitubercular therapy formed the mainstay of treatment.


April 2003


   6779.      Muthukumar T, Jayakumar M, Fernando EM, Muthusethupathi MA.  Acute renal failure due to rifampicin: a study of 25 patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Oct;40(4):690-6.

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) caused by rifampicin typically occurs on intermittent administration. There are isolated case reports and only one series reported in the literature. Systematic data, especially from countries endemic for tuberculosis and leprosy, are sparse. METHODS: We studied demographic, clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic features and prognosis of 25 consecutive patients with rifampicin-associated ARF admitted from July 1990 to June 2000. RESULTS: Rifampicin-associated ARF constituted 2.5% of all cases of ARF seen during the study period. The most common pattern of drug intake resulting in ARF (40%) was ingestion of a single dose preceded by a drug-free period (range, 10 days to 6 years) after a course of daily rifampicin (range, 8 days to 18 months). Onset was with gastrointestinal and flu-like symptoms 4 hours (median) after drug intake. All patients were oliguric. Anemia and thrombocytopenia each occurred in 60% of patients. Acute hepatitis was present

in 32%. Among 12 patients who underwent kidney biopsy, 7 patients (58%) had acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). Crescentic glomerulonephritis was seen in 1 patient, and mesangial proliferation, in 3 patients. No single feature at presentation predicted the severity of renal failure. There were no deaths, and all patients recovered renal function. CONCLUSION: Patients with rifampicin-associated ARF were oliguric and presented with gastrointestinal and flu-like symptoms, typically after reintroduction of the drug after a drug-free period. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were common. AIN was the most common biopsy

finding. No factor predicted severity, but the renal prognosis was good. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.


6780.  Subodh Kumar.Tuberculosis cervical lymphadentis. Hosp Today 2002,7(2),71-4. (ISA 014416, Vol 38 No14 ,16 July 2002)


           Pathogenesis :

6781.  Palca A, Aebi C, Weimann R, Bodmer T. Mycobacterium bohemicum cervical lymphadenitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Oct;21(10):982-4.

A lymph node excision was performed on a 2-year-old child with right submandibular swelling not responding to oral cefaclor therapy. Histology revealed granulomatous, partly necrotizing lymphadenitis and a large number of acid-fast bacilli subsequently identified by molecular techniques as Mycobacterium bohemicum.



July 2003


7315.   Andersson RE, Olaison G, Tysk C, Ekbom A.  Appendectomy is followed by increased risk of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jan;124(1):40-6.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Appendectomy is associated with a low risk of subsequent ulcerative colitis. This study analyzes the risk of Crohn's disease after appendectomy. METHODS: We followed-up 212,218 patients with appendectomy before age 50 years and a cohort of matched controls, identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register and the nationwide Census, for any subsequent diagnosis of Crohn's disease. RESULTS: An increased risk of Crohn's disease was found for more than 20 years after appendectomy, with incidence rate ratio 2.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.79) after perforated appendicitis, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.10-3.18) after nonspecific abdominal pain, 2.15 (95% CI, 1.25-3.80) after mesenteric lymphadenitis, 2.52 (95% CI, 1.43-4.63) after other diagnoses. After nonperforated appendicitis, there was an increased risk among women but not among men (incidence rate ratio 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03-1.85, respectively, 0.89, 95% CI, 0.64-1.24). Patients operated on before age 10 years had a low risk (incidence rate ratio 0.48, 95% CI, 0.23-0.97). Crohn's disease patients with a history of perforated appendicitis had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Appendectomy is associated with an increased risk of Crohn's disease that is dependent on the patient's sex, age, and the diagnosis at operation. The pattern of associations suggests a biologic cause.

7316.  Bajpayee A, Gulati S, Lodha R, Kabra SK.  Tuberculosis clinical grand round. Indian J Pediatr. 2003 Jan;70(1):57-61.No abstract available.

