(Infants, Children, Adolescents, Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women and Elderly)


Selected abstracts:

1.            Baker SS. Counseling parents on feeding their children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 May;10(3):355-9. Review.

Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Center, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY 14222, USA.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The high-nutrient needs of children for normal growth and development are matched by ready access to low-nutrient high-energy foods. Parents are often confused by new and at times conflicting information. This review discusses three recently published papers that offer specific and important dietary information for school-aged children. RECENT FINDINGS: Lactose intolerance is common in some populations and there are misconceptions about dairy intake. Most lactose-intolerant children can consume some dairy products without symptoms. Fruit-juice intake can predict increased weight gain in children, especially those who are already overweight or at risk for being overweight. Hypertension is a serious disease with onset likely in childhood. This paper discusses the importance of dietary sodium as a contributor to the development of hypertension, and the sodium content of children's diets. SUMMARY: Advice to parents on feeding children should be based on the food pyramid and include information on exercise. Recent publications suggest that children consume dairy products, even if lactose intolerant, restrict juice intake, remove sweetened beverages from their diets and reduce sodium consumption.

2.           Collins S. Treating severe acute malnutrition seriously. Arch Dis Child. 2007 May;92(5):453-61. Review.

Centre for International Health and Development and Valid International Ltd, Unit 14 Standingford House, 26 Cave Street, Oxford OX4 1BA, UK.

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects approximately 13 million children under the age of 5 and is associated with 1-2 million preventable child deaths each year. In most developing countries, case fatality rates (CFRs) in hospitals treating SAM remain at 20-30% and few of those requiring care actually access treatment. Recently, community-based therapeutic care (CTC) programmes treating most cases of SAM solely as outpatients have dramatically reduced CFRs and increased the numbers receiving care. CTC uses ready-to-use therapeutic foods and aims to increase access to services, promoting early presentation and compliance, thereby increasing coverage and recovery rates. Initial data indicate that this combination of centre-based and community-based care is cost effective and should be integrated into mainstream child survival programmes.

3.            Dean T, Venter C, Pereira B, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Higgins B. Government advice on peanut avoidance during pregnancy--is it followed correctly and what is the impact on sensitization? J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007 Apr;20(2):95-9.

The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight, UK.

BACKGROUND: In 1998, the UK government issued precautionary advice that pregnant or breast-feeding women with a family history of atopy, may wish to avoid eating peanuts during pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to assess the compliance with this recommendation and investigate its impact upon peanut sensitization. METHODS: A total of 858 children born immediately after the advice were followed for 2 years and assessed for peanut sensitization. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain history of atopy and maternal exposure to peanuts during pregnancy. Following parental consent children were skin prick tested to assess sensitization to peanuts. RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent of mothers had avoided peanuts during pregnancy. Forty-two per cent of the mothers had heard about the government advice, and half modified their diet as a consequence. Neither maternal nor family history of atopy had any significant effect on peanut consumption. Parity did play a role, and mothers having their first child were twice as likely to change their diet (P<0.001). Mothers of 77% of the children sensitized to peanuts had avoided peanuts during pregnancy. In this cohort study maternal consumption of peanut during pregnancy was not associated with peanut sensitization in the infant. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of mothers in this cohort avoided peanut consumption during pregnancy. It is likely that either the government advice is misunderstood by mothers, or that those who communicate the advice have not fully explained who it is targeted at.

4.            Drenckpohl D, Bowers L, Cooper H. Use of the six sigma methodology to reduce incidence of breast milk administration errors in the NICU. Neonatal Netw. 2007 May-Jun;26(3):161-6.

Children's Hospital of Illinois, USA.

Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for infants. According to research, neonates fed breast milk have a reduced risk of sepsis, increased feeding tolerance, a decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and better neurodevelopmental outcomes. Unfortunately, researchers have not identified practices to reduce or eliminate the risk for errors in breast milk administration. This article discusses the potential hazards of incorrect administration of breast milk. It then describes how the tertiary care center at Children's Hospital of Illinois implemented a policy utilizing six sigma quality improvement methodologies to improve breast milk administration. Since implementation of this policy, the NICU at our hospital has reduced the risk of breast milk administration errors to less than 3.4 mistakes per million opportunities.

