Ayurveda and Alternative Systems of Medicine

(Acupuncture, Alternative medicine, Ayurveda, Complementary medicine,

 Herbal medicine, Homeopathy, Siddha and Traditional medicine)



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1959. Abuharfeil NM.  Maraqa A.  Von Kleist S. Augmentation of natural killer cell activity in vitro against tumor cells  by wild plants from Jordan.   Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):55-63, 2000 Jul.


Thirteen aqueous extracts prepared from Jordanian plants, that are currently used in traditional medicine to treat various types of cancer, were tested in mice for their ability to augment natural killer (NK) cell function in vitro in generating cytotoxicity against YAC tumor targets. Lymphoid cells at a concentration of 5x10(6)/ml were incubated in medium alone or in medium containing different dilutions of either plant extract or purified interferon alpha for 20 h and tested for NK activity. Maximum NK activity (62. 3%) was obtained at 1:50 dilution of Nigella sativum fresh aqueous extract, 48.5% at 1:100 dilution for Allium sativum (and 38.3% at 1:50 dilution for Onopordum acanthium. Fresh aqueous plant extracts appeared to be more potent than old dried aqueous extract or ethanolic extracts. NK augmentation by plant extracts using nylon wool non-adherent spleen cells was slightly higher than the whole spleen cells.


1960. No abstract.


1961.Andrade C.  Sudha S.  Venkataraman BV. Herbal treatments for ECS-induced memory deficits: a review of research  and a discussion on animal models.Journal of Ect.  16(2):144-56, 2000 Jun.


During the last decade the use of herbal medicinal substances in the attenuation of anterograde and retrograde amnesia induced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) has been studied using animal research. We will discuss the background of herbal medicine in India, review the research findings on herbal medicines for ECS-induced amnestic deficits, and examine the applications and limitations of animal models in this context. We will focus on our own research and insights, with particular emphasis on practical issues.


1962. Arai H.  Suzuki T.  Sasaki H.  Hanawa T.  Toriizuka K.  Yamada H. [A new interventional strategy for Alzheimer's disease by Japanese herbal. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi - Japanese Journal of Geriatrics.  37(3):212-5, 2000 Mar.


A Japanese herbal medicine termed "Kami-Umtan-To (KUT)" was first described in Japanese literature in 1626, KUT consists of 13 different herbs, and it has been used for a long time in the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric problems including neurosis and insomnia. Recently, Yabe et al. have demonstrated that KUT increased both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nerve growth factor at the protein and mRNA levels in cultured rat brain cells. Moreover, the same research group has reported that KUT improved mean latency on passive avoidance test in both basal for brain lesioned and aged rats. KUT significantly improved the survival rate, and increased the number of ChAT-positive neurons in aged rats. Here, we report a 12-month open clinical trial of KUT and combination of estrogen, vitamin E and NSAID to aim at slowing down the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty AD patients (MMSE score:18.6 +/- 5.8) received extracts from original KUT herbs, and 7AD patients (MMSE score: 21.3 +/- 2.8) were placed on the combination therapy. Rate of cognitive decline as measured by change in MMSE score per year was significantly slower (p = 0.04, ANOVA) in the KUT group (1.4 points) and the combination group (0.4 points) as compared to 4.1 points in 32 control AD patients (MMSE score: 20.8 +/- 5.6) who received no medicines for AD. Any of CSF measures including tau. and A beta 1-42 did not differ significantly after KUT therapy. The efficacy of the KUT therapy was most obvious at 3 months. Our results suggest that traditional Japanese herbal medicine(s) may serve a new interventional strategy for AD.


1963. Avants SK.  Margolin A.  Holford TR.  Kosten TR. A randomized controlled trial of auricular acupuncture for cocaine   dependence.Archives of Internal Medicine.  160(15):2305-12, 2000 Aug 14-28.


BACKGROUND: Partly because of a lack of a conventional, effective treatment for cocaine addiction, auricular acupuncture is used to treat this disorder in numerous drug treatment facilities across the country for both primary cocaine-dependent and opiate-dependent populations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine addiction. METHODS: Eighty-two cocaine-dependent, methadone-maintained patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: auricular acupuncture, a needle-insertion control condition, or a no-needle relaxation control. Treatment sessions were provided 5 times weekly for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was cocaine use assessed by 3-times-weekly urine toxicology screens. RESULTS: Longitudinal analysis of the urine data for the intent-to-treat sample showed that patients assigned to acupuncture were significantly more likely to provide cocaine-negative urine samples relative to both the relaxation control (odds ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-8.72; P =. 01) and the needle-insertion control (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-5.75; P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that acupuncture shows promise for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Further investigation of this treatment modality appears to be warranted.



1964.Babichenko MA. [Acupuncture reflexotherapy in the treatment of hypertension patients].Likarska Sprava.  (1):95-7, 2000 Jan-Feb.


Acupuncture was used in a combination treatment of 110 patients with stage I to III hypertensive disease (HD). As far as acupuncture points are concerned we followed the lines laid down in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with results of Ryodoraku investigation and those of auriculodiagnosis supplying a guide to the choice of points taking into account the type of hemodynamics. In our experience, redundancy with the meridian of the liver, unlike TCM notions about dominance under HD syndrome of fire and wind in the liver, was found to be the case in 40 percent of the patients while redundancy with meridians of the heart and pericardium was recordable in 97 and 84 percent of the cases respectively. The use of acupuncture points in the neck collar region and head and of antique points along the meridians of the heart and liver were shown to be effective treatment having a beneficial effect on cerebral circulation. Results of the clinical study suggest efficiency, expediency, and pathogenic value of acupuncture in the treatment of HD patients.


1965.Barzansky B.  Jonas HS.  Etzel SI.Educational programs in US medical schools, 1999-2000 [see comments]. JAMA.  284(9):1114-20, 2000 Sep 6.


We used data from the 1999-2000 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 1999-2000, the number of full-time faculty members was 102,446, a 4.3% increase from 1998-1999. The number of basic science faculty increased by less than 0.5%, while the number of clinical faculty increased by about 5%. There were 38,529 medical school applicants in 1999, a 6% decrease from 1998. Women constituted 45.8% and underrepresented minorities made up 12.1% of the 1999-2000 first-year class. New content, such as alternative medicine and cultural competence, and new methods of instruction, such as computer-based learning, are being incorporated by many schools. Seventy schools (56% of the total) require students to pass both Step 1 and Step 2 of the US Medical Licensing Examination for advancement or graduation, an increase from 62 schools (50%) in 1998-1999. The use of standardized methods of assessment, such as objective structured clinical examinations, to evaluate students' clinical performance was highly variable among schools. JAMA. 2000;284:1114-1120


1966. Bates B.  LoRe F. Teaching complementary and alternative medicine in residency programs  [letter]. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.  81(9):1256-7, 2000 Sep.


1967. Bauer BA.Herbal therapy: what a clinician needs to know to counsel patients

  effectively. Mayo Clinic Proceedings.  75(8):835-41, 2000 Aug.


The use of herbal medicine in the United States has been increasing at a steady pace over the past decade. Most recent estimates suggest that the US population spends $5 billion per year for herbal supplements alone. Herbal supplements are receiving increasing exposure through national media, in lay journals, and more recently in the scientific press. Interest in herbal medicine has been facilitated by multiple factors, including the perception that pharmaceutical medications are expensive, overprescribed, and often dangerous. Alternatively, herbal medicine is often perceived as being "natural" and is therefore considered safe. While the growth of the herbal medicine industry in the United States can probably not continue at this accelerated pace indefinitely, there is little indication of any major slowing. Therefore, patients will continue to use herbal medications. Knowledge of these preparations (including their potential benefits and risks as well as their ability to interact with pharmaceutical medications) will enable physicians to provide a balanced and objective view to patients seeking information on herbal therapy. [References: 22]


1968.Beal MW.  Nield-Anderson L. Acupuncture for symptom relief in HIV-positive adults: lessons learned  from a pilot study [see comments]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  6(5):33-42, 2000 Sep.


CONTEXT: Although acupuncture is used by many people with HIV disease as a complementary treatment to Western medicine, there is a lack of scientifically sound research on patient responses and outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of conducting a larger study investigating the efficacy of acupuncture on symptom distress, psychological distress, and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: This pilot study used a block randomization, single-blinded design. SETTING: Yale University General Clinical Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven HIV-positive participants. INTERVENTION: Patients were grouped by CD4 cell counts and received acupuncture treatments twice each week for 3 weeks. The experimental group received a protocol with 2 components: one tailored to the individual's symptoms and a second standardized component treatment designed to promote health and immune function. The control-needling group received a standardized treatment involving stimulation of acupuncture points identified as "clinically irrelevant" in treating the conditions under investigation (i.e., acupuncture points that have consistently not been cited as helpful for symptoms of relevant conditions or immune disorders). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The HIV-Symptom List was administered to gather data on symptom distress, the Brief Symptom Inventory was used to gather data on psychological distress, and the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection was administered to collect data on quality of life. RESULTS: Preliminary data from small numbers of participants showed trends toward improvement in symptoms and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: A follow-up pilot study will focus on the use of acupuncture to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms in people with HIV.


1969. Berman BM.  Hartnoll S.  Bausell B. CAM evaluation comes into the mainstream: NIH specialized Centers of research and the University of Maryland Center for Alternative Medicine   Research in Arthritis.Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  8(2):119-22, 2000 Jun.


  In September of 1999 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced the

  funding of five Specialized Centers of Research in complementary and

  alternative medicine (CAM), bringing the total number of centers being

  supported to nine. The NIH center grant model provides a tremendous boost

  to the scientific investigation of CAM, nurturing an emerging field

  through the support of a step-wise research program of clinical and

  pre-clinical trials and developmental and feasibility studies; the

  building of infrastructure; and the training of a new cadre of scientific

  investigators in the field. This article explains the overall objectives

  of the NIH Specialized Centers program and focuses on one of the oldest

  CAM research centers in the USA, exploring some of the challenges faced in

  conducting CAM research while developing a center, and some of the goals

  and activities of the center.


1970. Bhattacharya A.  Kumar M.  Ghosal S.  Bhattacharya SK. Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on  iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats [letter]. Phytomedicine.  7(2):173-5, 2000 Apr.


  The tannoid principles of the fruits of the plant Emblica officinalis

  Gaertn comprising of emblicanin A. emblicanin B, punigluconin and

  pedunculagin, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro

  and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin A (37%) and B (33%)

  enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT), administered

  prophylactically (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 consecutive day, was

  found to inhibit acute iron overload (30 mg/kg, i.p.) hepatic lipid

  peroxidation and the increase of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,

  aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, used as markers of

  the induced hepatic dysfunction. A similar effect was produced by

  silymarin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), an antioxidant hepatoprotective agent. The

  results support the use of Emblica fruits for hepatoprotection in



1971.Boon H.  Brown J.  Gavin A. What are the experiences of women with breast cancer as they decide whether to use complementary/alternative medicine?. Western Journal of Medicine.  173(1):39, 2000 Jul.


1972. Borchers AT.  Keen CL.  Stern JS.  Gershwin ME.Inflammation and Native American medicine: the role of botanicals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  72(2):339-47, 2000 Aug.


  There is a growing interest in medicinal botanicals as part of

  complementary medicine in the United States. In particular, both

  physicians and consumers are becoming aware of the use of herbals by

  Native American societies; many botanicals sold today as dietary

  supplements in the United States were used by Native Americans for similar

  purposes. Yet, these supplements represent only a small number of the

  >2500 different plant species from vascular taxa, and >2800 species from

  all taxa, known to have been prized for their medicinal properties by the

  indigenous inhabitants of the North American continent. We review some of

  the studies of the immunomodulatory activities of botanicals used by

  native peoples of North America, the bioactive constituents responsible

  for those activities, and the mechanisms by which these constituents might

  modulate the immune system. We focus particularly on 3 species of purple

  coneflower (ECHINACEA:) because of the widespread use of purple coneflower

  in the United States to boost immunity and prevent upper respiratory

  infections. Seven of the 10 most common botanicals sold in the United

  States were used extensively by Native Americans. However, there are very

  few data to support such use and even less information about drug toxicity

  or interactions. [References: 88]


1973.No. Abstract

1974. Chang ZG.  Kennedy DT.  Holdford DA.  Small RE. Pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes toward herbal medicine. Annals of Pharmacotherapy.  34(6):710-5, 2000 Jun.


  OBJECTIVE: The use and sales of herbal medications have increased

  dramatically over the past several years. Pharmacists are in an ideal

  position to educate patients about herbal medicines. This study was

  intended to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding

  herbal medications. METHODS: A survey was distributed to pharmacists at

  several state and regional meetings in Virginia and North Carolina between

  August and October 1998. The survey evaluated demographic data,

  attitudinal scales, and a 15-item herbal medicine knowledge test.

  Pharmacists immediately returned the surveys to the distributor on

  completion. RESULTS: Of the 217 surveys distributed, 164 met the inclusion

  criteria for further evaluation. Of the pharmacists surveyed, 68.0%

  practiced in a community pharmacy, 45.1% had previous continuing education

  on herbal medications, and 73.6% sold herbal medications in their practice

  settings. The average score on the herbal knowledge test was 6.3 (maximum

  score of 15). Pharmacists with previous continuing education scored

  significantly higher than those without prior continuing education (p <

  0.001). Of the 15 questions, the five that pharmacists were most likely to

  answer correctly assessed the uses of herbal medications. Additionally,

  pharmacists with prior continuing education or with access to herbal

  medication information at their practice site were more likely to agree

  that providing information about herbal medication is a pharmacist's

  professional responsibility (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively).

  CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists

  were more likely to answer correctly about the uses of herbal medications

  than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects, and precautions of

  herbal medications. Additionally, pharmacists with previous continuing

  education on herbal medications were more knowledgeable about these

  products. With the increasing use of herbal medications, there is a

  greater need for pharmacy training programs in this area.


1975. Chen C.  Guo SM.  Liu B. A randomized controlled trial of kurorinone versus interferon-alpha2a treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Journal of Viral Hepatitis.  7(3):225-9, 2000 May.


  It has recently been shown that a Chinese traditional medicine,

  kurorinone, extracted from Sophora Flavescens Ait, possesses antiviral

  properties. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of kurorinone treatment

  in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Ninety-four patients with abnormal

  alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and/or

  hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA-positivity were randomly assigned to receive

  either kurorinone 400 mg daily (45 patients) or 3 million units (MU) of

  interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) (49 patients, daily for 1 month, every other

  day for 2 months) for 3 months. Patients were followed-up for 12 months.

  At baseline, both groups were comparable regarding age, gender and

  serological parameters. At the end of treatment, complete response

  (defined as ALT normalization and HBeAg and/or HBV DNA loss) occurred in

  50% of the kurorinone group and in 61.3% of the IFN-alpha-treated group (P

  > NS). At the end of the 12-month follow-up period, a complete response

  (sustained response) occurred in 26.7-36.7% of kurorinone-treated patients

  with moderate or mild liver damage and in 44.4-46.7% of IFN-alpha-treated

  patients with similar liver injury. In kurorinone- as well as in

  IFN-alpha-treated patients, there was no statistical significant

  difference with respect to complete response rates between HBeAg-positive

  and hepatitis B e antibody-positive subgroups. Kurorinone had no untoward

  side-effects except for local pain at injection sites. The results of this

  trial suggest that kurorinone is able to inhibit HBV replication and

  improve disease remission in patients with chronic hepatitis B.


1976. Chen J.  Chen M.  Zhao B.  Wang Y. Effects of acupuncture on the immunological functions in hepatitis B virus   carriers. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  19(4):268-72, 1999 Dec.


  A contrast study on the effects of manual acupuncture and

  electroacupuncture was conducted in 60 cases of chronic hepatitis B

  carriers. The results demonstrated that the immunological functions, both

  cellular and humoral, were markedly regulated as evidenced by the negative

  turnover rates of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc and HBcAg, as well as the

  positive turnover rate of anti-HBe.


1977.No Abstract.

1978. No Abstract.


1979. Comerci GD. Threats to chronically ill adolescents. Challenges for physicians as we   approach the next millennium.  Adolescent Medicine.  9(1):179-88, vii, 1998 Feb.


  The frequency of all forms of juvenile arthritis, including juvenile

  rheumatoid arthritis, other major connective tissue diseases, and other

  rheumatic diagnoses, is estimated to be approximately 160,000-190,000 U.S.

  children under 15 years of age. The author suggests that the

  legitimization of alternative medicine and the corporatization of U.S.

  health care are undermining the quality of care that chronically ill

  adolescents receive. [References: 40]


1980.  Cucherat M.  Haugh MC.  Gooch M.  Boissel JP.  Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy. A meta-analysis of clinical   trials. HMRAG. Homeopathic Medicines Research Advisory Group.  European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.  56(1):27-33, 2000 Apr.


  OBJECTIVE: To establish, using a systematic review and meta-analysis,

  whether there is any evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials

  of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in patients with any disease.