7317.   Cherian G, Habashy AG, Uthaman B, Cherian JM, Salama A, Anim JT.  Detection and follow-up of mediastinal lymph node enlargement in tuberculous pericardial effusions using computed tomography. Am J Med. 2003 Mar;114(4):319-22. No abstract available.

7318.   Clark MP, Benjamin E, Alusi G.  A rare case of Crohn's disease in head and neck surgery. J Laryngol Otol. 2003 Feb;117(2):146-7.

Oral manifestations of Crohn's disease may present to the Otolaryngologist in the form of ulceration, glossitis and odynophagia, but rarer examples of presentation are also recognized. In this case a 24-year-old lady presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, the subsequent investigation of which resulted in the identification of the disease both in this node and in the tonsils. It is noted that these lesions may precede the classical intestinal manifestations and so the Otolaryngologist could aid in the initial diagnosis of the disease. The pathogenic possibilities of how Crohn's disease might have arisen in these and other extra-intestinal regions, are discussed.

7319.   Curi AL, Campos WR, Barbosa L, Lana-Peixoto MA, Orefice F.  Unusual presentation of cat scratch disease in HIV+ patient. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Mar;87(3):371. No abstract available.

7320.   Dominguez DC, Torres ML, Antony S. Is human herpesvirus 6 linked to kikuchi-fujimoto disease? The importance of consistent molecular and serologic analysis. South Med J. 2003 Mar;96(3):226-33.

BACKGROUND: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also called histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a self-limiting lymphadenopathy of unknown cause. The patient often presents with fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy primarily involving the cervical lymph nodes. Laboratory findings are nonspecific, and the diagnosis is established by identifying characteristic pathologic features from lymph node biopsy. The etiologic agent has been proposed to be of viral origin; specifically, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has been implicated. METHODS: The clinical, histologic, serologic, and molecular data from 471 cases of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease reported between 1982 and 2001 and their relationship to HHV-6 were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two of the 471 patients in this review were tested for HHV-6 serology; all 32 had elevated titers for HHV-6. One hundred twelve patients with lymphadenopathies, including histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, tested positive for HHV-6 by polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization results were positive in 41 cases. CONCLUSION: This review illustrates the necessity for consistent molecular and serologic analysis.

7321.  Durmus E, Oz G, Guler N, Avunduk M, Caliskan U, Blanchaert RH Jr. Intraosseous mandibular lesion. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003 Feb;61(2):246-9. No abstract available.

7322.   Haberl R, Wenisch C. Case 33-2002: a 28-year-old woman with ocular inflammation, fever, and headache. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 30;348(5):474-6 No abstract available

7323.  Johnson LB, Pasumarthy A, Saravolatz LD.  Parvovirus B19 infection presenting with necrotizing lymphadenitis. Am J Med. 2003 Mar;114(4):340-1. No abstract available

7324.   Koh DM, Burn PR, Mathews G, Nelson M, Healy JC.  Abdominal computed tomographic findings of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection in HIV seropositive patients. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2003 Feb;54(1):45-50.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the computed tomographic (CT) findings of abdominal Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A retrospective review of the CT findings of 30 patients with HIV and proven MTB (n = 9) or MAI (n = 21) infection was conducted. Images were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to the diagnosis, and the radiologic findings involving the abdominal viscera, peritoneum and lymph nodes were compared. RESULTS: The following were more frequent in patients with MAI infection: hepatomegaly (MAI 71% v. MTB 44%, p < 0.05), uniform attenuation of lymph nodes (MAI 90% v. MTB 55%, p < 0.05) and clustered pattern of lymph nodes (MAI 57% v. MTB 22%, p < 0.05). In patients with MTB infection, lymph nodes with low attenuation centrally were more common (MAI 10% v. MTB 44%, p < 0.05), and mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly larger (MAI mean = 20 mm v. MTB mean = 40 mm, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although nonspecific, CT may be useful in the early diagnosis of MTB and MAI infection, allowing for presumptive treatment before microbiologic confirmation.