5.            Ehrenkranz RA. Early, aggressive nutritional management for very low birth weight infants: what is the evidence? Semin Perinatol. 2007 Apr;31(2):48-55. Review.

Department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, USA.

The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition goal of providing nutrient intakes that permit the rate of postnatal growth and the composition of weight gain to approximate that of a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age is rarely met by extremely low gestational age neonates. Therefore, postnatal growth failure or growth restriction continues to be a problem experienced by many of these infants, and they are often less than the 10th percentile of reference intrauterine curves at the time of hospital discharge. Variation in nutritional practices, especially those practices concerned with the initiation and advancement of parenteral and enteral nutrition, largely explain the difference in growth observed at different newborn intensive care units. Although limited, the evidence supports recommendations to administer early parenteral and enteral nutrition, specifically initiation of an amino acid infusion providing about 3 g protein/kg/d within hours of birth, initiation of a lipid emulsion of 0.5 to 1.0 g lipids/kg/d within 24 to 30 hours of birth, and the initiation of minimal enteral feedings within the first 5 days of life. It is important that neonatal clinicians recognize the barriers and obstacles to the implementation of these recommendations.

6.           Flint A, New K, Davies MW. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD005092. Review.

Royal Women's Hospital, Centre for Clinical Nursing, Level 2, Butterfield St, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4029.

BACKGROUND: Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for newborn infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible, as there are numerous reasons why a newborn infant may not be able to breastfeed and, as a result, require supplemental feeding. Currently, there are a variety of ways in which newborn infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, more recently, cup feeding has become a popular practice in many nurseries in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of supplementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in newborn infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2006), CINAHL (1982 - April 2006) and MEDLINE (1966 - April 2006). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of newborn infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Quality assessments and data extraction for included trials were conducted independently by the review authors. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain, proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge, proportion not feeding at three months of age, proportion not feeding at six months of age, proportion not fully feeding at hospital discharge, proportion not fully breastfeeding at three months of age, proportion not fully breastfeeding at six months of age, average time per feed (minutes), length of stay and physiological events of instability such as bradycardia, apnea, and low oxygen saturation. For continuous variables such as weight gain, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were reported. For categorical outcomes such as mortality, the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were reported. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies were eligible for inclusion. The experimental intervention was cup feeding and the control intervention was bottle feeding in all four studies included in this review. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of not breastfeeding at hospital discharge in three included studies (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.62, 1.09) and not breastfeeding at three months in two included studies (typical RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76, 1.03) or six months for the one study that reported this outcome (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78, 1.05). There was a statistically significant difference in not fully breastfeeding at hospital discharge (from three included studies) in favour of cup feeding (typical RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61, 0.92). However, this was not statistically significant at three months (one study, RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.88, 1.58) or six months (one study, RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.89, 1.92). There was no statistically significant difference in weight gain from one study that reported this outcome (MD -0.60, 95% CI -3.21, 2.01). In the one study that assessed it, there was a significantly increased length of hospital stay in the cup fed infants [mean difference between groups was 10.1 days (95% CI 3.9, 16.3)]. Time to full breastfeeding was not assessed in any study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Cup feeding cannot be recommended over bottle feeding as a supplement to breastfeeding because it confers no significant benefit in maintaining breastfeeding beyond hospital discharge and carries the unacceptable consequence of a longer stay in hospital.

7.            Funkquist EL, Tuvemo T, Jonsson B, Serenius F, Nyqvist KH. Milk for small infants. Acta Paediatr. 2007 Apr;96(4):596-9.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

This study investigated weight patterns of infants born SGA, in relation to two different feeding regimens during hospital stay. We compared 21 SGA infants prescribed 200 mL/kg milk on day 2, with 21 infants, prescribed 170 mL/kg on day 9. The infants fed according to the proactive nutrition policy tolerated large volumes of milk and showed lower weight loss. CONCLUSION: A proactive nutrition policy demonstrably reduces weight loss in SGA infants.

8.            Jiang J, Rosenqvist U, Wang H, Greiner T, Lian G, Sarkadi A. Influence of grandparents on eating behaviors of young children in Chinese three-generation families. Appetite. 2007 May;48(3):377-83.