  DATA SOURCES: Published and unpublished reports of controlled clinical

  trials available up to June 1998, identified by searching bibliographic

  databases (Medline, Embase, Biosis, PsychInfo, Cinahl, British Library

  Stock Alert Service, SIGLE, Amed), references lists of selected papers,

  hand searching homeopathic journals and conference abstracts, and

  contacting pharmaceutical companies. TRIALS SELECTION: Trials were

  selected using an unblinded process by two reviewers. The selection

  criteria were randomised, controlled trials in which the efficacy of

  homeopathic treatment was assessed relative to placebo in patients using

  clinical or surrogate endpoints. Prevention trials or those evaluating

  only biological effects were excluded. One hundred and eighteen randomised

  trials were identified and evaluated for inclusion. Sixteen trials,

  representing 17 comparisons and including a total of 2,617 evaluated

  patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were

  extracted by two reviewers independently, using a summary form.

  Disagreements were resolved by a third person. DATA SYNTHESIS: The

  evidence was synthesised by combining the significance levels (P values)

  for the primary outcomes from the individual trials. The combined P value

  for the 17 comparisons was highly significant P = 0.000036. However,

  sensitivity analysis showed that the P value tended towards a

  non-significant value (P = 0.08) as trials were excluded in a stepwise

  manner based on their level of quality. CONCLUSIONS: There is some

  evidence that homeopathic treatments are more effective than placebo;

  however, the strength of this evidence is low because of the low

  methodological quality of the trials. Studies of high methodological

  quality were more likely to be negative than the lower quality studies.

  Further high quality studies are needed to confirm these results.


1981.  Cunningham RS.  Herbert V. Nutrition as a component of alternative therapy. Seminars in Oncology Nursing.  16(2):163-9, 2000 May.


  OBJECTIVES: To discuss common "alternative" nutritional strategies that

  may be used by patients as a primary or adjunctive means of cancer

  treatment. DATA SOURCES: Government reports, textbook chapters, published

  articles, and research reports. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diet and nutrition

  to prevent and treat disease is one of six fields of alternative medicine.

  A number of dietary regimens have been purported to be effective in the

  treatment of cancer. Most have been inadequately tested with regard to

  safety and efficacy. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Oncology nurses

  need to be knowledgeable of the use of alternative methods so that they

  may provide accurate information to patients considering these approaches.


1982.  Delilkan AE.Pain management and the role of pain clinics in Malaysia--is there a place   for alternative medicine in pain clinics? [editorial].Medical Journal of Malaysia.  53(3):201, 1998 Sep.


1983. No Abstract.


1984. Eastwood HL.Complementary therapies: the appeal to general practitioners. Medical Journal of Australia.  173(2):95-8, 2000 Jul 17.


  Pragmatism--among consumers seeking a cure and among general practitioners

  seeking clinical results and more patients--is not a complete explanation

  for the burgeoning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in

  Western societies. Instead, this growth is substantially a result of

  pervasive and rapid social change, alternatively termed 'globalisation'

  and 'postmodernisation'. Globalisation and postmodernisation are creating

  a new social reality, of which a prominent characteristic is the

  proliferation of consumer choice. GPs are enmeshed in this social change

  and subject to the trend to greater choice--both their patients' and their

  own. On the one hand, GPs are reacting to social change as "economic

  pragmatists", responding to consumers' increasing demand for CAM. On the

  other hand, GPs themselves are acting as agents of social change by

  acknowledging the limitations of orthodox biomedical treatments and

  promoting CAM as part of their service delivery. Lack of scientific

  validation of CAM has not prevented GPs' use of such therapies. The phrase

  "clinical legitimacy" can be seen as a trump card that overrides

  "scientific legitimacy". It is the shibboleth of a postmodern movement

  among GPs towards healing and the "art" of medicine, as opposed to the

  "science" of medicine per se. [References: 23]


1985.No Abstract.

1986. Fava GA.  Sonino N. Psychosomatic medicine: emerging trends and perspectives [see comments]. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics.  69(4):184-97, 2000 Jul-Aug.


  Developments have occurred in all aspects of psychosomatic medicine. Among

  factors affecting individual vulnerability to all types of disease, the

  following have been highlighted by recent research: recent and early life

  events, chronic stress and allostatic load, personality, psychological

  well-being, health attitudes and behavior. As to the interaction between

  psychological and biological factors in the course and outcome of disease,

  the presence of psychiatric (DSM-IV) as well as subclinical (Diagnostic

  Criteria for Psychosomatic Research) symptoms, illness behavior and the

  impact on quality of life all need to be assessed. The prevention,

  treatment and rehabilitation of physical illness include the consideration

  for psychosomatic prevention, the treatment of psychiatric morbidity and

  abnormal illness behavior and the use of psychotropic drugs in the

  medically ill. In the past 60 years, psychosomatic medicine has addressed

  some fundamental questions, contributing to the growth of other related

  disciplines, such as psychoneuroendocrinology, psychoimmunology,

  consultation-liaison psychiatry, behavioral medicine, health psychology

  and quality of life research. Psychosomatic medicine may also provide a

  comprehensive frame of reference for several current issues of clinical

  medicine (the phenomenon of somatization, the increasing occurrence of

  mysterious symptoms, the demand for well-being and quality of life),

  including its new dialogue with mind-body and alternative medicine.

  Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel. [References: 186]


1987. No Abstract.


1988. Fries CJ.  Menzies KS. Gullible fools or desperate pragmatists? A profile of people who use   rejected alternative health care providers. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique. 91(3):217-9, 2000 May-Jun.


  Much research on alternative medicine seeks to discover why people use

  practices which orthodox medicine rejects as ineffective: rejected

  alternative medicine. However, to obtain a sample large enough for

  statistical analysis, many studies include as alternative health care,

  practices such as chiropractic or acupuncture which most doctors accept as

  effective for limited purposes: accepted alternative medicine. The 1994-95

  National Population Health Survey shows Canadians who consult rejected

  alternative health care providers compared with those who consult accepted

  health care providers have similar incomes, more education, slightly fewer

  chronic diseases and slightly more good health habits. For both groups,

  alternative health care supplements orthodox health care rather than being

  an alternative to it. Two major differences emerge: women outnumber men

  more than two to one as opposed to being only a slight majority, and usage

  peaks in Quebec, not Western Canada.


1989. Fukutake M.  Miura N.  Yamamoto M.  Fukuda K.  Iijima O.  Ishikawa H.    Kubo M.  Okada M.  Komatsu Y.  Sasaki H.  Wakabayashi K.  Ishige A.   Amagaya S. Suppressive effect of the herbal medicine Oren-gedoku-to on   cyclooxygenase-2 activity and azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci   development in rats. Cancer Letters.  157(1):9-14, 2000 Aug 31.


  The present study is part of a program to obtain effective chemopreventive

  agents with low toxicity from medicinal herbs and traditional herbal

  medicines. We previously reported that Oren (Coptidis rhizoma) and Ogon

  (Scutellariae radix) inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt

  foci (ACF) formation. In the present investigation, we found Sanshishi

  (Gardeniae fructus) and the traditional herbal medicine Oren-gedoku-to

  (OGT), composed of Ogon, Oren, Sanshishi and Obaku, also have preventive

  potential. Sanshishi and OGT decreased the numbers of ACF to 25.2 and

  59.4% of the control value at 2% in the diet, respectively. Adverse

  effects, evidenced by body weight loss, were weaker with OGT than

  component herbs. To investigate their mechanisms of action, the influence

  on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities was

  studied. Both OGT and Sanshishi inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1, this

  presumably contributing to their suppressive effects on ACF development.

  The results suggest that OGT may be useful for colon cancer

  chemoprevention in terms of efficacy and toxicity.


1990.  Furnham A. How the public classify complementary medicine: a factor analytic study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  8(2):82-7, 2000 Jun.


  OBJECTIVES: To see how lay people group or classify various CAM therapies.

  DESIGN: Nearly 600 adults rated 39 relatively familiar branches of

  complementary medicine on four dimensions: whether they had heard of it,

  whether they think they know how it works; whether they had tried it; and

  a rating of efficacy on a 10-point scale. RESULTS: As predicted those most

  heard of were acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal medicine, hypnosis,

  massage and yoga while those with lowest ratings were autogenic training,

  ayurveda, biochemic tissue salts, chelation cell therapy and ozone

  therapy. A number of multivariate statistical techniques were used to

  attempt to investigate the perceived dimensional structure of the

  different therapies. Slightly different structures emerged depending on

  the question asked and the analysis computed. CONCLUSION: The 'bottom-up'

  empirically derived taxonomization of therapies was interpretable and

  showed 10 different factors. The issue of classifying or taxonomizing

  complementary medicines is discussed.


1991.  Garcia-Campayo J.  Sanz-Carrillo C.The use of alternative medicines by somatoform disorder patients in Spain.  British Journal of General Practice.  50(455):487-8, 2000 Jun.


  Somatisation disorder patients show a high rate of alternative medicine  consultations but most of them do not disclose this fact to the doctor   owing to fear of reprisals. The reasons given for using these medicines do   not equate to sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnosis or   personality traits but instead to dissatisfaction with medical care and   with diagnosis. These patients appreciate the longer and more frequent   consultations as well as the better doctor-patient relationship of   alternative medicines.


1992. NO. Abstract.


1993. Gellman H.Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: alternative modalities for pain management.Instructional Course Lectures.  49:549-57, 2000.


  For the patient presenting with early symptoms (< 6 months) I usually

  start treatment with a dose pack of methylprednisolone, analgesics, and

  daily occupational/physical therapy for 2 weeks (Fig. 2). If they do not

  respond within the first week, I add stellate ganglion blocks and

  acupuncture to the treatment regimen. For patients presenting with

  established chronic pain, I immediately start them on a dose pack of

  methylprednisolone for 1 to 2 weeks, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory such

  as indomethacin, 50 mg 3 times a day for 10 days and then switch to 75 mg

  twice daily until there is a response. Amitriptyline is helpful for sleep

  and depression and also has a beneficial effect on blood flow. Calcium

  channel blockers (nifedipine) may help improve peripheral circulation by

  its effect on vascular smooth muscle. In this patient group, I almost

  always start stellate ganglion blocks on the first visit. I have the

  patient try at least 2 blocks before deciding whether or not blocks are

  helpful. Many patients will not respond to the first block, but will start

  to respond after the second block. If the blocks are helping, I recommend

  3 blocks a week, every other day for 3 weeks. Patients get the most

  benefit from their blocks if they have occupational or physical therapy

  immediately following the block. Surgical sympathectomy may be helpful but

  only in patients who have responded to sympathetic blockade.


1994. Geng J.Treatment of 50 cases of senile dementia by acupuncture combined with

  inhalation of herbal drugs and oxygen.Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  19(4):287-9, 1999 Dec.NO. Abstract.


1995.Gilani AH.  Aziz N.  Khan MA.  Shaheen F.  Jabeen Q.  Siddiqui BS.  Herzig  JW. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and   antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L.Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):161-7, 2000 Jul.


  Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae) has been used for a long time in

  traditional medicine as an anticonvulsant and antispasmodic. The

  aqueous-methanolic extract of L. stoechas flowers (LS) was studied for its

  possible anticonvulsant and antispasmodic activities. When tested in mice,

  LS (600 mg/kg) significantly reduced the severity and increased the

  latency of convulsions induced by pentylene tetrazole (PTZ). LS likewise

  reduced PTZ's lethality. LS up to a dose of 600 mg/kg was found devoid of

  any hypnotic effect in mice, however, animals were found to be dull, calm

  and relaxed. The sedative effect of the plant extract was confirmed, as it

  prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time in mice similar to that of

  diazepam. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, LS caused a

  dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/ml) relaxation of spontaneous contractions. LS

  also inhibited K(+)-induced contractions in a similar dose range, thereby

  suggesting calcium channel blockade. This effect was confirmed when

  pretreatment of the jejunum preparation with LS produced a dose-dependent

  shift of the Ca(2+) dose-response curve to the right, similar to the

  effect of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. These data

  indicate that the plant extract exhibits anticonvulsant and antispasmodic

  activities. Its calcium channel blocking property may be mechanistically

  related to these activities. Its usefulness in folk medicine appears thus

  to be based on a sound mechanistic background.


1996. Gotay CC.  Dumitriu D. Health food store recommendations for breast cancer patients.  Archives of Family Medicine.  9(8):692-9, 2000 Aug.


  CONTEXT: Despite cancer patients' widespread and growing use of

  complementary and alternative medicine, minimal attention has been paid to

  the role of health food stores in the "supply side" of this phenomenon.

  OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of health food store personnel's

  recommendations for breast cancer patient care. DESIGN: Researcher posing

  as the daughter of a breast cancer patient and surveying health food store

  personnel on their product recommendations for cancer care. SETTING: Oahu,

  Hawaii, summer 1998. PARTICIPANTS: All health food stores (N = 40)

  offering products for cancer patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recommended

  products and services, proposed mechanism of action, and costs. RESULTS:

  Store personnel readily provided information and product recommendations,

  with shark cartilage being the most frequent. Suggested mechanisms of

  action drew on traditional healing, scientific, and pseudoscientific

  rationales. Costs for recommended dosages varied multifold across stores

  and brands. CONCLUSIONS: Retailers supplying supplements can play an

  important role in the network of "authorities" for patients with breast

  and other cancers, as they readily provide advice and recommend products.

  The reasons why patients seek health food store remedies are useful in

  developing approaches to patient education. Physicians and other providers

  are in a key position to assist cancer patients in making informed choices

  when considering health store products. [References: 33]


1997.  Hajhashemi V.  Sadraei H.  Ghannadi AR.  Mohseni M.  Antispasmodic and anti-diarrhoeal effect of Satureja hortensis L.  essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):187-92, 2000 Jul.


  Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the

  traditional medicine of Iran for treating stomach and intestinal

  disorders. The antispasmodic activity of S. hortensis essential oil (SHEO)

  was assessed on contractions of isolated ileum, induced by KCl and

  acetylcholine, and compared with the effect of atropine and dicyclomine.

  SHEO inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent

  manner (pD(2)=1.55+/-0.09 microg/ml; this is negative log concentration of

  SHEO causing 50% of maximum inhibition) and attenuating the maximum

  inducible response of acetylcholine concentration-response curve. Effect

  of SHEO on KCl was similar to that of dicyclomine. Dicyclomine (3.46 and

  34.6 ng/ml) also reduced the response to acetylcholine on rat isolated

  ileum without altering the maximum response and shifted the acetylcholine

  concentration-response curve to the right by 16-fold at 34.6 ng/ml (100

  nM) bath concentration, while atropine only inhibited the response to

  acetylcholine. This study shows that SHEO is a relaxant of rat isolated

  ileum. In addition to antispasmodic activity in vitro, essential oil of

  this plant at a dose of 0.1 ml/100 g inhibited castor oil induced

  diarrhoea in mice. As the inhibition of contractile overactivity of the

  ileum is the base of the treatment of some gastrointestinal disorders such

  as colic, SHEO may have clinical benefits for treatment of these



1998. Harris P.  Rees R. The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among the  general population: a systematic review of the literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  8(2):88-96, 2000 Jun.


  OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of published research   investigating the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine   (CAM) use in the general population. DESIGN: A protocol was developed for   a systematic review of survey literature identified using two   bibliographic databases and citation tracking. The protocol specified   criteria for: 1) database searches; 2) selection of studies for review;   and 3) description of methodological and substantive aspects of the   studies. RESULTS: Twelve studies were reviewed. These estimated the   prevalence of CAM use in Australia, Canada, Finland, Israel, the UK, and   the USA. The most rigorous studies, conducted in Australia and the USA,   showed that a high proportion of the population was using CAM. There was   evidence from the USA that CAM use increased significantly among the   general population during the 1990s. CONCLUSION: CAM is used by   substantial proportions of the general population of a number of   countries, but differences in study design and methodological limitations   make it difficult to compare prevalence estimates both within and between   countries.


1999. Henderson L.The knowledge and use of alternative therapeutic techniques by social work  practitioners: a descriptive study. Social Work in Health Care.  30(3):55-71, 2000.


  A survey of use of alternative therapeutic methods was distributed to

  1,000 clinical/direct service social work practitioners; a sample of 321

  reported on their use of alternative techniques. Approximately

  three-quarters of the respondcnts used or referred mind-body techniques or

  community health alternatives. These two techniques accounted for about

  two-thirds of all alternative practices. Manual healing was used or

  referred by about one-third of all practitioners and professionalized

  alternative medicine was used by about 30%. Other methods, including

  botanical, pharmacological, and biological alternatives, diet and

  nutrition, and parapsychology were each used by fewer than 10% of the

  respondents. Social workers were most knowledgeable about mind-body

  techniques and community-based alternatives.


2000. Hu J. Acupuncture treatment of dysmenorrhea. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  19(4):313-6, 1999 Dec.


2001.NO. Abstract. 

2002. Kamuhabwa A.  Nshimo C.  de Witte P. Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian   traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  70(2):143-9, 2000 May.