7325. Lewis DA.  Chancroid: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management. Sex Transm Infect. 2003 Feb;79(1):68-71.

Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the Gram negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi and is characterised by necrotising genital ulceration which may be accompanied by inguinal lymphadenitis or bubo formation. H ducreyi is a fastidious organism which is difficult to culture from genital ulcer material. DNA amplification techniques have shown improved diagnostic sensitivity but are only performed in a few laboratories. The management of chancroid in the tropics tends to be undertaken in the context of syndromic management of genital ulcer disease and treatment is usually with erythromycin. A number of single dose regimens are also available to treat H ducreyi infection. Genital ulceration as a syndrome has been associated with increased transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in several cross sectional and longitudinal studies. Effective and early treatment of genital ulceration is therefore an important part of any strategy to control the spread of HIV infection in tropical countries.

7326.  Mandell DL, Wald ER, Michaels MG, Dohar JE. Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Mar;129(3):341-4.

OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment and outcome of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty consecutive immunocompetent patients (median age, 32 months; age range, 11-147 months) diagnosed as having NTM cervical lymphadenitis over a 77-month period. INTERVENTIONS: Primary therapy for 34 foci of NTM cervical lymphadenitis in 30 children consisted of excisional biopsy (n = 8), incision and drainage procedures (n = 14), fine-needle aspiration biopsy (n = 7), observation only (n = 4), and antimycobacterial chemotherapy only (n = 1). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Time to cure, (2) recurrent adenitis, and (3) complications associated with therapy were determined for each therapeutic option. The average duration of follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-78 months). RESULTS: Nearly all patients (97%) were cured of their disease regardless of which therapeutic option was used. Excisional biopsy, while associated with transient marginal mandibular nerve injury in 1 patient, typically resulted in the most rapid resolution of disease. Observation alone did result in eventual cure, although the disease course was protracted. Simple incision and drainage without curettage was associated with prolonged postoperative wound discharge and hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of therapeutic options were used in children with NTM cervical lymphadenitis. Resolution of infection was an eventual outcome regardless of treatment option, although duration of disease, potential for facial nerve injury, and incidence of hypertrophic scarring varied among the different treatments. An individualized management approach is recommended, with excisional biopsy as the preferred option when feasible.

7327.   Panesar J, Higgins K, Daya H, Forte V, Allen U.  Nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical adenitis: a ten-year retrospective review.Laryngoscope. 2003 Jan;113(1):149-54.

OBJECTIVE: To review the authors' institutional experience with nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical adenitis in children over a 10-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: The case histories of 79 children with nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis who presented to a large tertiary care referral center from 1989 to 1999 were retrospectively analyzed, and the demographics, clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, and types of surgical intervention they underwent were reported. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 3.6 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2, and the frequency of presentation was highest in the winter and spring months. The diagnosis was not immediately apparent to most primary health care physicians because there was a delay between the appearance of the lump and referral for treatment, which was in excess of 8 weeks. Involved nodes were mainly treated surgically. The recurrence rate of complete surgical resection was less than 1%. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the fact that a high index of clinical suspicion is needed to make an early diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis and lends further weight to the already existing evidence that surgical excision remains the mainstay of successful treatment for lymphadenitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.

7328.   Seah AB, Azran MS, Rucker JC, Biousse V, Martin DF, Newman NJ.  Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in cat-scratch disease encephalopathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2003 Mar;23(1):16-21.

A 23-year-old woman who presented with a branch retinal artery occlusion followed by encephalopathy showed, by brain magnetic resonance imaging, a nonenhancing lesion in the right parietal gray matter with normal diffusion-weighted imaging. Of 64 reported cases of cat-scratch encephalopathy with documented neuroimaging findings, only 12 (18.8%) have had abnormal imaging findings. The abnormalities have included cerebral white matter lesions, basal ganglia and thalamic lesions, and multifocal lesions in immunocompromised patients, but no gray matter lesions similar to those in this patient. The variety of neuroimaging findings supports multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms of central nervous system involvement in this disorder.