National Center for Women's and Children's Health, Beijing, China.

AIM: To investigate how grandparents influence their young grandchildren's eating behaviors in Chinese three-generation families. METHODS: This qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 parents (3 male and 9 female) and 11 grandparents (4 male and 7 female) in Beijing, China. RESULTS: Three domains emerged in this study: (1) grandparents were the primary caretakers of children in the three-generation families. They played an important role in planning and cooking family meals; (2) grandparents' attitudes influenced young children's nutrition and eating habits. They held the belief that children being heavy at a young age would assure that they had a good nutrition status and would become tall in the future. They showed a tendency towards urging the children to eat more meals and larger portions at served meals; (3) grandparents used food as an educational and emotional tool. They shaped the behavior of their grandchildren and expressed love and caring through food. CONCLUSIONS: Grandparents were dominant in shaping children's eating behavior in some three-generation families in Chinese urban areas. Nutrition education involving grandparents is a potential framework for developing a healthy dietary behavior in young children.

9.            Krauss-Etschmann S, Shadid R, Campoy C, Hoster E, Demmelmair H, Jimenez M, Gil A, Rivero M, Veszpremi B, Decsi T, Koletzko BV; Nutrition and Health Lifestyle (NUHEAL) Study Group.  Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1392-400.

Clinical Cooperation Group Pediatric Immune Regulation, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women usually meet their increased energy needs but do not always meet their increased micronutrient requirements. The supply of both folic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to positive pregnancy and infant outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether fish-oil (FO) supplementation with or without folate from gestation week 22 to birth improves maternal and fetal n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) status. DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter (Germany, Hungary, and Spain), randomized, double-blind, 2 x 2 factorial, placebo-controlled trial. From gestation week 22 until delivery, 311 pregnant women received daily a preparation with FO [0.5 g DHA and 0.15 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)], 400 microg methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MTHF), FO with MTHF, or placebo. Outcome measures included maternal and cord plasma DHA and EPA contents at gestation weeks 20 and 30 and at delivery, indicators of pregnancy outcome, and fetal development. RESULTS: FO significantly (P<0.001) increased maternal DHA and EPA (% by wt), as shown by 3-factor repeated-measures ANOVA (ie, MTHF, FO, and time) with adjustment for maternal baseline DHA and EPA. In addition, FO significantly (P<0.001) increased cord blood DHA (% by wt; 2-factor ANOVA). MTHF was significantly (P=0.046) associated with increased maternal DHA (% by wt). There was no FO x MTHF interaction for the time course of DHA or EPA (P=0.927 and 0.893). Pregnancy outcomes and fetal development did not differ significantly among the intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: FO supplementation from gestation week 22 until delivery improves fetal n-3 LC-PUFA status and attenuates depletion of maternal stores. MTHF may further enhance maternal n-3 LC-PUFA proportions.

10.         Menon P, Ruel MT, Loechl CU, Arimond M, Habicht JP, Pelto G, Michaud L. Micronutrient Sprinkles reduce anemia among 9- to 24-mo-old children when delivered through an integrated health and nutrition program in rural Haiti. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):1023-30.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

We evaluated the effectiveness of a 2-mo treatment of Sprinkles containing 12.5 mg iron, 5 mg zinc, 400 microg vitamin A, 160 microg folic acid, and 30 mg vitamin C in reducing anemia among children 9- to 24 mo old in Haiti. Ten food distribution points (FDP) where children received take-home rations of fortified wheat-soy blend (WSB) were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1) Sprinkles-WSB (S-WSB) (6 FDP; n = 254), receiving 30 sachets of Sprinkles monthly for 2 mo; and 2) WSB only (WSB) (4 FDP; n = 161), not receiving Sprinkles. At baseline, anemia prevalence [hemoglobin (Hb) < 100 g/L], adjusted for age and sex, was 54 and 39% in S-WSB and WSB groups, respectively. After the 2-mo intervention (1st follow-up), anemia, adjusted for baseline prevalence, age, and sex dropped to 24% in S-WSB (P < 0.001) and increased to 43% in WSB (P = 0.07). At 7 mo postintervention, anemia in S-WSB declined to 14%; 92% of children who were nonanemic at 1st follow-up remained so without further Sprinkles consumption. From baseline to 1st follow-up, mean Hb increased by 5.5 g/L and dropped by 1.0 g/L in the S-WSB and WSB groups, respectively (P < 0.001). From baseline to 2nd follow-up, mean Hb increased by 10.9 g/L in S-WSB (P < 0.001). Changes in mean Hb were greater for younger children (<21 mo at onset of intervention) (P < 0.05) and for children who were anemic at baseline (P < 0.001). In populations with a high prevalence of anemia, such as rural Haiti, 2 mo of Sprinkles are effective in reducing anemia among 9- to 24-mo-old children.