  Using the ethnomedical data approach, some Tanzanian plants that are used

  in Tanzanian traditional medicine for cancer or non-cancer diseases were

  collected and evaluated for cytotoxic activity. The antiproliferative

  effect of the methanolic extracts (10 and 100 microg/ml) of 47 plants was

  evaluated in vitro on three human cell lines (HeLa, cervical carcinoma;

  HT29, colon adenocarcinoma; and A431, skin carcinoma). From the nine

  plants that are used to treat cancer, two plants (22%) exhibited

  pronounced cytotoxic effect (<25% cell proliferation) at least in one of

  the tested cell lines. For the 38 plants that are used to treat non-cancer

  diseases, 14 plants (37%) exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effect (<25% cell

  proliferation). Cell type cytotoxic specificity was observed in some

  extracts. Overall, the A431 cells were much more sensitive to most of the

  extracts than the other cell lines. For the plants that are used as

  anticancer herbal drugs, our results indicate that there is no correlation

  between the reported use of these plants and their cytotoxic activity

  obtained in this study. However, plants that have shown pronounced

  cytotoxic activity will be evaluated further for the possible isolation of

  active antitumor compounds.


2003.Kang TH.  Jeong SJ.  Kim NY.  Higuchi R.  Kim YC. Sedative activity of two flavonol glycosides isolated from the flowers of   Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):321-3, 2000 Jul.


  The flowers of Albizzia julibrissin are used as a sedative in oriental

  traditional medicine. The phytochemical study of this plant allowed the

  isolation of two flavonol glycosides, quercitrin (1) and isoquercitrin

  (2). The sedative activity of these compounds was evaluated, and both

  compounds 1 and 2 increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in

  dose-dependent manner in mice. These results support the use of the

  flowers of this plant as a sedative agent.


2004. NO. Abstract. 

2005. Khrennikov A. Classical and quantum dynamics on p-adic trees of ideas.

Source   Biosystems.  56(2-3):95-120, 2000 Apr-May.


  We propose mathematical models of information processes of unconscious and

  conscious thinking (based on p-adic number representation of mental

  spaces). Unconscious thinking is described by classical cognitive

  mechanics (which generalizes Newton's mechanics). Conscious thinking is

  described by quantum cognitive mechanics (which generalizes the pilot wave

  model of quantum mechanics). The information state and motivation of a

  conscious cognitive system evolve under the action of classical

  information forces and a new quantum information force, namely, conscious

  force. Our model might provide mathematical foundations for some cognitive

  and psychological phenomena: collective conscious behavior, connection

  between physiological and mental processes in a biological organism,

  Freud's psychoanalysis, hypnotism, homeopathy. It may be used as the basis

  of a model of conscious evolution of life.


2006.   Kim SY.  Kang SK.  Lee DG.  Park YG.  Lee YC.  Chung JC.  Kim CH.   Effect of Jindangwon on streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  Life Sciences.  67(11):1251-63, 2000 Aug 4.


  The inhibitory effects of the traditional herbal medicine Jindangwon (JDW)

  on streptozotocin (ST)-induced diabetic mellitus were studied using the

  ST-treated diabetic model. Glucokinase activity of pancreatic islets was

  severely impaired by ST treatment. However, when ST-treated islets were

  treated with 1 mg/ml of JDW, the enzyme activities of glucokinase and

  hexokinase were protected, glucose-6-phosphatase was not. When the effects

  of JDW on ST-induced ATP/ADP ratio of islets were assayed, JDW was

  effective in restoring of ATP/ADP ratio. In addition, ST decreased the

  enzyme activities of PDH, while JDW had a protective effect on the enzyme.

  ST-induced cGMP accumulation was significantly inhibited by JDW treatment.

  Furthermore, ST-induced nitrite formation was significantly inhibited by

  JDW treatment. JDW also showed the suppressed nitrite production in

  ST-treated pancreatic islet cells. When the islets (200/condition) were

  treated with ST (5 mM for 30 min), and then JDW was added to the

  ST-treated cells, 1.0 mg/ml of JDW showed the activated and recovered

  aconitase activity in pancreatic islet cells. When the effect of ST on the

  gene expression of pancreatic GLUT2 and glucokinase were examined, the

  level of GLUT2 and glucokinase mRNA in pancreatic islets was significantly

  decreased. However, JDW protected and improved the expression of protein

  and genes, indicating that JDW is effective on ST-induced inhibition of

  gene expression of GLUT2, glucokinase and proinsulin in islets. These

  results suggested that JDW is effective in this model to treat ST-induced



2007. Li Y.  Peng C. Treatment of 86 cases of facial spasm by acupuncture and pressure on   otopoints. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  20(1):33-5, 2000 Mar.


  The combined method of acupuncture with pressure on otopoints (the

  combination group) was used to treat 86 patients with facial spasm; and

  simple acupuncture and simple pressure on otopoints were respectively

  applied in the other two groups of patients as controls. The total

  effective rates of the combination group, the acupuncture group and the

  pressure on otopoints group were 95.4%, 92.1% and 62.5% respectively; and

  the cure rates were 38.4%, 15.8% and 5% respectively. The differences in

  results of the three groups show statistically marked significance,

  indicating that the therapeutic effectiveness of the combined method of

  acupuncture with pressure on otopoints is better than the other two

  therapeutic methods.


2008. NO. Abstract.


2009. Liu EH.  Turner LM.  Lin SX.  Klaus L.  Choi LY.  Whitworth J.  Ting W.   Oz MC.

Use of alternative medicine by patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery.  120(2):335-41, 2000 Aug.


  OBJECTIVE: Complementary and alternative medicine may influence cardiac

  surgical care by inducing coagulopathies and interacting with

  perioperative medications. We evaluated the significance of complementary

  and alternative medicine use in an acutely ill cardiac surgical population

  and assessed the willingness of patients to reveal these activities to

  their physicians and surgeons. METHODS: A total of 376 consecutive

  patients undergoing preoperative or postoperative cardiothoracic surgical

  evaluations at an urban academic medical center were approached to

  complete a survey regarding use and attitudes toward complementary and

  alternative medicine. All surveys were administered and collected between

  March and May 1998. RESULTS: Completion rate was 70% (n = 263).

  Respondents were predominantly male (72%), white (76%), and well educated

  (59%). The overall rate of complementary and alternative medicine use was

  75%, but excluding prayer and vitamins, which are often not considered

  complementary and alternative medicine therapies, the rate was 44%. There

  was no correlation between the use of complementary and alternative

  medicine and the parameters of gender, age, race, or education level. Only

  17% responded that they had discussed complementary and alternative

  medicine with their physicians, and 48% responded that they did not want

  to discuss the topic at all. CONCLUSIONS: Complementary and alternative

  medicine is used as frequently in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, as

  in the general population. Physicians and surgeons should be aware that

  patients have no inherent predisposition toward or against using

  complementary and alternative medicine, but that they are unlikely to

  volunteer their experience with it. The unwillingness of patients to

  discuss complementary and alternative medicine with physicians has serious

  implications for their safety, especially in acute care situations.


2010.NO. Abstract.


2011.  Liu SY.  Woo SO.  Holmes MJ.  Koh HL. LC and LC-MS-MS analyses of undeclared codeine in antiasthmatic Chinese   proprietary medicine. Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis.  22(3):481-6, 2000 Apr.


  This paper describes an accurate and sensitive reversed phase

  high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the detection

  and quantification of undeclared codeine in a Chinese Proprietary Medicine

  (CPM) for asthma. A rapid and specific liquid chromatography-mass

  spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was applied to confirm

  the presence of codeine by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Codeine was

  extracted from the capsules by dissolving in sodium dihydrogen phosphate

  buffer (10 mM, pH = 2.2) and ethanol, then made alkaline (pH = 9) and

  extracted using chloroform. The amount of codeine in AsthmaWan was found

  to be 61.8 microg/capsule (R.S.D. = 7.9%, n = 9). Excellent resolution was

  obtained despite the complexity of the product which claimed to contain at

  least nine herbal ingredients, none of which will give rise to codeine. As

  a further confirmation method, LC-MS-MS is accurate and specific. The LC

  method has been validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of

  quantification, accuracy and specificity. Greater awareness of and control

  over undeclared drugs in complementary medicine are necessary to ensure

  patients' safety.


2012. Logani S.  Chen MC.  Tran T.  Le T.  Raffa RB. Actions of Ginkgo Biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of   conditions involving cerebral hypoxia.  Life Sciences.  67(12):1389-96, 2000 Aug 11.


  Neuronal hypoxia results from a variety of cerebrovascular accidents or

  'normal' age-associated anatomic changes. The consequences vary from mild

  deficits in neurologic function to massive neuropathology. Present

  pharmacotherapeutic therapy is not ideal. Two apparently disparate

  approaches to the search for better treatment or prevention-one involving

  reassessment of herbal remedies as 'alternative' medicine and the other

  one involving the desirability of increased structural diversity in HTS

  (high-throughput screening) libraries and as combinatorial chemistry

  templates-have converged in a rekindling of interest and a reevaluation of

  the pharmacologic properties of substances such as extract from the leaves

  of Ginkgo biloba Linne (form. Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.). There are

  reports of positive results from a small number of controlled clinical

  trials (albeit with small numbers of patients) sufficient to suggest that

  'Ginkgo' might have therapeutic benefit in some situations or subset of

  patients. The pharmacologic mechanism by which Ginkgo might be able to

  provide the observed effect is not clear. However, it is believed that the

  flavonoid and terpenoid components of Ginkgo extract might produce

  beneficial therapeutic effects through mechanisms acting separately or in

  concert, such as the antagonism of PAF (platelet activating factor),

  antioxidant and metabolic actions, and effects on neurotransmitters. These

  mechanisms are reviewed in this article.


2013.  Malik IA.  Khan NA.  Khan W.  Use of unconventional methods of therapy by cancer patients in Pakistan. European Journal of Epidemiology.  16(2):155-60, 2000 Feb.


  Most of the studies related to the use of unconventional methods of

  therapy by cancer patients have been carried out in the developed

  countries. This study was conducted to ascertain the frequency, type, and

  duration of use of unconventional methods of therapy by cancer patients in

  Pakistan. We also wanted to identify individuals who are most likely to

  use these methods and to compare the findings with those reported from the

  developed countries. Between 1 April and 30 May 1994, all patients with

  histologically proven cancer who visited the oncology unit were

  interviewed. A printed questionnaire with questions and options was used

  as an interview guide. Informed consent was obtained. One hundred and

  ninety-one patients were interviewed, on average, for 25 minutes each. Use

  of unconventional methods of therapy by cancer patients was widespread

  (54.5% of all patients). The majority (83.7%) were influenced by family

  members to use these methods. Traditional herbal medicines (70.2%) and

  homeopathy (64.4%) were the most commonly employed methods. Thirty-six

  percent of the users employed these methods before receiving any

  conventional therapy. Only 15% used these methods after conventional

  therapeutic options had been exhausted. Patients generally perceived these

  methods as useful, non-toxic and inexpensive. Age, marital status,

  socio-economic background, education level and status of underlying

  neoplasm did not influence the frequency of use of unconventional methods.

  The use, however, was influenced by gender, family size, and type of

  underlying malignancy. Patients aware of their diagnosis were less likely

  to use these methods. This study suggests that use of unconventional

  methods by cancer patients in Pakistan is widespread. Unlike western

  countries, these methods are often employed before receiving any

  conventional therapy. This probably results in a significant delay which

  can be expected to adversely influence the subsequent disease management

  and survival. Public education, reduction of cost and easy availability of

  conventional therapy may be helpful in reducing the use of methods which

  otherwise may have no proven value.


2014. Miller MJ.  MacNaughton WK.  Zhang XJ.  Thompson JH.  Charbonnet RM.   Bobrowski P.  Lao J.  Trentacosti AM.  Sandoval M. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal   medicine sangre de grado. American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal & Liver Physiology.    279(1):G192-200, 2000 Jul.


  Sangre de grado is an Amazonian herbal medicine used to facilitate the

  healing of gastric ulcers and to treat gastritis, diarrhea, skin lesions,

  and insect stings. This study was designed to evaluate the

  gastrointestinal applications. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by

  brief serosal exposure of the fundus to acetic acid (80%). Sangre de grado

  was administered in drinking water at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions from

  the postoperative period to day 7. Guinea pig ileum secretory responses to

  capsaicin, electrical field stimulation, and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1)

  agonist [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P were examined in Ussing

  chambers. Sangre de grado facilitated the healing of experimental gastric

  ulcer, reducing myeloperoxidase activity, ulcer size, and bacterial

  content of the ulcer. The expression of proinflammatory genes tumor

  necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin

  (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated by ulcer induction

  but reduced by sangre de grado treatment, particularly iNOS and IL-6. In

  Ussing chambers, sangre de grado impaired the secretory response to

  capsaicin but not to electrical field stimulation or the NK-1 agonist. We

  conclude that sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for

  gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory,

  and sensory afferent-dependent actions.


2015. Montfort H. A new homeopathic approach to neoplastic diseases: from cell destruction   to carcinogen-induced apoptosis [see comments]. British Homoeopathic Journal.  89(2):78-83, 2000 Apr.


  Neoplastic diseases are now among the most commonly seen conditions.

  Orthodox, non-surgical approaches, including chemotherapy and

  radiotherapy, have variable results, but many adverse affects that limit

  their use. These are sometimes the direct cause of death. More patients

  are choosing alternative treatments, mainly the homeopathic and

  herbal-nutrition approach. Homeopathy does not have highly effective

  remedies for cancer in its literature, and has been limited to palliating

  the adverse effects of chemo/radiotherapy. Research into substances that

  can produce neoplastic diseases (carcinogens), may lead to them being used

  to treat the cancer they cause, according to the principle of similarity.

  I have used ultra-low doses (1 x 10(-10) to 10(-12) molar) of chemical

  carcinogens for 3-24 months, which have been given to cancer patients,

  usually in conjunction with conventional treatment. Using this procedure,

  complete remission or life extension has been achieved for some cancer

  cases. Three clinical cases are presented: a man with undifferentiated

  lung cancer; a child with an astrocytoma and a woman with leiomyosarcoma.

  [References: 43]


2016.   Motoo Y.  Su SB.  Xie MJ.  Taga H.  Sawabu N. Effect of herbal medicine Saiko-keishi-to (TJ-10) on rat spontaneous   chronic pancreatitis: comparison with other herbal medicines. International Journal of Pancreatology.  27(2):123-9, 2000 Apr.


  BACKGROUND: In an attempt to obtain evidence of the beneficial effects of

  TJ-10, we investigated the gene expression of PAP, an acute phase protein

  specific for pancreatitis in rat spontaneous chronic pancreatitis.

  METHODS: Four-wk-old male WBN/Kob rats were fed with MB-3 pellet diet

  containing herbal medicine. There were two administration groups for each

  drug: the prophylactic group administered from 4-12 wk, and the

  therapeutic group administered from 12-20 wk. Untreated control rats were

  fed with MB-3 alone. Histopathologic changes and PAP gene expressions were

  analyzed at 12 and 20 wk. RESULTS: In the prophylactic group,

  TJ-10-treated WBN/Kob rats showed no evidence of pancreatitis, and there

  was the amelioration of pancreatitis in the pancreata of the rats treated

  with other herbal medicines except TJ-24 at 12 wk. PAP mRNA was not

  expressed in the TJ-10-treated rats, and PAP gene expression was

  suppressed in rats treated with other drugs except TJ-107. In the

  therapeutic group, the amelioration of pancreatitis was seen only in

  TJ-10-treated rats, but PAP gene expression was significantly suppressed

  in the rats treated with all herbal medicines tested, compared with that

  in untreated control rats. CONCLUSION: An herbal medicine Saiko-keishi-to

  (TJ-10) delayed the onset of chronic pancreatitis in the WBN/Kob rat, and

  suppressed the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene expression more

  significantly than other herbal medicines.


2017. Nagashayana N.  Sankarankutty P.  Nampoothiri MR.  Mohan PK.  Mohanakumar

  KP. Association of L-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in

  Parkinson's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences.  176(2):124-7, 2000 Jun 15.


  Ayurveda, the Indian system of traditional medicine, uses a concoction of

  several spices, herbs and minerals for the treatment of diseases. In a

  clinical prospective study we have evaluated the efficacy of Ayurveda

  treatment (a concoction in cow's milk of powdered Mucuna pruriens and

  Hyoscyamus reticulatus seeds and Withania somnifera and Sida cordifolia

  roots) in 18 clinically diagnosed (with a mean Hoen and Yahr value of

  2.22) parkinsonian patients. As per Ayurveda principles, 13 patients

  underwent both cleansing (for 28 days) and palliative therapy (56 days), 5

  patients underwent palliative therapy alone (84 days). Only the former

  group showed significant improvement in activities of daily living (ADL)

  and on motor examination as per UPDRS rating. Symptomatically, they

  exhibited better response in tremor, bradykinesia, stiffness and cramps as

  compared to the latter group. Excessive salivation worsened in both the

  groups. Analyses of powdered samples in milk, as administered in patients,

  revealed about 200 mg of L-DOPA per dose. The study establishes the

  necessity of cleansing therapy in Ayurveda medication prior to palliative

  therapy. It also reveals contribution of L-DOPA in the recovery as

  observed in Parkinson' disease following Ayurveda medication.


2018. Nasir L. Reconnoitering the antivaccination web sites: news from the front. Journal of Family Practice.  49(8):731-3, 2000 Aug.