7329.  George TI, Jones CD, Zehnder JL, Warnke RA, Dorfman RF.  Lack of human herpesvirus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus in Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. Hum Pathol. 2003 Feb;34(2):130-5.

Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis is a self-limited disorder that typically involves the cervical lymph nodes of young women. Although a viral etiology has been postulated, a definitive viral agent has not been identified. Recent reports have suggested that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play an etiologic role. We investigated the presence of HHV 8 and EBV in archival tissue from 34 cases of Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. We examined 29 cases for HHV 8 using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue, and 24 cases for EBV RNA using in situ hybridization (ISH) for EBER1. Controls included reactive lymph nodes from 8 adult women presenting with cervical or axillary lymphadenopathy. The study patients included 7 men and 27 women with a mean age of 28 years. All patients were previously healthy without evidence of immunocompromise and presented with cervical, axillary, or inguinal lymphadenopathy. Two cases exhibited EBV RNA by ISH; this was confirmed by PCR for EBV DNA. HHV 8 DNA was not amplified by nested PCR in any of the cases of Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis or reactive lymph nodes; control PCR demonstrated the presence of amplifiable DNA in all cases. These findings suggest that HHV 8 and EBV do not play causative roles in Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

7330. Gilad J, Wolak A, Borer A, Benharroch D, Avidor B, Giladi M, Schlaeffer F.  Isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an immunocompetent adult woman. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jan 1;36(1):e10-3.

We report a case of isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an immunocompetent woman. The clinical presentation of prolonged fever, night sweats, weakness, and intrasplenic lesions was highly suggestive of lymphoma. This is the second reported case of isolated splenic cat scratch disease in an adult and the first in a healthy adult.

7331.      Prasoon D.  Tuberculosis of the intercostal lymph nodes. Acta Cytol. 2003 Jan-Feb;47(1):51-5.

OBJECTIVE: To describe tuberculosis of the intercostal lymph nodes and discuss its clinical and cytologic profile and pathogenesis. STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen cases from March 1994 to March 2000 were retrieved from our cytology records. Only clinically and therapeutically proven cases were included in the study. RESULTS: The ages of the patients ranged from 4 to 63 years. The male:female ratio was 2:1. The duration of disease at presentation ranged from one week to nine months. The lumps presented either in the parasternal region or between the midclavicular and posterior axillary lines. One case presented with an infrascapular lump. Most of the lumps were ill defined and cystic. Chest radiographs in all cases showed a soft tissue swelling without bony involvement. The aspirates were of two types, blood-mixed particles and necrotic material. Four cytologic pictures were seen: (1) epithelioid cell granulomas alone or (2) with necrosis or (3) with both necrosis and acid-fast bacilli (AFB), or (4) necrosis with AFB. AFB were detected in 53.3% of cases. CONCLUSION: If necrotic material is aspirated or if granulomatous inflammation is encountered in soft tissue swellings of the chest wall, particularly in the parasternal and axillary regions, the possibility of intercostal tuberculous lymphadenitis should be considered.

7332. Tattevin P, Arvieux C, Dupont M, Guggenbuhl P, Lemeur A, Michelet C.  Granulomatous   lymphadenitis as a manifestation of Q Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jan;9(1):137-8. No abstract available.


7333.  Mandell DL, Wald ER, Michaels MG, Dohar JE. Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg  2003 Mar;129(3):341-4 

OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment and outcome of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty consecutive immunocompetent patients (median age, 32 months; age range, 11-147 months) diagnosed as having NTM cervical lymphadenitis over a 77-month period. INTERVENTIONS: Primary therapy for 34 foci of NTM cervical lymphadenitis in 30 children consisted of excisional biopsy (n = 8), incision and drainage procedures (n = 14), fine-needle aspiration biopsy (n = 7), observation only (n = 4), and antimycobacterial chemotherapy only (n = 1). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Time to cure, (2) recurrent adenitis, and (3) complications associated with therapy were determined for each therapeutic option. The average duration of follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-78 months). RESULTS: Nearly all patients (97%) were cured of their disease regardless of which therapeutic option was used. Excisional biopsy, while associated with transient marginal mandibular nerve injury in 1 patient, typically resulted in the most rapid resolution of disease. Observation alone did result in eventual cure, although the disease course was protracted. Simple incision and drainage without curettage was associated with prolonged postoperative wound discharge and hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of therapeutic options were used in children with NTM cervical lymphadenitis. Resolution of infection was an eventual outcome regardless of treatment option, although duration of disease, potential for facial nerve injury, and incidence of hypertrophic scarring varied among the different treatments. An individualized management approach is recommended, with excisional biopsy as the preferred option when feasible.

7334. Montague ML, Hussain SS, Blair RL. Three cases of atypical mycobacterial cervical adenitis. J R Soc Med  2003 Mar;96(3):129-31  No abstract available.

7335. Mugnaini EN, Watson T, Guccion J, Benator D. Kikuchi disease presenting as a flu-like illness with rash and lymphadenopathy. Am J Med Sci  2003 Jan;325(1):34-7

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (Kikuchi Disease) is a self-limited and benign systemic lymphadenitis of unknown cause, originally described by Kikuchi and Fujimoto and coworkers in 1972. Although relatively uncommon, it is increasingly discussed in the medical literature. Clinical presentation typically includes adenopathy, particularly cervical, with fever and flu-like symptoms. This constellation of symptoms, in the presence of a characteristic histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, provides the clinicopathologic diagnosis. The immunopathogenesis of Kikuchi disease may lie in a hyperactive response to viral infection. We describe an African American man with Kikuchi disease, unusual in the extent of his rash and debilitation, and in the relapse of his clinical symptoms.

October 2003

8043.  Albright JT, Pransky SM. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections of the head and neck. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Apr;50(2):503-14. Review.


Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. Immunocompetent children are commonly infected by these resilient organisms. Cervical lymphadenitis, the most frequent head and neck manifestation of NTM infection, often presents as chronic, unilateral lymphadenopathy with characteristic violaceous overlying skin changes. Diagnosis is ultimately dependent on culture or histopathologic examination of specimen obtained through excisional lymph node biopsy or FNA. The principal treatment of NTM infection remains the surgical excision of diseased tissue. Antibiotics augment surgical therapy and their potential role as a single-modality therapy continues to be investigated.

8044.  el Hag IA, Chiedozi LC, al Reyees FA, Kollur SM. Fine needle aspiration cytology of head and neck masses. Seven years' experience in a secondary care hospital. Acta Cytol. 2003 May-Jun;47(3):387-92.


OBJECTIVE: To study the value of fine needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of head and neck masses in a secondary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: FNA from 225 patients with head and neck masses were reviewed. The results were analyzed, according to anatomic location, into 3 groups: inflammatory, congenital and neoplastic. FNA diagnoses were retrospectively correlated with available histologic findings or with the outcome of treatment. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in the diagnosis were computed. The numbers of lymph node biopsies performed before and after introduction of the procedure were compared. RESULTS: The most common diagnoses were reactive/nonspecific lymphadenitis and tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis (33% and 21%, respectively). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for TB were 97% and 93%, respectively. The next most common masses were malignant neoplasms, cysts, benign neoplasms and sialadenitis, in 13%, 11%, 9% and 5%, respectively. Carcinomas metastatic to the lymph node were the most common type of cancer, followed by lymphoma and salivary gland carcinoma. The primary site of metastatic carcinomas were nasopharynx (44%) and thyroid (22%). The sensitivity and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of cancer were 95% and 96%, respectively, but reached 100% when lymphoma was excluded. The introduction of FNA reduced the number of lymph node biopsies performed in this hospital by 90%. CONCLUSION: FNA of head and neck masses proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in separating inflammatory lesions (no surgical excision required) from cystic and neoplastic lesions. It enhanced surgical planning for malignant diseases, allowing rapid referral of lymphomas and cancer cases to tertiary care centers for management. FNA is simple, cost effective and suitable for developing countries and small, secondary care hospitals with limited resources. Skilled personnel and routine audits are the keys to success.