  BACKGROUND: In the United States, Western Europe and other areas, groups

  opposing universal childhood immunization are reported to be gaining

  political momentum. METHODS: A review was done of Internet sites opposing

  childhood immunization, with the goal of describing the philosophies and

  strategies used by the groups presenting them. A random sample of

  antivaccination Web sites was obtained using standard Internet search

  engines and the search terms "vaccination" and "immunization." These sites

  were analyzed for content, common themes, philosophy, affiliation with

  groups or organizations, and suggested strategies for avoiding

  vaccination. RESULTS: Twenty-six of the 51 sites found were randomly

  selected for review. Fifteen of these were associated with groups

  promoting the use of alternative medicine for preventing or treating

  infectious disease. Groups concerned with civil liberties were also

  represented, as were conspiracy theorists. CONCLUSIONS: Many groups have

  an interest in opposing universal childhood immunization, and some of them

  have a prominent presence on the Internet. Physicians and parents should

  be aware of the existence of these groups and their philosophies. Further

  research and educational efforts to counter their effects is necessary.


2019. Nilsson R. Endocrine modulators in the food chain and environment. Toxicologic Pathology.  28(3):420-31, 2000 May-Jun.


  Recently, considerable attention has been focused on certain environmental

  contaminants--"endocrine disruptors"--of industrial origin that may mimic

  the action of sex hormones. Natural compounds and their effects on other

  types of hormonal activity (eg, on adrenal or thyroid function) have for

  some reason not provoked similar attention. As exemplified by tributyltin

  and certain bioaccumulating chlorinated compounds, available evidence

  indicates that "endocrine disruption" caused by xenobiotics is primarily

  an ecotoxicologic problem. In mammals, certain phenylmethyl-substituted

  siloxanes have been found to be by far the most potent endocrine

  disrupters among various synthetic xenobiotics. On the other hand, it has

  not been possible to scientifically substantiate either certain alarming

  reports of powerful synergistic effects between chlorinated pesticides or

  the alleged adverse effects on the male reproductive tract in rodents

  (induced by alkylphenols and plasticizers at extremely low exposures).

  Whereas there is compelling evidence that estrogens in certain foods and

  herbal medicines can induce hormonal changes in women as well as overt

  toxicity in men, existing data are insufficient to support a causal

  relationship between exposure of the general human population to

  nonpharmaceutical industrial chemicals and adverse effects operating via

  the endocrine system. Moreover, in terms of magnitude and extent, all such

  exposures to so-called endocrine disruptors are dwarfed by the extensive

  use of oral contraceptives and estrogens for treatment of menopausal and

  postmenopausal disorders. Also, the exposure to hormonally active

  xenobiotics is virtually insignificant when compared with the intake of

  the phytoestrogens that are present in food and beverages, and it is even

  more insignificant when compared with certain herbal potions used in

  "alternative medicine." Furthermore, while there has been much concern

  about negligible exposures to xenobiotics with weak hormonelike

  activities, the potent endocrine disruptor licorice is freely given to

  children. Long-term exposure to this substance induces severe toxic

  symptoms of mineral corticoid hormone imbalance. Although exposures to

  xenobiotics and many natural compounds occur by identical routes of

  administration and may contribute to the same toxicological end point,

  they are, regrettably, judged by completely different standards. As is the

  case with all other chemicals, rational risk assessment and risk

  management of man-made and natural endocrine modulators must be based on

  the mode of action and dose-response relationships. Such end points as the

  induction of reproductive developmental effects, cancer, etc, relating to

  actual exposures must also be taken into consideration. [References: 77]


2020. Patil S.  Kanase A.  Kulkarni PH. Antianaemic properties of ayurvedic drugs, raktavardhak, punarnavasav and   navayas louh in albino rats during phenylhydrazine induced haemolytic   anaemia.Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.  38(3):253-7, 2000 Mar.


  Single injection of phenylhydrazine[PH] reduced the number of RBC and

  haemoglobin content; decreased myeloid; erythroid cell ratio in bone

  marrow and increased Cathepsin D activity in spleen of rats. Ayurvedic

  drugs raktavardhak, punarnavasav and navayas louh recovered the number of

  RBC and haemoglobin content and raised myeloid: erythroid cell ratio and

  normalised cathepsin D activities by counteracting the action phenyl

  hydrazine. The results confirm the claims of ayurveda that these drugs

  possess the potency to cure anaemia through protection of RBCs from

  haemolysis and simultaneously lowering cathepsin D activities from the



2021. NO abstract.


2022.   Perry R.  Dowrick CF. Complementary medicine and general practice: an urban perspective. Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  8(2):71-5, 2000 Jun.


  BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine appears to be an increasingly popular

  option amongst both doctors and patients. General practitioners in more

  affluent parts of Britain have showed considerable interest in its use.

  OBJECTIVES: To ascertain use of and attitudes towards complementary

  medicine, amongst general practitioners working in a socioeconomically

  deprived urban area. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey of all general

  practice principles in Liverpool, using freepost envelopes and one

  reminder after 3 weeks. With respect to eight common complementary

  therapies, respondents were asked whether they treat with, refer to or

  endorse each therapy; for their views on NHS funding, effectiveness,

  adverse reactions, training needs, and theoretical validity, for each

  therapy. RESULTS: The response rate was 131/252 (52%), higher amongst

  women and doctors aged under 40. During the previous week 74 (56%) of

  respondents had been involved in complementary medical activity with their

  patients: 13% had treated directly, 31% had referred to and 38% had

  endorsed one or more complementary therapies. Acupuncture was most popular

  as an NHS option, and along with osteopathy and chiropractic was the

  therapy most highly regarded by respondents in terms of effectiveness.

  Homeopathy and hypnotherapy received a mixed reaction, while medical

  herbalism, aromatherapy and reflexology were viewed more sceptically.

  Sixty-two per cent of respondents reported successful outcomes of

  complementary treatments, compared with 21% reporting adverse reactions.

  Knowledge and training desires were highest for homeopathy and

  acupuncture. Respondents were generally uncertain about the theoretical

  validity of these therapies: 50% though acupuncture had a valid basis,

  compared with only 23% for homeopathy and 8% for reflexology. CONCLUSIONS:

  The degree of support for complementary medicine therapies amongst general

  practitioners in this socioeconomically deprived urban area was similar to

  that found elsewhere in Britain. These general practitioners appeared to

  tolerate high levels of clinical uncertainty, endorsing a wide range of

  therapies, despite little knowledge of their content or conviction of

  their validity.


2023. Petry JJ. Surgery and complementary therapies: a review.  Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  6(5):64-74, 2000 Sep.


  The incorporation of complementary therapies into the surgical setting has

  been slow compared to that of other areas of conventional medicine. This

  paper summarizes the available information on complementary therapies in

  surgery from a broad range of sources in the medical literature. The

  effects of psychological distress on the surgical patient and potential

  relief from that distress by such methods as relaxation techniques,

  hypnosis, suggestion, and imagery, as well as the role of coping style and

  locus of control on choice of therapy are reviewed. The role of

  acupuncture, music, massage therapy, therapeutic touch, and Reiki, as well

  as the use of herbs and supplements in modifying surgical outcome, is

  explored. [References: 111]


2024. No abstract.


2025. No abstract.


2026. Rees RW.  Feigel I.  Vickers A.  Zollman C.  McGurk R.  Smith C. Prevalence of complementary therapy use by women with breast cancer. A   population-based survey.European Journal of Cancer.  36(11):1359-64, 2000 Jul.


  The study measured the prevalence and costs of complementary therapy use

  by women diagnosed with breast cancer in the South Thames NHS region. A

  postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of 1023 women from the Thames

  Cancer Registry who had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the previous

  7 years. Just over a fifth (22.4%) had consulted a complementary

  practitioner in the previous 12 months. Almost one third (31.5%) had done

  so since diagnosis. Almost pound17000 had been spent on visits in the

  previous year. The women using complementary medicine after diagnosis were

  slightly younger, more educated and more likely to have used complementary

  medicine before their diagnosis than non-complementary medicine users. In

  conclusion, significant numbers of women are visiting complementary

  therapists for health reasons following a breast cancer diagnosis. The out

  of pocket costs per user, with notable exceptions, are modest. Use of

  practitioners of complementary therapies following diagnosis is a

  significant and possibly growing phenomenon.


2027. Saiki I.A Kampo medicine "Juzen-taiho-to"--prevention of malignant progression and

  metastasis of tumor cells and the mechanism of action.  Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin.  23(6):677-88, 2000 Jun.


  Juzen-taiho-to is a Kampo (Japanese and Chinese traditional) medicine, and

  is a nourishing agent, a so-called "Hozai" (in Japanese), that is used for

  improving disturbances and imbalances in the homeostatic condition of the

  body. This drug is administered to patients in various weakened

  conditions, including post-surgery patients and patients with chronic

  illnesses, where it can alleviate general symptoms such as extreme

  fatigue, pale complexion, loss of appetite, dry or scaly skin, night

  sweating, and dryness of the mouth. Currently, Juzen-taiho-to is often

  administered to cancer patients, and has been shown to possess various

  biological activities, such as enhancement of phagocytosis, cytokine

  induction, antibody production, induction of the mitogenic activity of

  spleen cells, anti-tumor effects when combined with surgical excision,

  anti-tumor effects with or without other drugs, and protection against the

  deleterious effects of anti-cancer drugs as well as radiation-induced

  immunosuppression and bone marrow toxicity. This article focuses on the

  antitumor and antimetastatic properties of Kampo formulations and

  describes the effect of Juzen-taiho-to and related formulations on tumor

  development, progression and metastasis in vivo. We also discuss the

  mechanism of the inhibitory action and the importance of the formulation

  and the constituent drugs in determining the efficacy. [References: 59]


2028. Sakamoto S.  Sassa S.  Kudo H.  Suzuki S.  Mitamura T.  Shinoda H. Preventive effects of a herbal medicine on bone loss in rats treated with  a GnRH agonist. European Journal of Endocrinology.  143(1):139-42, 2000 Jul.


  The study was designed to evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese

  herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zong-yi-qi-tang), which was composed of

  10 herbal medicines and had been used for the treatment of oligospermia

  and as a postoperative medication in Japan, on bone loss in rats treated

  with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Female rats at 40

  weeks of age were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats each. In the three

  experimental groups, each animal received subcutaneous injections of the

  long-acting GnRH agonist, buserelin acetate, once every four weeks

  throughout the experiment. Beginning at 48 weeks of age, the experimental

  groups were given diets containing conjugated estrogens or Hochu-ekki-to

  for 8 weeks. The administration of the GnRH agonist reduced the bone

  mineral density in the whole femur to 91.0% of that in the control group.

  However, administration of conjugated estrogens and Hochu-ekki-to

  increased the serum concentrations of estradiol 16.8- and 5.3-fold

  respectively compared with concentrations in the GnRH agonist-treated

  group, resulting in the augmentation of the bone mineral density to 110.3%

  and 106.2% respectively. These findings indicate that Hochu-ekki-to

  enhances the reduced bone mineral density and causes a slight elevation of

  the serum estradiol levels in the chemically castrated rats.


2029. Scartezzini P.  Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant   activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):23-43, 2000 Jul.


  A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are

  present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health

  care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting

  antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic

  Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly

  investigated. In the present paper seven plants (Emblica officinalis L.,

  Curcuma longa L., Mangifera indica L., Momordica charantia L., Santalum

  album L., Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) are

  viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical

  and pharmacological aspects. The plants described contain antioxidant

  principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine

  in the past as well as the present. In order to identify the plants with

  antioxidant activity in Ayurveda, a formulation of some rasayanas with

  well defined antioxidant properties has been examinated. For this purpose,

  we have considered Sharma's work on the preparation MAK4, MAK5, MA631, MA

  471, MA Raja's Cup, MA Student Rasayana, MA Ladies Rasayana. [References:



2030. Schaffner KF. Medical informatics and the concept of disease. Theoretical Medicine & Bioethics.  21(1):85-101, 2000 Jan.


  This paper attempts to address the general question whether information

  technologies, as applied in the area of medicine and health care, have or

  are likely to change fundamental concepts regarding disease and health.

  After a short excursion into the domain of medical informatics I provide a

  brief overview of some of the current theories of what a disease is from a

  more philosophical perspective, i.e. the "value free" and "value laden"

  view of disease. Next, I consider at some length, whether health care

  informatics is currently modifying fundamental concepts of disease. To

  this question I will answer largely in the negative, and I will provide

  the sketch of some arguments from current research programs in medical

  informatics why I think this is the case. This argumentation is supported

  by a detailed account of how the disease profile for beriberi heart

  disease, used in one of the major medical informatics diagnostic programs,

  QMR (and its ancestor INTERNIST-1), was developed, and why at least this

  program essentially follows received views of traditional medicine. The

  one main exception to the conformity of this program to "received" views

  of a disease occurs when the program's designers need to fine-tune a

  disease definition. This fine-tuning is to comport with the expert's

  perspective on the disease, including his or her epistemic values, as well

  as the program's other resources for diagnosing components of a disease.


2031. Shao Y.  Shan B. A survey on acupuncture treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  19(3):221-6, 1999 Sep.


2032. Shen YC.  Chen CF.  Chiou WF. Suppression of rat neutrophil reactive oxygen species production and   adhesion by the diterpenoid lactone andrographolide. Planta Medica.  66(4):314-7, 2000 May.


  The present study was to examine whether andrographolide, a diterpenoid

  lactone isolated from the anti-inflammatory herbal medicine Andrographis

  paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. (Acanthaceae), has the ability to prevent

  phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species

  (ROS) production, as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine

  (fMLP)-induced adhesion by rat neutrophils. Results demonstrated that PMA

  (100 ng/ml) induced rapid accumulation of H2O2 and O2. in neutrophils

  within 30 minutes. Andrographolide (0.1 to 10 microM) pretreatment (10

  min, 37 degrees C) significantly attenuated the accumulation of these two

  oxygen radical metabolites. Administration of andrographolide also

  significantly prevented fMLP-induced neutrophil adhesion. These data

  suggest that preventing ROS production and neutrophils adhesion may confer

  andrographolide the ability to be an anti-inflammatory drug.


2033. Sheu JR.  Kan YC.  Hung WC.  Lin CH.  Yen MH. The antiplatelet activity of tetramethylpyrazine is mediated through   activation of NO synthase. Life Sciences.  67(8):937-47, 2000 Jul 14.


  Tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) is an active ingredient of a Chinese herbal

  medicine (Ligusticum wallichii Franchat). In this study, TMPZ (50-200

  microM) significantly increased production of nitrate and cyclic GMP in

  human platelets within a 15-min incubation period. TMPZ

  concentration-dependently inhibited intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in

  human platelets stimulated by collagen (5 microg/ml). Furthermore, TMPZ

  concentration (50 and 200 microM)- and time (15 and 30 min)-dependently

  triggered endothelial-type constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS)

  protein expression in human platelets. These results indicated that TMPZ

  at micromolar concentrations stimulated nitric oxide production in human

  platelets via a novel mechanism that activated ecNOS protein expression.


2034. Silvert M. Acupuncture wins BMA approval [news]. BMJ.  321(7252):11, 2000 Jul 1.


2035. Sollner W.  Maislinger S.  DeVries A.  Steixner E.  Rumpold G.  Lukas P. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients is not  associated with perceived distress or poor compliance with standard   treatment but with active coping behavior: a survey. Cancer.  89(4):873-80, 2000 Aug 15.


  BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often used by

  cancer patients. Data on characteristics of users, concomitant psychologic

  disturbance, and compliance with standard treatment continue to be

  controversial. Use of and interest in CAM and their correlation with

  psychologic disturbance, ways of coping with illness, and compliance with

  standard treatment were examined in this study. METHODS: The authors

  conducted a survey in a consecutive sample of 205 cancer patients

  undergoing radiotherapy, using a structured questionnaire to record use of

  and interest in CAM, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the

  Hornheide Questionnaire to assess patient distress and social support, and

  the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness. RESULTS: Of the 172

  participants, 24.4% (response rate, 83.9%) reported use of CAM, and 31.4%

  reported not having used but being interested in such methods. Logistic

  regression analysis including clinical, demographic, and psychologic

  characteristics as independent variables yielded 3 predictors of use of or

  interest in CAM: younger age (P = 0.004; odds ratio (OR), 0.96),

  progressive cancer (P = 0.064; OR, 1.47), and active coping behavior (P =

  0.016; OR, 1.65). Patients interested in or using CAM did not show more

  psychologic disturbance, poorer social support, or less trust in medicine

  or compliance with radiotherapy than subjects without such interest.

  CONCLUSIONS: Use of CAM by cancer patients is not associated with

  perceived distress or poor compliance with medical treatment but with

  active coping behavior. Patients seem to consider CAM as supplementary to

  standard medical methods and one way of avoiding passivity and of coping

  with feelings of hopelessness. Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.


2037.   Sparber A.  Bauer L.  Curt G.  Eisenberg D.  Levin T.  Parks S.  Steinberg

  SM.  Wootton J. Use of complementary medicine by adult patients participating in cancer   clinical trials. Oncology Nursing Forum.  27(4):623-30, 2000 May.


  PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence, demographic correlates,

  patterns of use, and beliefs about complementary and alternative medicine

  (CAM) therapies of adult patients enrolled in National Cancer Institute

  (NCI) clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive

  survey. SETTING: W.G. Magnuson Clinical Center of the National Institutes

  of Health in Bethesda, MD. SAMPLE: Convenience sample of 100

  English-speaking, adult patients with cancer admitted to intramural

  clinical trials. METHODS: A standardized, 99-item questionnaire assessing

  use of CAM therapies pre- and postcancer diagnosis was administered by

  face-to-face interview. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Use of CAM therapies,

  beliefs, communication with physician. FINDINGS: 63% used at least one CAM

  therapy, with an average use of two therapies per patient. Men were

  significantly less likely to use a therapy than women; women were more

  likely to use numerous therapies. Cancer diagnosis seems to have had no

  influence overall on the frequency of use of CAM therapies. The major

  reasons stated for CAM use were for treatment-related medical conditions

  as well as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. The most frequently reported

  therapies were spiritual, relaxation, imagery, exercise, lifestyle diet

  (e.g., macrobiotic, vegetarian), and nutritional supplementation. Patients

  unanimously believed that these complementary therapies helped to improve

  their quality of life through more effective coping with stress,

  decreasing the discomforts of treatment and illness, and giving them a

  sense of control. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer use various

  complementary therapies to cope with their disease and the rigors of

  clinical trials. Women and those with higher educational backgrounds were

  more frequent users. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses who provide

  care to subjects of biomedical research have an opportunity and

  responsibility regarding their patients' use of CAM therapies. Nurses may

  use in-house resources to help evaluate subjects' use of a CAM modality or

  to provide quality-of-life therapies such as relaxation, imagery, or

  healing touch. Discussing these health practices in a nonjudgmental manner

  adds to the assessment of patients' coping skills and ability to make

  decisions about their health care.


2038. Stone J. Government plans to regulate voluntary and private healthcare. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery.  5(6):155-8, 1999 Dec.


  A recent Government consultation document has recommended proposals to

  dramatically extend protection for patients in the private sector. It has

  invited comments on whether these proposals should be extended to the

  complementary medicine sector. The provision include the creation of a new

  regulatory body, quality assurance mechanisms and a new complaints system.

  The lack of coherence within complementary medicine means that there has

  been very little consultation with therapists or their professional

  bodies. This article outlines the main proposals and calls for the

  creation of a pan-professional organization to assume trade union

  functions to ensure that in future complementary therapists gain a

  political voice over matters which directly affect their practice.

  [References: 4]


2039. Thompson E.  Kassab S. Homeopathy in cancer care [editorial; comment]. British Homoeopathic Journal.  89(2):61-2, 2000 Apr.


2040. Toda S.  Yase Y.  Shirataki Y.Inhibitory effects of astragali radix, crude drug in Oriental medicines on   lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification of mouse brain   homogenate by copper. Phytotherapy Research.  14(4):294-6, 2000 Jun.


  Astragali Radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, is a crude

  drug used widely in Oriental medicines. It is a major component of

  Ougi-Keishi-gomotsu-to, a traditional herbal medicine, used for neurop

  patients with abnormal sensations and neuropathic pain of the legs. It was

  shown to have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and protein

  oxidative modification by copper. The effects were similar to and stronger

  than those of mannitol and superoxide dismutase as free radical

  scavengers. These results demonstrated that Astragali Radix has inhibitory

  effects on oxidative stress induced by metal. Copyright 2000 John Wiley &

  Sons, Ltd.


2041. Toriizuka K.  Hou P.  Yabe T.  Iijima K.  Hanawa T.  Cyong JC. Effects of Kampo medicine, Toki-shakuyaku-san (Tang-Kuei-Shao-Yao-San), on   choline acetyltransferase activity and norepinephrine contents in brain   regions, and mitogenic activity of splenic lymphocytes in ovariectomized   mice.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):133-43, 2000 Jul.


  We investigated the effects of Toki-shakuyaku-san (TSS,

  Tang-Kuei-Shao-Yao-San in Chinese), Japanese traditional herbal medicine,

  on the nervous and immune systems in ovariectomized mice as a climacteric

  disorder model. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and TSS was

  given daily through the drinking water for either 10 or 20 days from the

  day after ovariectomy. After completion of experimental sessions, animals

  were sacrificed and specific brain regions were assayed for choline

  acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and norepinephrine contents. The

  mitogenic activities, alkaline phosphatase activity and 3-(4,

  5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H terazolium bromide (MTT) activity,

  in splenic lymphocytes has also measured. Furthermore, the effects of TSS

  on learning and memory ability were studied by the step-through type

  passive avoidance test. As the results, the administration of TSS

  significantly suppressed the decrease of ChAT activity in the cerebral

  cortex (CC) and the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of ovariectomized mice at 10

  days after ovariectomy, however no significant effect was observed at 20

  days after ovariectomy. Norepinephrine contents in OVX group were

  decreased at 10 and 20 days after ovariectomy in the CC and the ventral

  hippocampus (VH). The administration of TSS significantly suppressed the

  decrease of norepinephrine contents at 20 days after ovariectomy. The

  mitogenic activities of lymphocyte in spleen were increased at 10 days

  after ovariectomy, and decreased at 20 days after ovariectomy. However,

  the suppression of these changes was observed in the group given TSS. The

  mean latent period was also shortened in the passive avoidance test in the

  OVX group, but TSS treated group improved mean latency. From these

  observations, it is inferred that administration of TSS brings on the

  synthesis of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the CC and hippocampus,

  and may improve the memory related behavior and the abnormalities in

  lymphocytes in the models of the climacteric disorder.


2042. Tsen LC.  Segal S.  Pothier M.  Bader AM. Alternative medicine use in presurgical patients. Anesthesiology.  93(1):148-51, 2000 Jul.


  BACKGROUND: A dramatic increase in the use of complementary and

  alternative medicines has been observed. The use of such remedies in the

  presurgical population has implications for the anesthesiologist because

  of the potential for drug interactions, side effects, and medical

  liability. This study was undertaken to quantify the use of herbal

  remedies and vitamins in the presurgical population of a large tertiary

  care center. METHODS: A one-page questionnaire was distributed to all

  patients presenting for evaluation in the preoperative clinic over an

  11-week period. Patients answered questions regarding use of prescription

  and nonprescription medications, herbal remedies, and vitamins. RESULTS:

  Twenty-two percent of presurgical patients reported the use of herbal

  remedies, and 51% used vitamins. Women and patients aged 40-60 yr were

  more likely to use herbal medicines. Over-the-counter medication use was

  strongly associated with herbal preparation use. The most commonly used

  compounds, from highest to lowest, included echinacea, gingko biloba, St.

  John's wort, garlic, and ginseng. CONCLUSIONS: Alternative medicine use is

  common in the preoperative period.


2043. van Haselen RA.  Fisher PA. A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a   homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology (Oxford).  39(7):714-9, 2000 Jul.


  OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel vs an

  NSAID (piroxicam) gel in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.

  METHOD.: One hundred and eighty-four out-patients with radiographically

  confirmed symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee were entered into a

  pragmatic, randomized, double-blind controlled trial and treated with 1 g

  of gel three times daily for 4 weeks. Main outcome measures were pain on

  walking as a Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and a single-joint Ritchie index.

  RESULTS.: One hundred and seventy-two of the 184 enrolled patients had

  endpoints for the main outcome parameters. The pain reduction was 16.5 mm

  VAS in the homeopathy group (n = 86) and 8.1 mm in the piroxicam group (n

  = 86); the difference between treatment groups was 8.4 mm (95% confidence

  interval 0.8-15.9), and after adjustment for pain at baseline it was 6.8

  mm (95% confidence interval -0.3 to 13.8). There was no significant

  difference between treatment groups in the single-joint Ritchie index (P =

  0.78). Adverse events occurred in 28 patients (12 homeopathy group, 5

  withdrawn; 16 piroxicam group, 9 withdrawn); 18 of the events involved a

  local reaction (7 homeopathy group, 2 withdrawn; 11 piroxicam group, 5

  withdrawn). CONCLUSION.: The homeopathic gel was at least as effective and

  as well tolerated as the NSAID gel. The presence of a clinically relevant

  difference between treatment groups cannot be excluded. The homeopathic

  gel supplemented by simple analgesics if required may provide a useful

  treatment option for patients with osteoarthritis.


2044. Veale DJ.  Oliver DW.  Havlik I. The effects of herbal oxytocics on the isolated "stripped" myometrium  model.Life Sciences.  67(11):1381-8, 2000 Aug 4.


  Decoctions of Agapanthus africanus and Clivia miniata are used as oxytocic

  agents in South African traditional herbal medicine. Aqueous extracts of

  A. africanus and C. miniata leaves have been shown to possess similar

  uterotonic activities in the isolated whole uterus preparation. The uterus

  however, comprises a myometrial and an endometrial layer and the activity

  of both oxytocin and the prostaglandins differs in these layers. The aim

  of this study was to determine the uterotonic activity of the herbal

  remedies in an endometrium-free preparation (i.e. "stripped" myometrium)

  and, if active, whether this effect could be related to prostaglandin

  synthesis or to interaction with specific receptors. The effects of the

  herbal extracts were tested on the isolated "stripped" rat myometrium

  preparation. Both herbal extracts caused a direct contractile response by

  the isolated tissue. Pretreatment of the myometrium with either plant

  extract augmented the initial response to acetylcholine. Preincubation

  with atropine inhibited the response to cumulative dosage of Agapanthus

  extract but had no effect on the response to Clivia. Indomethacin

  administration did not affect the response of the myometrium to cumulative

  dosage of acetylcholine, oxytocin or Clivia extract but inhibited the

  response to Agapanthus extract. These results clearly indicate that the

  Agapanthus and Clivia herbal extracts exhibited uterotonic activity in

  this model. The study illustrates that the "stripped" myometrium model has

  successfully differentiated between the mechanisms of action of two herbal

  oxytocics compared to the whole uterus preparation where their uterotonic

  activity was thought to be similar.


2045. Villena C.  Vivas JM.  Villar AM. Suppression of croton oil-induced rabbit corneal edema by sideritis   javalambrensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  71(1-2):301-5, 2000 Jul.


  This investigation was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity

  of the aqueous and hexane extracts of Sideritis javalambrensis, to which

  pharmacological properties have been attributed in Spanish traditional

  medicine. The extracts were applied as eye drops in a croton oil-induced

  corneal edema model in rabbits. Corneal thickness was estimated before the

  induction of inflammation and 3, 6, 8, 12, 48, 72 and 96 h after

  induction. Significant inflammation inhibition percentages were shown

  during both the acute and chronic stages of inflammation by both extracts

  and by the reference drug dexamethasone, with most therapeutic effect

  shown during the chronic phase. However, the hexane extract exhibited

  potent anti-inflammatory activity from 6 to 24 h post-induction, achieving

  greater percentage inhibition values during this stage than those obtained

  for dexamethasone.


2046. Webster GJ.  Hallett R.  Whalley SA.  Meltzer M.  Balogun K.  Brown D. Farrington CP.  Sharma S.  Hamilton G.  Farrow SC.  Ramsay ME.  Teo CG.   Dusheiko GM. Molecular epidemiology of a large outbreak of hepatitis B linked to   autohaemotherapy. Lancet  356(9227):379-84, 2000 Jul 29.


  BACKGROUND: Unregulated skin-piercing procedures potentially facilitate

  the transmission of bloodborne pathogens. In February, 1998, a patient who

  had recently received autohaemotherapy at an alternative medicine clinic

  in the UK was diagnosed with acute hepatitis B. The autohaemotherapy

  procedure involved the drawing of 1 mL of the patient's blood, mixing with

  saline, and reinjection of the autologous blood mixture. We investigated

  the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients and staff of

  the clinic. METHODS: Patients who had attended the clinic between January,

  1997, and February, 1998, were tested for serological markers of HBV, and

  for HBV DNA by PCR. HBV DNA was sequenced to assess the relatedness of the

  virus identified in the cases. We analysed the number and dates of visits

  with regard to HBV status. FINDINGS: Serum samples were received from 352

  patients and four staff members. Serological evidence of exposure to HBV

  was found in 57 (16%). Of the 33 patients and staff who were positive for

  hepatitis B surface antigen, 30 (91%) showed complete nucleotide identity

  in the DNA segments derived from the surface and core genes. Five patients

  with linked infection had markers of chronic hepatitis B, and one of these

  was regarded as the likely source of the outbreak. The attack rate was

  associated with the number of visits (p<0.0001) and the week of visit

  (p=0.011). Contaminated saline in a repeatedly used bottle was the

  probable vehicle of transmission. INTERPRETATION: We have described a

  large community-based outbreak of hepatitis B due to transmission by a

  single HBV variant. Our findings emphasise the continuing risk of

  transmission of bloodborne viruses in all health-care settings where

  skin-piercing procedures are used.


2047. White AR.  Ernst E.Economic analysis of complementary medicine: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  8(2):111-8, 2000 Jun.


  OBJECTIVE: To review systematically all reports of economic analysis of

  complementary and alternative medicine. METHOD : Searches were performed

  in Medline, Embase and AMED for reports of cost description, cost

  comparison, cost effectiveness, or cost benefit studies. Prospective

  studies that investigated comparative groups were considered to be of

  higher quality. RESULTS: A total of 34 reports was included. Retrospective

  studies in which a range of therapies are provided in primary care suggest

  that these may reduce referral and treatment costs, but prospective

  studies suggest that complementary medicine is an additional expense and

  does not substitute for orthodox care. For individual therapies, one

  thorough but retrospective study suggests that carefully targeted

  acupuncture may reduce referral costs for musculoskeletal problems. One

  large pragmatic study of spinal manipulative therapy suggests that this

  treatment may reduce the societal costs of back pain, but four controlled

  trials found that manipulative therapy does not reduce the costs incurred

  by the back pain patients themselves or by their health insurance

  provider. CONCLUSION: Spinal manipulative therapy for back pain may offer

  cost savings to society, but it does not save money for the purchaser.

  There is a paucity of rigorous studies that could provide conclusive

  evidence of differences in costs and outcomes between other complementary

  therapies and orthodox medicine. The evidence from methodologically flawed

  studies is contradicted by more rigorous studies, and there is a need for

  high quality investigations of the costs and benefits of complementary

  medicine. [References: 46]


2048.Wu J.  Guo Z. Twenty-three cases of postherpetic neuralgia treated by acupuncture. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  20(1):36-7, 2000 Mar.


2049. Xu H. A summary of clinical treatment for 58 cases of hemiplegia with   electro-acupuncture and massage. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  20(1):48-50, 2000 Mar.


2050. Yamey G. Can complementary medicine be evidence-based? [editorial]. Western Journal of Medicine.  173(1):4-5, 2000 Jul.


2051. Yi-Kai L.  Xueyan A.  Fu-Gen W. Silver needle therapy for intractable low-back pain at tender point after   removal of nucleus pulposus. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics.  23(5):320-3, 2000   Jun.


  OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of a new silver needle therapy for treating

  tender points involved in intractable low-back pain after removal of

  nucleus pulposus. SUBJECTS: The study involved 24 patients (17 men and 7

  women) aged 26 to 67 years with a mean age of 54.5 +/- 5 years. SETTINGS:

  The Department of Orthopedics at the First Military Medical University,

  the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at the General Hospital of PLA

  in Beijing, and the Department of Acupuncture, the First People's Hospital

  in Kunming City, People's Republic of China, were the settings for this

  study. METHODS: The patients were treated with traditional silver needle

  therapy at tender points in the low back and buttocks. Pain at each of the

  tender points was measured before and after treatment; the scores were

  compared with a Student t test. RESULTS: The therapeutic results suggest

  that the total scores for each tender point after treatment were

  significantly lower than those taken before treatment (P <.001).

  CONCLUSION: Silver needle therapy shows promise for treating low-back pain

  after surgery for disc herniation. Further clinical trials are needed to

  confirm the effectiveness of this treatment.


2052. Zhang Y.  Wu GC.  He QZ.  Cao XD. Effect of morphine and electro-acupuncture (EA) on apoptosis of   thymocytes. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research.  25(1):17-26, 2000.


  The influence of morphine and EA on the apoptosis of thymocytes were

  studied to investigate the posibility of its involvement in the mechanism

  of morphine-induced immunosuppression and the regulatory effect of EA on

  it. 1h after injecting 50 mg/kg morphine subcutaneously into 3-wk old

  Balb/c mice continually twice a day for 5 days, thymus was collected and

  the apoptotic cell was detected by a method of terminal deoxynucleotidyl

  transferase-meditaed dUTP nick end-labeling(TUNEL). The results showed

  that morphine significantly enhanced the percentage of TUNEL positive

  cells inside thymus with an appearing of apoptotic DNA ladder after 24 h

  incubation. Treating mice with EA of "Zusanli(St.36)" and "Lanwei(Ext.33)"

  for 1h after morphine administration decreased the percentage of TUNEL

  positive cells. EA also showed an regulatory effect on the increased the

  expression of CPP32 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 by morphine. The

  significant enhancement of hypothalamic CRF and plasma ACTH level by

  morphine and the antagonize effect of EA on it suggested a possible role

  of Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis played in the apoptosis of

  thymocytes by morphine and the regulatory effect of EA.