8045.  La Via WV. Urban trench fever and cat scratch disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Apr 15;36(8):1089.  No abstract.

8046.  Lin HC, Su CY, Huang CC, Hwang CF, Chien CY. Kikuchi's disease: a review and analysis of 61 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 May;128(5):650-3.


OBJECTIVE: Kikuchi's disease (KD), or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a rare self-limiting disorder that typically affects the cervical lymph nodes. It has occasionally been misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma or another serious diseases; hence, clinicians should be made more aware of this disease. METHODS: From January 1986 to January 2001, a series of 61 patients who underwent a biopsy of a cervical lymph node and proved histologically to have KD were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and pathologic parameters of each patient. The patients were followed up from 6 months to 14.3 years (mean, 6.9 years). RESULTS: There were 34 women and 27 men (1.26:1 ratio; age range, 6 to 46 years; mean age, 21 years). The affected cervical lymph nodes were commonly located in the posterior cervical triangle (54 of 61, or 88.5%). Unilateral and bilateral cervical lymph nodes were affected in 54 and 7 patients, respectively. The dimensions of affected lymph nodes were commonly in the range of 0.5 to 4 cm (57 of 61, or 93.4%). In 2 patients, the size of the enlarged lymph nodes was greater than 6 cm. Leukopenia was observed in 14 patients (23%); fever, in 18 patients (29.5%). Five patients had a past history of tuberculosis. Two patients developed systemic lupus erythematosus, 1 month and 5 years later, respectively. The cervical lymphadenopathy usually resolved without any medical treatment within 6 months after definite diagnosis was made. In 3 patients, the enlarged lymph nodes eventually disappeared after more than 1 year. No recurrence has since been noted. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the theory that KD is a self-limiting disorder that does not require any specific management. The female predominance was not as striking as in the studies performed in Western countries. We suggest that the patients with KD require a systemic survey and regular follow-up for several years; 2 of our patients developed systemic lupus erythematosus. An effective communication between the otolaryngologist and pathologist is needed because the clinical and pathologic characteristics of KD are essential in making an accurate diagnosis.

8047.  Margolis B, Kuzu I, Herrmann M, Raible MD, Hsi E, Alkan S. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation of cat scratch disease and Bartonella henselae infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003 Jun;127(6):706-10.


CONTEXT: Cat scratch disease (CSD) commonly occurs secondary to Bartonella henselae infection, and the diagnosis has traditionally been made by microscopic findings, the identification of organisms by cytochemistry, and clinical history. However, cytochemical analysis tends to be very difficult to interpret, and histology alone may be insufficient to establish a definitive diagnosis of CSD. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the presence of B henselae in tissue suspected of involvement by CSD, using a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN: Isolates of B henselae (American Tissue Culture Collection 49793) and Afipia felis (American Tissue Culture Collection 49714) were cultured on blood agar and buffered charcoal yeast extract agar, respectively. DNA was isolated from these organisms and from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections with involvement by CSD (8 patients). Negative controls included water, human placental tissue, and lymph node specimens from 6 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and from 2 patients with granulomatous lymphadenitis. A primer complementary to B henselae citrate synthase gltA gene sequence was designed to perform a seminested PCR amplification. For restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, PCR products were digested by TaqI restriction enzyme and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Seminested PCR analysis of the cultured isolates of B henselae, but not of A felis, showed specific amplification. However, nonnested PCR did not provide consistently positive results in tissue sections with CSD. Therefore, we used a seminested PCR, which revealed positivity in all of the cases with clinicopathologic diagnoses of CSD. None of the negative controls showed positivity. Restriction enzyme provided confirmation of the specific PCR amplification of the B henselae sequence. CONCLUSIONS: Since the amplification product has a low molecular size (<200 base pairs), this assay is useful for detection of B henselae in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The seminested PCR protocol described here can be used for rapid and reliable confirmation of B henselae in samples that are histologically suggestive of CSD.