2053. Zhao M.  Liu Z.  Su J. The time-effect relationship of central action in acupuncture treatment   for weight reduction. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  20(1):26-9, 2000 Mar.


  PURPOSE: To study the time-effect relationship of action of acupuncture on

  the satiety center of ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) in rats

  with experimental obesity. METHODS: Microelectrode recording method of

  nerve cells and stereotaxic technique for brain were adopted with

  discharge frequency (Hz/s) of nerve impulse in VMH as the index, and the

  time-effect of acupuncture action in different periods between groups were

  observed. RESULTS: Electric activity in acupuncture group was higher than

  in the obesity model group (P < 0.001) and the normal group (P < 0.01)

  respectively, and the curve of acupuncture action within 2 hours showed

  irregular fluctuation. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture can increase excitability

  of the satiety center, with a better long-term effect.



2484. Aabel S.  Fossheim S.  Rise F. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of homeopathic solutions. [see comments]. British Homoeopathic Journal.  90(1):14-20, 2001 Jan.


  The efficacy of homeopathy is controversial. Nuclear magnetic resonance

  (NMR) has been used to study homeopathic solutions, showing provocative

  results. We examined the reproducibility of one of the allegedly positive

  studies. 1H NMR spectra were recorded for Sulphur D4, diluted and

  succussed up to D30 (called potentization) at two different frequencies

  (300 and 500 MHz). The Sulphur solution had been potentiated according to

  homeopathic principles with deionized water and alcohol. Water proton T1

  relaxation measurements were performed also at 20 MHz for the different

  potentiated Sulphur solutions. Furthermore, the homeopathic remedy Betula

  alba 30c (birch pollen extract) and appropriate control solution

  (deionized water, unsuccussed solutions and placebo globules) were

  measured analogously, both with frequencies giving spectra and T1

  relaxometry. The Sulphur remedies showed identical one dimensional proton

  spectra (1H NMR) at 300 and 500 MHz, regardless of dilution/succussion

  stage, from D4 to D30. Furthermore, Betula 30c as a potentiated solution

  and its controls (ethanol dilutions and Betula diluted but not succussed)

  showed identical spectra. Nor were there any statistically significant

  differences in longitudinal (T1) relaxation times between deionized water

  and Sulphur D10 to D30 preparations. The shorter T1 of the Sulphur D4

  preparation could be ascribed to the higher microviscosity within the

  sample matrix caused by the high concentration of dissolved material.

  Also, the T1 values of the Betula alba 30c preparation (in globular form)

  and control placebo globules were identical. In conclusion, published

  results from NMR research on homeopathy indicating differences between

  homeopathic solutions and control samples could not be reproduced.


2487. Anonymous. Incorporating new (mind/body, alternative, complementary, or integrative) medicine into everyday care. Quality Letter for Healthcare Leaders.  13(2):2-11, 1, 2001 Feb.


  Use of a variety of therapies and techniques--ranging from acupuncture to

  yoga to herbal therapies--that are designed to relieve medical conditions

  and illnesses and/or emphasize the mind, body, and spirit connections are

  gaining popularity among patients in the United States. For years, many

  hospitals, plans, clinicians, and insurers ignored these therapies when

  using "conventional" therapies. But, times are changing: A movement is now

  afoot to determine whether these therapies and techniques can be

  successfully integrated with current health care treatments to provide

  quality care to patients.


2489. Anonymous. Alternative medicine. What works...maybe. Harvard Health Letter.  26(3):1-2, 2001 Jan.


2492. Ascher W. More on BMA's approval of acupuncture. BMA replies to correspondence. BMJ.  322(7277):45, 2001 Jan 6.


2495. Bausell RB.  Lee WL.  Berman BM. Demographic and health-related correlates to visits to complementary and alternative medical providers. Medical Care.  39(2):190-6, 2001 Feb.


  OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to ascertain the extent to

  which demographic and health-related variables are related to visits to a

  complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) practitioner. METHODS: This

  study reports a secondary analysis of visits to CAM practitioners during

  the year before the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 16,038).

  RESULTS: Overall visits to CAM providers (9%) were lower than reported in

  widely cited surveys but quite consistent with a previous Robert Wood

  Johnson study that used a similar sampling procedure. Gender, education,

  age, geographic location, and race (Hispanics and African Americans proved

  to be less likely to visit CAM providers than whites) were statistically

  significant predictors of visits to CAM providers. Individuals in poorer

  health and those suffering from mental, musculoskeletal, and metabolic

  disorders also tended to be more likely to have visited a CAM provider.

  CONCLUSIONS: Although the choice of alternative versus orthodox treatment

  appears to be a complex phenomenon, these data suggest that the heaviest

  users of CAM therapies tend to be individuals with comorbid,

  non-life-threatening health problems. This finding may help to ameliorate

  concerns that this type of care is being used in lieu of therapies with

  more definitive efficacy evidence.


2498. Berman BM. Complementary medicine and medical education. [letter; comment]. BMJ.  322(7279):121-2, 2001 Jan 20.


2499. Beyerstein BL. Alternative medicine and common errors of reasoning. [Review] [60 refs] Academic Medicine.  76(3):230-7, 2001 Mar.


  Why do so many otherwise intelligent patients and therapists pay

  considerable sums for products and therapies of alternative medicine, even

  though most of these either are known to be useless or dangerous or have

  not been subjected to rigorous scientific testing? The author proposes a

  number of reasons this occurs: (1) Social and cultural reasons (e.g., many

  citizens' inability to make an informed choice about a health care

  product; anti-scientific attitudes meshed with New Age mysticism; vigorous

  marketing and extravagant claims; dislike of the delivery of scientific

  biomedicine; belief in the superiority of "natural" products); (2)

  psychological reasons (e.g., the will to believe; logical errors of

  judgment; wishful thinking, and "demand characteristics"); (3) the

  illusion that an ineffective therapy works, when actually other factors

  were at work (e.g., the natural course or cyclic nature of the disease;

  the placebo effect; spontaneous remission; misdiagnosis). The author

  concludes by acknowledging that when people become sick, any promise of a

  cure is beguiling. But he cautions potential clients of alternative

  treatments to be suspicious if those treatments are not supported by

  reliable scientific research (criteria are listed), if the "evidence" for

  a treatment's worth consists of anecdotes, testimonials, or self-published

  literature, and if the practitioner has a pseudoscientific or

  conspiracy-laden approach, or promotes cures that sound "too good to be

  true." [References: 60]


2500. Boutouyrie P.  Corvisier R.  Azizi M.  Lemoine D.  Laloux B.  Hallouin M. Laurent S. Effects of acupuncture on radial artery hemodynamics: controlled trials in sensitized and naive subjects. American Journal of Physiology - Heart & Circulatory Physiology. 280(2):H628-33, 2001 Feb.


  Palpation of the radial pulses is an important technique in traditional

  Chinese medicine. Two double-blind randomized trials of the effects of

  real and sham acupuncture on radial artery hemodynamics were conducted in

  19 patients regularly exposed to acupuncture (sensitized subjects) and in

  8 healthy subjects devoid of previous exposure (naive subjects),

  respectively. Radial artery diameter and pulse waveform were measured with

  a high-resolution echotracking system and aplanation tonometry,

  respectively, before and during a 20-min acupuncture period. In sensitized

  patients, arterial diameter significantly increased during real

  acupuncture, compared with the sham group (+7.5 +/- 2.8 vs. -2.9 +/- 2.7%,

  respectively; P < 0.01). By contrast, in naive subjects, arterial diameter

  did not change during real or sham acupuncture. In both populations, no

  significant difference was observed between real and sham acupuncture,

  concerning the time course of blood pressure, radial artery

  distensibility, and pressure waveform. Our results demonstrate that real

  acupuncture is associated with an objective vasodilatation of the radial

  artery in patients regularly exposed to acupuncture, but not in naive



2504. Caspi O. Integrated medicine: orthodox meets alternative. Bringing complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into mainstream is not integration. BMJ.  322(7279):168, 2001 Jan 20.


2508. Cummings M. More on BMA's approval of acupuncture. Acupuncture techniques should be tested logically and methodically. BMJ.  322(7277):46, 2001 Jan 6.



2509. No Abstract

2510. Authors

  Deivanayagam CN.  Krishnarajasekhar OR.  Ravichandran N.


  Evaluation of Siddha medicare in HIV disease.


  Journal of the Association of Physicians of India.  49:390-1, 2001 Mar.



2511. No Abstract

2512. Authors

  Dhar HL.  Vasanti T.


  Endogenous depression, thyroid function and acupuncture.


  Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology.  45(1):125-6, 2001 Jan.

2513. No Abstract

2514. No Abstract

2515. No Abstract


2516. Authors

  Ernst E.


  A primer of complementary and alternative medicine commonly used by cancer

  patients. [Review] [54 refs]


  Medical Journal of Australia.  174(2):88-92, 2001 Jan 15.


  Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by cancer

  patients, and many oncologists have limited knowledge of CAM. This article

  provides a brief, evidence-based introduction to several CAM treatments

  relevant in the context of cancer. "Alternative" diets, chiropractic,

  coffee enemas, ozone therapy, and shark cartilage seem to have little to

  offer cancer patients. The evidence for or against homoeopathy and

  spiritual healing is at present inconclusive. Acupuncture, aromatherapy,

  and meditation may be useful for nausea/vomiting, for mild relaxation, and

  for pain/anxiety, respectively. Herbal treatments offer no reasonable

  prospect of a cure (mistletoe), but could be useful as palliative

  treatments (eg, for depression [St John's wort] or anxiety [kava]). Our

  knowledge regarding the potential benefit and harm of CAM is insufficient.

  [References: 54]



2517. Ernst E.The Lords' report on complementary/alternative medicine: something for   everyone. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.  94(2):55-6, 2001 Feb.


2518 No Abstract

2519 No Abstract


2520.  Frank E. Methodological issues in trials of acupuncture. JAMA.  285(8):1016, 2001 Feb 28.



 2521. Frenkel M.  Arye EB.  The growing need to teach about complementary and alternative medicine:   questions and challenges. Academic Medicine.  76(3):251-4, 2001 Mar.


  With the increased popularity of complementary and alternative medicine

  (CAM), there is a growing interest in the topic among physicians,

  residents, and medical students, who feel an increased need to have proper

  instruction about CAM therapies. Medical schools and residency programs

  are starting to respond to this demand, having realized that to provide

  better care and foster an improved patient-doctor relationship, physicians

  should become informed consultants, and be able to provide educated advice

  about CAM to their patients and help them integrate any CAM therapies

  shown to be safe and effective into their health care. The authors

  acknowledge that opinions differ about the adequacy of research findings

  to certify the safety and efficacy of specific therapies, and stress that

  physicians' decisions about CAM use should be subject to the same exacting

  criteria employed by researchers to evaluate any new therapies. The

  authors report on CAM curriculum developments in Germany, Canada, and the

  United States that illustrate various approaches to the question, "What

  should be taught in a CAM course?" In most cases, the approach is to teach

  about CAM therapies, although in others, therapies that the curriculum

  planners considered useful and safe are being integrated into the medical

  curriculum. [References: 20]



2522. Friedman Y.  Navigating the world of alternative medicine. Worthwhile Web sites. American Journal of Nursing.  101(3):87-9, 2001 Mar.


2523. Gloth FM 3rd. Pain management in older adults: prevention and treatment.

 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.  49(2):188-99, 2001 Feb.


  The release of guidelines in 1998 by the American Geriatrics Society on

  "The Management of Chronic Pain in Older Persons" was a breakthrough in

  helping to manage pain in this population. Already advances have fostered

  a need to update recommendations. This article focuses on the treatment

  strategies available for seniors that are likely to help to fulfill the

  obligation to relieve pain and suffering in patients. A review was done of

  the literature using Medline and other search techniques. New pain scales

  have been developed with seniors in mind and greater testing of older

  scales in elderly populations have helped to identify measures of pain

  more suited to frail seniors. Advances in cyclooxygenase inhibition

  selectivity, alternative medicine, and progress in the identification of

  nonopioid pain receptors and the development of products to target them

  are just a few of changes that have altered the way clinicians think about

  treating pain. The use of hospice in end-of-life palliative care is a

  valuable resource for clinicians managing pain at that phase in care as

  well. Tools are available to prevent and treat pain successfully in

  seniors. Educating clinicians about available assessment tools, techniques

  and interventions may be the biggest challenge to comforting the older

  adult in pain. [References: 93]


2524. No Abstract.

2525. Gordon JS.The future of complementary and alternative medicine.Quality Letter for Healthcare Leaders.  13(2):12-4, 2001 Feb.


2526.   Gordon JS.  The White House commission in Washington, DC, and Washington State. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  7(1):24-6, 28, 2001 Jan.


  The White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

  Policy was created March 8, 2000, by executive order. The 2-year

  commission will ultimately report to the president on legislative and

  administrative recommendations for ensuring that US public policy

  maximizes the benefits of complementary and alternative medicine. In this

  column, the chair of the commission will offer his thoughts about the

  goals and work of this key advisory body.




2527. Grollman AP.  Alternative medicine: the importance of evidence in medicine and in

  medical education. Is there wheat among the chaff? Academic Medicine.  76(3):221-3, 2001 Mar.

2528. No Abstract.


2529. Haley RW.  Fischer RP.Commercial tattooing as a potentially important source of hepatitis C   infection. Clinical epidemiology of 626 consecutive patients unaware of   their hepatitis C serologic status.Medicine.  80(2):134-51, 2001 Mar.


  Tattooing in commercial tattoo parlors is known to transmit blood-borne

  viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), in other countries,

  but its contribution to the high population prevalence of HCV infection in

  the United States has been incompletely evaluated. Risk factors for

  blood-borne infection were assessed by physician's interview of 626

  consecutive patients undergoing medical evaluation for spinal problems in

  1991 and 1992 while unaware of their HCV status. Later all were screened

  for HCV infection with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA-1 and

  EIA-2), and positives were confirmed with second-generation recombinant

  immunoblot assay (RIBA). Forty-three patients were seropositive for HCV

  (sample prevalence 6.9%, population-standardized prevalence 2.8%).

  Logistic regression analysis identified 4 independent risk factors for HCV

  infection: injection-drug use (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [OR] = 23.0;

  95% confidence intervals [CI] = 7.5-70.6), ancillary hospital jobs held by

  men (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.8-24.3), tattoos from commercial tattoo parlors

  (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.9-14.8), and drinking > or = 3 6-packs of beer per

  month (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.8-8.7). If causal, these 4 risk factors

  account for 91% of HCV infections, with tattooing explaining 41%, heavy

  beer drinking 23%, injection-drug use 17%, and ancillary health care jobs

  for men 8%. Transfusions, promiscuous sexual activity, bone grafts,

  acupuncture, perinatal or intimate transmission in families, and other

  modes were not independently associated with serologic evidence of HCV

  infection. Unlikely to be explained by confounding or incomplete

  disclosure of other risk factors, tattooing in commercial tattoo parlors

  may have been responsible for more HCV infections than injection-drug use.


2530. Halstead LS.  The John Stanley Coulter lecture. The power of compassion and caring in   rehabilitation healing. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 82(2):149-54, 2001 Feb.


  Rehabilitation of persons with catastrophic illnesses or injuries is a

  complex, labor-intensive interaction between patients and caregivers.

  Experiences of overwhelming loss and suffering evoke strong emotions that

  shape the behavior of both patients and staff during the rehabilitation

  process. In response to each patient's unique experience, compassion,

  caring, and other humanistic qualities of the effective caregiver help

  create a healing environment. Although these qualities are universally

  accepted as important, they have not been widely studied or critically

  examined. In recent years, however, there has been a growing interest in

  use of scientific methods to investigate the impact of "humanistic

  elements" (ie, complementary and alternative medicine) as therapeutic

  agents. A review of 7 articles from this literature provides examples of

  research-based interventions with potential for enhancing outcomes in

  traditional rehabilitation populations. In today's high-tech impersonal

  health care system, the use of scientific methods to show that humanistic

  treatments are effective may represent an important new frontier and

  opportunity for rehabilitation research.



2531.  Hardy ML. Research in Ayurveda: where do we go from here?. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  7(2):34-5, 2001 Mar.


2532.  Harmsworth K.  Lewith GT. Attitudes to traditional Chinese medicine amongst Western trained doctors   in the People's Republic of China. Social Science & Medicine.  52(1):149-53, 2001 Jan.


  This study analyses the attitudes of Western trained doctors to

  traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Shenyang, Northern China. Research

  methodology involved a series of structured interviews as well as

  developing a questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were

  distributed in four centres, 177 were returned. Ninety-eight percent of

  respondents had some theoretical and practical TCM training; the older

  doctors having significantly more than their recently qualified

  colleagues. There was clear consensus that TCM (mainly herbal medicine)

  was useful and safe in treating patients with chronic or intractable

  illness. Doctors were influenced in their choice of treatment by their

  training, clinical experience and the available published research. TCM

  was not practiced in isolation, but in conjunction with Western medicine;

  76% treating their patients with TCM, 90% treating their friends or family

  and 82% referring patients to TCM specialists.



2533. No Abstract


2534. Jacobs FN.   Complementary medicine: a case study. Healthcare Executive. 16(1):56-7, 2001 Jan-Feb.



2535. Johansson BB.  Haker E.  von Arbin M.  Britton M.  Langstrom G.  Terent A.

  Ursing D.  Asplund K.  Swedish Collaboration on Sensory Stimulation After

  Stroke. Acupuncture and transcutaneous nerve stimulation in stroke rehabilitation:

  a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke.  32(3):707-13, 2001 Mar.


  BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In small trials with control groups that receive

  no intervention, acupuncture has been reported to improve functional

  outcome after stroke. We studied effects of acupuncture and transcutaneous

  electrical nerve stimulation on functional outcome and quality of life

  after stroke versus a control group that received subliminal

  electrostimulation. METHODS: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial

  involving 7 university and district hospitals in Sweden, 150 patients with

  moderate or severe functional impairment were included. At days 5 to 10

  after acute stroke, patients were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention

  groups: (a) acupuncture, including electroacupuncture; (b) sensory

  stimulation with high-intensity, low-frequency transcutaneous electrical

  nerve stimulation that induces muscle contractions; and (c) low-intensity

  (subliminal) high-frequency electrostimulation (control group). A total of

  20 treatment sessions were performed over a 10-week period. Outcome

  variables included motor function, activities of daily living function,

  walking ability, social activities, and life satisfaction at 3-month and

  1-year follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, patients in each group were

  closely similar in all important prognostic variables. At 3-month and

  1-year follow-ups, no clinically important or statistically significant

  differences were observed between groups for any of the outcome variables.

  The 3 treatment modalities were all conducted without major adverse

  effects. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with a control group that received

  subliminal electrostimulation, treatment during the subacute phase of

  stroke with acupuncture or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  with muscle contractions had no beneficial effects on functional outcome

  or life satisfaction.


2536. No Abstract

2537. No Abstract

2538. No Abstract


2539. Kemper KJ. Complementary and alternative medicine for children: does it work?. Archives of Disease in Childhood.  84(1):6-9, 2001 Jan.


  Paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine is common and

  increasing, particularly for the sickest children. This review discusses

  the various options available including dietary supplements, hypnosis,

  massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture.  


2541.   Knight B.  Mudge C.  Openshaw S.  White A.  Hart A. Effect of acupuncture on nausea of pregnancy: a randomized, controlled   trial.


  Obstetrics & Gynecology.  97(2):184-8, 2001 Feb.


  OBJECTIVE: To compare acupuncture with sham (placebo) acupuncture for

  treatment of nausea of pregnancy. METHODS: In a subject- and

  observer-masked, randomized, controlled trial in the maternity unit at

  Exeter Hospital, we gave 55 women between 6 and 10 weeks' gestation

  genuine, traditional-style acupuncture or sham treatment with a cocktail

  stick on three or four occasions over 3 weeks. The main outcome measure

  was nausea score, as determined by subject report on a visual analogue

  scale in a daily diary. Anxiety and depression also were assessed.

  RESULTS: Nausea scores decreased from a median of 85.5 (interquartile

  range 71.25-89.75) to 47.5 (interquartile range 29.25-69.5) in the

  acupuncture group and from 87.0 (interquartile range 73.0-90.0) to 48.0

  (interquartile range 14.0-80.0) in the sham treatment group. There was

  strong evidence of a time effect (P <.001) but no evidence of a group

  effect (P =.9) or a group-time interaction (P =.8). Similarly, there was

  evidence of time effects in scores for anxiety and depression but no group

  differences. The study had a power of 95% to detect significant

  differences in nausea scores. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture was as effective in

  treating nausea of pregnancy as a sham procedure.



2542. No Abstract. 


2543. Lampert N.Complementary and alternative medicine.Lancet.  357(9258):802, 2001 Mar 10.


2544. No Abstract. 

2545. No Abstract. 

2546. No Abstract. 

2547. No Abstract. 

2548. No Abstract. 

2549. No Abstract. 


2550. Mahady GB.Global harmonization of herbal health claims.Journal of Nutrition. 131(3s):1120S-3S, 2001 Mar.


  Over the past decade, herbal medicine has become a topic of increasing

  global importance, with both medical and economic implications. In

  developing countries, as much as 80% of the indigenous populations depends

  on traditional systems of medicine and medicinal plants as their primary

  source of healthcare. Within the European Community, herbal medicines

  represent an important share of the pharmaceutical market, with annual

  sales in the range of US$7 billion. In the United States, the sale of

  herbal products has skyrocketed from $200 million in 1988 to >$3.3 billion

  in 1997. Such widespread use of botanicals throughout the world has raised

  serious questions concerning the quality, safety and efficacy of these

  products. Thus, accurate scientific assessment of herbal medicine is a

  prerequisite for global harmonization of herbal health claims. In 1995, as

  part of its overall global strategy of "Health for All" and due to

  numerous requests from the member states, the Traditional Medicine Program

  of the WHO began the extensive task of reviewing the world's scientific

  literature of commonly used herbal medicines and publishing this

  information in monographs. The WHO monographs are technical reviews of the

  quality, safety and efficacy of commonly used herbal medicines and are

  intended primarily to harmonize the proper use of herbal medicines

  throughout the world. [References: 15]



2551. No Abstract. 


2552. Marcus DM.How should alternative medicine be taught to medical students and

  physicians?. Academic Medicine.  76(3):224-9, 2001 Mar.


  Advocates of alternative medicine are critical of current medical

  curricula, and have proposed fundamental changes, including the

  introduction of "integrative medicine" programs to teach alternative

  medicine. Medical educators have not replied to these criticisms, and have

  not developed basic curricula in alternative medicine. The author analyzes

  the alleged deficiencies in medical education, which are based on

  misrepresentations of medicine and medical training. (For example, critics

  state that physicians ignore mind-body interactions; in response, several

  examples are given to show that training physicians to consider the whole

  person and to identify and address emotional and social problems-the

  biopsycho-social model-are central tenets of medical education.) The

  author also examines fundamental differences between traditional and

  alternative medicine (e.g., their different attitudes toward the

  importance of evidence; the vitalistic versus the biomedical models of

  health and disease) that are central to the issue of how alternative

  medicine should be taught. He concludes that physicians need additional

  education in order to provide guidance to patients, but teaching about

  alternative medicine should be evidence-based, not merely the transmission

  of unproven practices. [References: 69]



2553. No Abstract. 


2554.  Meenan R. Developing appropriate measures of the benefits of complementary and

  alternative medicine. Journal of Health Services & Research Policy.  6(1):38-43, 2001 Jan.


  Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity and

  consumes increasing amounts of resources. Economic evaluations such as

  cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are intended to inform decision-makers

  about the relative efficiency of different interventions, including CAM.

  To be generalizable, economic evaluations should use the same metric to

  assess health benefits--e.g. quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). However,

  the recurrent conditions for which CAM is typically used suggest that the

  health benefits of CAM will manifest themselves primarily as

  quality-of-life improvements that appear in CEA as 'utilities' attached to

  health states. Therefore, appropriate utility measures will be critical to

  the production of valid CEAs of CAM therapies. Some economists assert that

  the process of health care, as well as its outcome, can contribute to

  patient utility. This essay argues that process utility is especially

  relevant to CAM; accurate assessment of process utility will be important

  to valid economic evaluations of CAM; existing utility assessment methods

  do not directly account for process utility; and, therefore, techniques

  such as qualitative analysis that can inform more appropriate and complete

  assessments of the benefits of CAM should be explored. The heterogeneity

  of CAM modalities suggests that the arguments made in this essay will

  apply with similar force to economic evaluation of conventional therapies

  with which CAM is likely to be compared. [References: 32]





2555. No Abstract. 

2556. No Abstract. 

2557. No Abstract. 


2558. Mills SY. Regulation in complementary and alternative medicine. BMJ.  322(7279):158-60, 2001 Jan 20.


2559. Mishra L.  Singh BB.  Dagenais S. Ayurveda: a historical perspective and principles of the traditional   healthcare system in India. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  7(2):36-42, 2001 Mar.


  Ayurveda, the science of life, is a comprehensive medical system that has

  been the traditional system of healthcare in India for more than 5000

  years. This medical system was well established around 2500 to 600 BC,

  when it evolved into 2 schools: the School of Physicians and the School of

  Surgeons, similar to allopathy. Charak Samhita, Susrut Samhita, and

  Ashtang Hridaya Samhita are the Senior Triad texts, and Madhav Nidan

  Samhita, Sarangdhar Samhita, and Bhavprakash Samhita are the Junior Triad

  texts. Around 600 BC. Ayurveda was branched into internal medicine;

  pediatrics; psychiatry; surgery; eye, ear, nose, and throat; toxicology;

  geriatrics; and eugenics/aphrodisiacs. The body is composed of 3 body

  doshas, 3 mental doshas, 7 dhatus, and malas. The harmony among the body

  doshas of vata (nervous system), pitta (enzymes), and kapha (mucus) and

  the gunas, or mental doshas (which are human attributes: satogun [godly],

  rajas [kingly], and tamas [evil]), constitutes health, and their

  disharmony constitutes disease. The management of illness requires

  balancing the doshas back into a harmonious state through lifestyle

  interventions, spiritual nurturing, and treatment with herbo-mineral

  formulas based on one's mental and bodily constitution.


2560. Mishra L.  Singh BB.  Dagenais S.  Healthcare and disease management in Ayurveda. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine.  7(2):44-50, 2001 Mar.


  Because the disharmony of mental doshas (satogun, rajogun, and tamogun)

  and body doshas (vata, pitta, and kapha) are the major cause of illness,

  the goal of illness management in Ayurveda is to bring back harmony among

  the doshas. The management includes clinical examination, diagnosis, and

  dietary and lifestyle interventions and treatment. The clinical

  examination consists of Astha Sthana Pariksha (8-point diagnosis:

  pulse-diagnosis, urine, stool, tongue, voice and body sound, eye, skin,

  and total body appearance examinations) and examination of the digestive

  system and the patient's physical strength. The treatment consists of

  cleansing (Panchkarma), palliation (improve digestion, remove toxic waste,

  fasting, observe thirst, exercise, sunbathing, and meditation), mental

  nurturing, and spiritual healing depending on the disturbed doshas and the

  patient's constitution. The preferred use of bhasms and herbal formulas

  over the respective metallic salts or the single herbs is discussed. This

  review suggests a great potential for integration of Ayurvedic therapies

  into the healthcare system in the United States. [References: 28]



2561. No Abstract. 

2562. No Abstract. 


2563. Moss RW.Complementary and alternative medicine. Lancet.  357(9258):803, 2001 Mar 10.



2564. No Abstract. 

2565. No Abstract. 


2566. Nahin RL.  Straus SE. Research into complementary and alternative medicine: problems and   potential. BMJ.  322(7279):161-4, 2001 Jan 20.


2567. Owen D.  Lewith GT. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the undergraduate medical   curriculum: the Southampton experience. Medical Education.  35(1):73-7, 2001 Jan.


  OBJECTIVE: We describe the planning, development and evaluation of a

  special study module (SSM) on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

  as part of the Southampton Medical School undergraduate curriculum. AIM:

  To address how the module was received by students, the themes that

  emerged, the effect on student attitudes to CAM and how the teaching aims

  developed into learning objectives. METHOD: Student feedback

  questionnaires and regular teaching staff meetings over a period of 3

  years. RESULTS: The course resulted in a significant change in student

  attitudes to CAM and was well received by the students. It offered a

  reflective insight into conventional medicine. We have developed and

  validated core teaching objectives. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that our well

  validated and well received core teaching objectives will provide a

  broadly applicable base for those who wish to run similar courses.


2568. Owen DK.  Lewith G.  Stephens CR.  Can doctors respond to patients' increasing interest in complementary and   alternative medicine?. BMJ.  322(7279):154-8, 2001 Jan 20.


2569.  Park J.  White AR.  Ernst E. New sham method in auricular acupuncture. Archives of Internal Medicine.  161(6):894; discussion 895, 2001 Mar 26.


2570. Phillips KD.  Skelton WD. Effects of individualized acupuncture on sleep quality in HIV disease. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care.  12(1):27-39, 2001 



  Although it may begin at any point, sleep disturbance often appears early

  in HIV disease and contributes to decreased quality of life during the

  course of the illness. Relatively few studies have explored the complex

  nature of poor sleep quality in HIV disease or tested interventions to

  improve sleep quality. The purpose of this study was threefold: explore

  the nature of sleep quality in HIV disease, test the relationship between

  pain and sleep quality, and test the effectiveness of acupuncture

  delivered in a group setting for improving sleep quality in those who are

  HIV infected. A pretest, posttest, preexperimental design was used to test

  the effects of acupuncture on sleep quality. Participating in the study

  were 21 HIV-infected men and women between the ages of 29 and 50 years who

  reported sleep disturbance three or more times per week and who scored

  greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wrist Actigraph

  was used to measure sleep activity, and the Current Sleep Quality Index

  was used to measure sleep quality for 2 nights before and after a 5-week

  acupuncture intervention (10 treatments). Acupuncture was individualized

  to address insomnia and other symptoms reported by the participants. Sleep

  activity and sleep quality significantly improved following 5 weeks of

  individualized acupuncture delivered in a group setting.


2571. No Abstract.

2572. Rahman K.Historical perspective on garlic and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nutrition.  131(3s):977S-9S, 2001 Mar.


  Cardiovascular disease is a complex and multifactorial disease

  characterized by such factors as high cholesterol, hypertension, reduced

  fibrinolysis, increase in blood-clotting time and increased platelet

  aggregation. Dietary therapy is the first step in the treatment of

  hyperlipidemia; garlic has been used medicinally for centuries and is

  still included in the traditional medicine of many cultures. Historically,

  there has been great interest in the role of garlic in reducing

  cardiovascular risk factors. Evidence from numerous studies points to the

  fact that garlic can bring about the normalization of plasma lipids,

  enhancement of fibrinolytic activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation

  and reduction of blood pressure and glucose. However, some contradictory

  results have also emerged as a result of methodological shortcomings, the

  use of different formulations/preparations of garlic and different time

  scales of the studies. Accordingly, further clinical studies are required

  in which standardized formulations of garlic with known compositions can

  be used. Such formulations (e.g., Aged Garlic Extract) are now available

  and are being investigated. Evidence obtained from these studies indicates

  that garlic has potential in the prevention and control of cardiovascular

  disorders and is beneficial when taken as a dietary supplement.

  [References: 29]


2573. Rajbhandari M.  Wegner U.  Julich M.  Schopke T.  Mentel R. Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  74(3):251-5, 2001 Mar 3.


  In an ethnopharmacological screening, plants used in Nepalese traditional

  medicine were evaluated for antiviral activity. Methanolic and

  methanolic-aqueous extracts derived of 23 species were assayed in two in

  vitro viral systems, influenza virus/MDCK cells and herpes simplex

  virus/Vero cells. Two species, Bergenia ligulata and Nerium indicum showed

  the highest antiinfluenzaviral activity with 50% inhibitory dose of 10

  microg/ml. Holoptelia integrifolia and N. indicum exhibited considerable

  antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. None of these extracts

  showed cytotoxic effects. Additionally for B. ligulata and H. integrifolia

  partial protease inhibitory activity was estimated.


2574. No Abstract.

2575. No Abstract.


2576. Sampson W. The need for educational reform in teaching about alternative therapies. Academic Medicine.  76(3):248-50, 2001 Mar.


  Advocacy and non-critical assessment are the approaches currently taken by

  most U.S. medical schools in their courses covering what is commonly

  called "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM). CAM therapies are

  anomalous practices for which claims of efficacy are either unproved or

  disproved. The author's research indicates that most medical schools do

  not present CAM material in a form that encourages critiques and analyses

  of these claims. He presents the reasons for the unwarranted acceptance of

  CAM. These include the CAM movement's attempt to alter standards of

  evaluating therapies. A survey of CAM curricula in U.S. medical schools in

  1995-1997 showed that of 56 course offerings related to CAM, only four

  were oriented to criticism. The author's course at Stanford University

  School of Medicine approaches CAM with the skepticism and critical

  thinking appropriate for unproven therapies. The author concludes by

  calling on all medical schools to include in their curricula methods to

  analyze and assess critically the content validity of CAM claims.



2577. No Abstract.

2578. No Abstract.


2579. No Abstract. 

2580. No Abstract.

2581. No Abstract.

2582. No Abstract.

2583. No Abstract.

2584. No Abstract.


2585. No Abstract.


2586.  Suarez-Almazor ME.  Kendall CJ.  Dorgan M. Surfing the Net--information on the World Wide Web for persons with  arthritis: patient empowerment or patient deceit? Journal of Rheumatology.  28(1):185-91, 2001 Jan.