8048.  Uygur-Bayramicli O, Dabak G, Dabak R. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;9(5):1098-101.


AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests, Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed. RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females,17 males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss. Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %) and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %). Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops, thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement. Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, 11 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %) tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histo-pathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The remaining nine patients (28.8 %) had been diagnosed by a positive response to antituberculous treatment. CONCLUSION: Neither clinical signs, laboratory, radiological and endoscopic methods nor bacteriological and histopathological findings provide a gold standard by themselves in the diagnosis of abdominal TB. However, an algorithm of these diagnostic methods leads to considerably higher precision in the diagnosis of this insidious disease which primarily necessitate a clinical awareness of this serious health problem.


8049.  Jain A, Verma RK, Tiwari V, Goel MM. Development of a new antigen detection dot-ELISA for diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis in fine needle aspirates. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Apr;53(1):107-12.


A sandwich dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized to detect mycobacterial antigen in fine needle aspirates of patients with tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN). The assay was performed on nitrocellulose paper by using antibodies raised in mice and rabbits against crude soluble protein (CSP) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The test was able to detect as low as 5 ng protein/ml. A total of 225 suspected cases of tubercular lymphadenopathy were screened, out of which 96 were cytomorphologically confirmed as cases of tubercular lymphadenitis (50 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive and 46 AFB-negative). These were considered as positive controls. Only 28 cases were proven to be of nontubercular etiology and were considered as negative controls. In the remaining 101 (39 scanty) aspirates, tubercular etiology could neither be ruled out nor confirmed. Out of 50 AFB-positive confirmed cases of tubercular lymphadenitis, 46 were ELISA-positive. Out of 46 AFB-negative but cytomorphologically confirmed aspirates, antigen could be demonstrated in only  42 aspirates. Four samples from patients with nontubercular etiology were also found to be ELISA-positive. Antigen was picked up in a total of 90.3% of aspirates with suspicion of tuberculosis and 79.5% of scanty aspirates. The assay was found to be 91.6% sensitive and 85.7% specific. The assay was found to be simple and rapid, and hence, could be performed in areas where health facilities are rudimentary.

8050.  Liao AC, Chen YK. Cervical lymphadenopathy caused by Kikuchi disease: positron emission tomographic appearance. Clin Nucl Med. 2003 Apr;28(4):320-1. No abstract.

8051.  Ridder GJ, Boedeker CC, Lee TK, Sander A. B-mode sonographic criteria for differential diagnosis of cervicofacial lymphadenopathy in cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. Head Neck. 2003 Apr;25(4):306-12.


BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to evaluate different sonographic parameters of cervicofacial lymphadenopathy caused by cat-scratch disease (CSD) and toxoplasmosis. METHODS: By use of high-resolution B-mode sonography a total of 552 lymph nodes in the head and neck were detected between January 1997 and December 2001. There were 71 patients (422 lymph nodes) with CSD and 19 patients (130 lymph nodes) with toxoplasmosis. Sonographic variables, including 20 sonomorphologic features along with age and gender, were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Heterogenous lymph nodes were more often found in CSD (p =.003), and nonsharp nodal borders showed a significant association with CSD (p =.0005). Multivariate analysis identified sharpness of borders (p =.0001), S/L ratio (p =.0006), and type of lymphadenopathy (acute, abscessed, chronic) (p =.0006) as most significant for differentiating between CSD and toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide significant and useful criteria for ultrasonographic differentiation between CSD and toxoplasmosis. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


8052.  Karthik SV, Mulay KV. Atypical mycobacterial infections. J R Soc Med. 2003 May;96(5):255.  No abstract.

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