  OBJECTIVE: In the past few years access to the Internet has become readily

  available. Patients are increasingly seeking and obtaining health

  information through the Internet, most often the World Wide Web (WWW). We

  assessed the content, authorship, and scope of the information available

  on WWW in relation to rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In an attempt to

  replicate use by the average person, a broad search of the Internet was

  conducted for the phrase "rheumatoid arthritis" using WebCrawler, a

  commonly used search engine. All the "hits" were critically assessed after

  visiting and collecting information from the respective Web sites in

  relation to relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication, and

  financial objectives. RESULTS: The search returned 537 hits. We evaluated

  531-2 did not exist, 2 could not be contacted, one was not in English, and

  one required a membership to access. The 531 hits originated from 388 Web

  sites. Only 198 (51%) were considered to be relevant and 7 (2%) were of

  doubtful relevance. Thirty-four (17%) were posted by an individual, 57

  (28%) by a nonprofit organization, 104 (51%) by a profit industry, and 10

  (5%) by universities. Ninety-one (44%) promoted alternative therapies, the

  most common including cetyl-myristoleate, colloidal minerals, Pycnogenol,

  shark cartilage, and Tahitian Noni. Of the 107 sites with financial

  interests, 76 (71%) promoted alternative medicine. The first 100 hits only

  identified about a third of the nonprofit organizations or university

  owned Web pages. CONCLUSION: Many sites easily accessed by consumers

  appear to be profit based companies advertising an alternative product

  claimed to be effective for many conditions. These findings emphasize the

  need for critical evaluation of Web site contents.



2587. Tagliaferri M.  Cohen I.  Tripathy D. Complementary and alternative medicine in early-stage breast cancer. Seminars in Oncology.  28(1):121-34, 2001 Feb.


  Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are becoming increasingly

  popular in many medical situations, particularly among patients with

  cancer. CAM encompasses a range of modalities including dietary and

  vitamin supplements, mind-body approaches, acupuncture, and herbal

  medicines. In contrast to standard chemotherapeutic and hormonal regimens

  used for the adjuvant treatment of early-stage breast cancer, controlled

  clinical trials have generated few data on the relationship between CAM

  and the outcomes of recurrence or survival, or even overall quality of

  life and safety. The objectives of CAM treatments are manifold: the

  reduction of toxicities of therapy, improvement in cancer-related

  symptoms, enhancement of the immune system, and even a direct anticancer

  effect. The primary basis of CAM rests on empirical evidence and case

  studies, as well as theoretic physiologic effects. In some cases,

  laboratory or clinical data lend support to these modalities. Some types

  of CAM are based on ancient Oriental forms of medicine founded on

  centuries of experience documented through oral and written text.

  Nevertheless, the paucity of evidence in the clinical setting limits firm

  conclusions about the effectiveness or safety of most CAM approaches in

  breast cancer. This review will summarize the basis for the application of

  certain CAM modalities in the therapy of early-stage breast cancer and

  will highlight some of the directions of investigative work that could

  lead to a rational integration of CAM into conventional adjuvant therapy.

  [References: 108]


2588. Talalay P.  Talalay P.  The importance of using scientific principles in the development of   medicinal agents from plants.  Academic Medicine.  76(3):238-47, 2001 Mar.


  The authors review the major scientific milestones and the legislative

  framework that have made possible the spectacular successes of many modern

  therapies that trace their origins to plants. They emphasize that drugs

  used in mainstream medicine, in contrast to most of those used in

  alternative medicine, are required to meet stringent federal requirements

  for purity, safety, and efficacy before they can be distributed to the

  public, and that the necessary testing requires much time and effort. Yet

  alternative medicines based on plant substances are extremely popular,

  even though their safety and efficacy have not been scientifically proven.

  Reasons for this are reviewed and numerous examples and case histories are

  cited illustrating both successes in the scientific development of drugs

  from plants and the dangers of unregulated drugs. Such drugs are more

  easily available because of the deregulating effect of the 1994 Dietary

  Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which has substantially

  weakened the authority of the Food and Drug Administration to ensure the

  safety of dietary supplements. The authors describe the rigorous

  scientific investigations of curcumin, from the ginger family, and of

  sulforaphane, from crucifers, to illustrate the long and demanding

  scientific process that is required to establish the safety and

  effectiveness of potential drugs from plants. They re-emphasize the

  necessity for strict scientific review of all drugs. They also recommend

  that all providers of care be required to question patients about their

  intakes of dietary supplements. The authors close by saying that the DSHEA

  is "a disaster waiting to happen," but warn that any attempts to

  strengthen current legislation will be opposed by special interests.

  [References: 41]



2589. No Abstract

2590. Wang SM.  Kain ZN. Auricular acupuncture: a potential treatment for anxiety. Anesthesia & Analgesia.  92(2):548-53, 2001 Feb.


  Acupuncture can be an effective treatment for chronic anxiety disorders.

  The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture

  in reducing anxiety in a volunteer population. If found effective, this

  modality could be introduced as a treatment of anxiety before surgery.

  Adult volunteers (n = 55), were randomized to three treatment groups: a)

  Shenmen group--bilateral auricular acupuncture at the "shenmen" point; b)

  Relaxation group-bilateral auricular acupuncture at a "relaxation" point;

  and c) Sham group-bilateral auricular acupuncture at a "sham" point.

  Press-acupuncture needles were inserted at the respective auricular areas

  for 48 h. State anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and electrodermal

  activity were assessed at 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after insertion.

  Analyzing anxiety levels using repeated-measures analysis of variance has

  demonstrated a significant difference [F (2,51) =8.8, P = 0.001] between

  the three treatment groups. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that patients

  in the Relaxation group were significantly less anxious at 30 min (P =

  0.007) and 24 h (P = 0.035) as compared with patients in both the Shenmen

  group and the Sham group, and less anxious at 48 h (P = 0.042) as compared

  with patients in Shenmen group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance

  performed for electrodermal activity, blood pressure, and heart rate

  demonstrated no group differences (P = ns). We conclude that auricular

  acupuncture at the "relaxation" point can decrease the anxiety level in a

  population of healthy volunteers.



2591. Weiss SJ.  Takakuwa KM.  Ernst AA. Use, understanding, and beliefs about complementary and alternative   medicines among emergency department patients. Academic Emergency Medicine.  8(1):41-7, 2001 Jan.


  OBJECTIVES: To describe the extent of complementary and alternative

  medicine (CAM) use among emergency department (ED) patients, to evaluate

  patients' understanding of CAMs, and to determine gender differences in

  beliefs about CAMs. METHODS: This study was a convenience sampling of

  patients seen in an urban ED. Patient demographics were recorded. A

  questionnaire was administered that assessed patients' knowledge and use

  of CAMs. Patients were also asked about their beliefs on safety,

  medication interactions, and conveying information about these substances

  to their physicians. RESULTS: A total of 350 ED patients were included in

  the study; 87% had heard of at least one of the CAMs. There was no

  difference between genders or races concerning knowledge about CAMs. The

  most commonly known CAMs were ginseng (75%), ginkgo biloba (55%),

  eucalyptus (58%), and St. John's wort (57%). Forty-three percent of the

  responders had used CAMs at some time and 24% were presently using CAMs.

  The most commonly used CAMs were ginseng (13%), St. John's wort (6%), and

  ginkgo biloba (9%). All CAMs were considered to be safe by 16% of the

  patients. Only 67% would tell their doctors they were using CAMs. Females

  were more likely than males to believe that CAMs do not interact with

  other medications (15% vs 7%, difference 8%, 95% CI = 2% to 15%).

  CONCLUSIONS: Complementary and alternative medicines are familiar to most

  patients and used by many of them. Despite this, a large percentage of

  patients would not tell their physicians about their use of alternative

  medications. Emergency medicine providers should be aware of the commonly

  used CAMs, and questions about their use should be routinely included in

  ED exams.


2592. No Abstract

2593. No Abstract



3010.      Bertone JJ. More views on complementary and alternative medicine.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  218(6):854-5, 2001 Mar 15.

3016.  Chen F.  Dai Q.  Dr. Sheng Xiesun's experience in acupuncture techniques.  Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  21(1):39-42, 2001 Mar.


3019.  Danielsson I.  Sjoberg I.  Ostman C. Acupuncture for the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis: a pilot study.  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.  80(5):437-41, 2001 May.


  BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to obtain a preliminary indication of the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis but also to obtain information how well the women tolerate the treatment. METHODS: Fourteen young women with vulvar vestibulitis according to Friedrich's criteria were enrolled in the study and 13 fulfilled the acupuncture treatment a total of 10 times. For evaluation quality of life (QOL) assessments were made before starting the treatment and then at one week and at three months after it was completed. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated and the QOL measurements were all significantly higher after both the last acupuncture and three months later, compared to before the treatment was started. CONCLUSION: The results seem promising, but a larger controlled randomized study should be carried out before the treatment can be recommended for use in clinical practice.


3022.      Du L.  Pseudobulbar paralysis treated by acupuncture--clinical observation in 36 cases.  Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  21(1):12-5, 2001 Mar.

3023.      Ernst E.  Marketing studies and scientific research must be distinct.BMJ.  322(7296):1249, 2001 May 19.


3024.      Ernst E. Intangible risks of complementary and  alternative medicine. Journal of Clinical Oncology.  19(8):2365-6, 2001 Apr 15.


3030.  Gurung RA.  Mehta V. Relating ethnic identity, acculturation, and attitudes toward treating minority clients. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology.  7(2):139-51, 2001 May.


3033.  Hu J.  Acupuncture treatment of herpes zoster. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  21(1):78-80, 2001 Mar.


3037.      Karpman RR.  Musculoskeletal disease in the United States: who provides the care?. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research.  (385):52-6, 2001 Apr.


  Musculoskeletal care is a big business in the United States. It is estimated that the cost of musculoskeletal care is in excess of $215 billion per year. Although orthopaedic surgeons are responsible for providing musculoskeletal care, a significant proportion of care is rendered by other healthcare providers including primary care physicians, neurosurgeons, physiatrists, podiatrists, physical therapists, and a cadre of alternative care providers including chiropractors, acupuncture specialists, and naturopaths. The purpose of the current study is to provide data regarding the provision of musculoskeletal care by those other than orthopaedic surgeons to determine what, if any, concerns exist among other providers regarding manpower issues, and to suggest alternatives for orthopaedic surgeons to maintain or perhaps increase their proportion of musculoskeletal care in the United States.


3038.    Kemper KJ. Complementary and alternative medicine for children: does it work?. [Review] [60 refs] Archives of Disease in Childhood.  84(1):6-9, 2001 Jan.


  Paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine is common and increasing, particularly for the sickest children. This review discusses the various options available including dietary supplements, hypnosis, massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. [References: 60]


3039.        Kerr DP.  Walsh DM.  Baxter GD.  A study of the use of acupuncture in physiotherapy.  Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  9(1):21-7, 2001 Mar.


  OBJECTIVES: This two-phase study was designed to establish the current use of acupuncture within physiotherapy and to determine the opinions of those who received acupuncture therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective study and questionnaire survey. PATIENTS: Patients who attended an outpatient physiotherapy department over a 2-year period (phase 1, retrospective study of clinical records; n = 599). Patients who had received acupuncture treatment from outpatient physiotherapy (phase 2, patient survey; n = 200). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patient records and questionnaire. RESULTS: The patients who attended for outpatient physiotherapy were categorized into three main groups: low back pain, cervical/thoracic spine problems and soft-tissue injuries of peripheral joints. Acupuncture appeared to be used as a secondary form of treatment for these conditions, where other modalities failed rather than being used for best effect. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78%, of whom 60% stated that they had experienced pain relief following their acupuncture therapy, and 31% were still experiencing pain relief. The majority had achieved sufficient relief to carry out daily activities at home (80%) and at work (57%). Ninety-four per cent of respondents were either 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with their treatment. CONCLUSION: Further investigation is required to adequately assess the efficacy of acupuncture as a pain-relieving modality.


3040.      Kolasinski SL. Complementary and alternative therapies for rheumatic disease. [Review] [17 refs] Hospital Practice (Office Edition).  36(4):31-6, 39, 2001 Apr 15.


  Patients with rheumatic disease are turning to complementary and alternative therapies in growing numbers. Many of these therapies have a long history of apparent safety and efficacy but have not been adequately tested in controlled trials. To aid physicians in guiding patients' decisions, the most frequently used products and practices are reviewed. [References: 17]


3044.  Li J. First Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province. Forty-five cases of apoplexy treated by electroacupuncture at the points of yin meridians. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  21(1):20-2, 2001 Mar.


  Forty-five cases of apoplexy were treated by electroacupuncture only at the points of Yin Meridians (i.e. the Hand- and Foot-Taiyin Meridians), and the other 30 cases as the controls were treated only at the points of Yang Meridians (i.e. the Hand- and Foot-Yangming Meridians). The total effective rate was 91.1% in the former and 86.7% in the latter, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups, indicating that acupuncture only at the points of Yin-Meridians is also an effective therapy for apoplexy.


3045.  Liao M. Twenty-eight cases of neuritis of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh treated by acupuncture and point-injection. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  21(1):29-30, 2001 Mar.


3052.      Middlekauff HR.  Yu JL.  Hui K.  Acupuncture effects on reflex responses to mental stress in humans. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology.  280(5):R1462-8, 2001 May.


  In animal studies, acupuncture has been shown to be sympathoinhibitory, but it is unknown if acupuncture is sympathoinhibitory in humans. Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent mental stress testing pre- and postacupuncture. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and heart rate during mental stress were compared pre- and postacupuncture. Control acupuncture consisted of acupuncture at nonacupoints and "no-needle" acupuncture. Acupuncture had no effect on resting MSNA, blood pressure, or heart rate. After real acupuncture, the increase in mean arterial pressure (pre- vs. postacupuncture 4.5 vs. 1.7 mmHg, P < 0.001), but not MSNA or heart rate, was blunted during mental stress. Similarly, following nonacupoint acupuncture, the increase in mean arterial pressure was blunted during mental stress (5.4 vs. 2.9 mmHg, P < 0.0003). No-needle acupuncture had no effect on these variables. In conclusion, acupuncture at traditional acupoints, nonacupoints, and no-needle acupuncture does not modulate baseline MSNA or MSNA responses to mental stress in normal humans. Acupuncture significantly attenuates the increase in blood pressure during mental stress. Needling nonacupoints, but not "no-needle" acupuncture, have a similar effect on blood pressure.


3053.      Milton D.  Educating staff about CAM.  Health Forum Journal.  44(3):45,

2001 May-Jun.

3056.      Noble RE.  Initiating a urinary stream.  Western Journal of Medicine.  174(2):98, 2001 Feb.


3057.      Odsberg A.  Schill U.  Haker E.  Acupuncture treatment: side effects and complications reported by Swedish physiotherapists.  Complementary Therapies in Medicine.  9(1):17-20, 2001 Mar.


3058.  Padilla R.  Gomez V.  Biggerstaff SL.  Mehler PS. Use of curanderismo in a public health care system.  Archives of Internal Medicine.  161(10):1336-40, 2001 May 28.


3065.      Shang C.  Electrophysiology of growth control and acupuncture. [Review] [90 refs] Life Sciences.  68(12):1333-42, 2001 Feb 9.


  Bioelectric fields have been shown to interact with morphogens and guide growth control. The morphogenetic singularity theory published a decade ago suggests that organizing centers have high density of gap junctions and high electrical conductance. They are the singular points in morphogen gradient and bioelectric field. A growth control system originates from a network of organizing centers containing under-differentiated cells and retains its regulatory functions after embryogenesis. The formation and maintenance of all the physiological systems are directly dependent on the activity of the growth control system. The evolutionary origin of the growth control system is likely to have preceded all the other physiological systems. Its genetic blueprint might have served as a template from which the newer systems evolved. The growth control signal transduction is embedded in the activity of the function-based physiological systems. The regulation of most physiological processes is through growth control mechanisms such as hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, and apoptosis. Acupuncture points, which also have high electrical conductance and high density of gap junctions, originate from organizing centers. This theory can explain the distribution and non-specific activation of organizing centers and many research results in acupuncture. In several 'prospective blind trials', recent research results have supported its corollary on the role of singularity and separatrix in morphogenesis, the predictions on the high electric conductance and the high density of gap junctions at the organizing centers. These advances have broad implications in biomedical sciences. [References: 90]


3066.      Shang C. Emerging paradigms in mind-body medicine. [Review] [102 refs]  Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine.  7(1):83-91, 2001 Feb.


  The emerging paradigms in medicine can be seen through mind-body interactions. Observations in many meditative traditions suggest a series of objective indicators of health beyond absence of disease. Several of the physical signs have been confirmed by research or are consistent with modern science. Further correlation with long term health outcome is needed. Integration of meditation with conventional therapy has enriched psychotherapy with parallels drawn between the Nine Step Qigong and Freudian developmental psychology. A unified theory of the chakra system and the meridian system widely used in traditional mind-body interventions and acupuncture is presented in terms of modern science based on the morphogenetic singularity theory. Acupuncture points originate from the organizing centers in morphogenesis. Meridians and chakras are related to the underdifferentiated, interconnected cellular network that regulates growth and physiology. This theory explains the distribution and nonspecific activation of organizing centers and acupuncture points; the high electric conductance of the meridian system; the polarity effect of electroacupuncture; the side-effect profile of acupuncture; and the ontogeny, phylogeny, and physiologic function of the meridian system and chakra system. It also successfully predicted several findings in conventional biomedical science. These advances have implications in many disciplines of medicine.


3074 - 3090. No abstract     



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