11.         Ogechi AA, William O, Fidelia BT. Hindmilk and weight gain in preterm very low-birthweight infants. Pediatr Int. 2007 Apr;49(2):156-60.

Department of Paediatrics, Jos University Teaching Hospital, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

BACKGROUND: Feeding of own mother's milk to preterm very low-birthweight infants often results in suboptimal weight gain in these infants for whom energy requirements are high but in whom volume tolerance is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present paper was to investigate the effect of selective hindmilk feeding on the growth of preterm very low-birthweight babies. METHODS: Preterm very low-birthweight babies admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between April 2000 and July 2001 were randomized to hindmilk and composite breast milk feeding for 2 weeks. End-points were weight, occipitofrontal head circumference and length. RESULTS: For small-for-gestational-age babies, the infants fed on hindmilk gained weight at a mean rate of 12.92 +/- 10.95 g/kg per day as compared with a mean rate of 5.01 +/- 17.37 g/kg per day for their controls on composite milk (P < 0.0001). For appropriate-for-gestational-age babies, the mean rate of weight gain for the hindmilk group was 12.99 +/- 10.75 g/kg per day while that for their controls on composite milk was 8.29 +/- 20.56 g/kg per day (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of increase in length and occipitofrontal head circumference between the groups. The lipid content of the hindmilk was 1.6-fold that of composite milk. CONCLUSION: Preterm very low-birthweight babies fed hindmilk had a higher rate of weight gain compared to those fed composite milk. It is recommended that the hindmilk fraction of expressed breast milk be predominantly used for the feeding of preterm very low-birthweight babies while in hospital to help shorten their duration of hospital stay.

12.         Rudnicka AR, Owen CG, Strachan DP. The effect of breastfeeding on cardiorespiratory risk factors in adult life. Pediatrics. 2007 May;119(5):e1107-15.

Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVE: Nutrition in the first weeks of life may program disease risk in adulthood. We examined the influence of initial infant feeding on cardiorespiratory risk factors in adulthood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 9377 persons born during 1 week in 1958 in England, Scotland, and Wales were followed-up periodically from birth into adulthood. Infant feeding was recorded from a parental questionnaire at 7 years old as never breastfed, breastfed partially or wholly for <1 month, or breastfed for >1 month. Height; waist circumference; hip circumference; waist/hip ratio; body mass index; blood pressure; forced expiratory volume; total, high-density, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; hemoglobin A1c; fibrinogen; fibrin D-dimer; C-reactive protein; von Willebrand factor; and tissue plasminogen activator antigen were measured at 44 to 45 years of age. RESULTS: Breastfeeding for >1 month was associated with reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, von Willebrand factor, and lower odds of obesity compared with formula feeding after adjustment for birth weight, prepregnancy maternal weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, socioeconomic position in childhood and adulthood, region of birth, gender, and current smoking status. Infant feeding status was not associated with other cardiorespiratory risk factors after adjustment, except for lower fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels in women. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse associations of breastfeeding for >1 month with measures of central obesity and inflammatory markers in the current study are small and of little public health importance. Although there was no substantial long-term protective effect of breastfeeding for >1 month on other cardiorespiratory risk factors in adult life, further studies with contemporaneous data on exclusive breastfeeding are needed to confirm these findings.

13.         Srivastava N, Sandhu A. Index for measuring child feeding practices. Indian J Pediatr. 2007 Apr;74(4):363-8.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of creating an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) from a set of complementary feeding (CF) practices and to determine its association with growth of infants and young children (6-23 months). METHODS: A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information for 204 children from one large slum (n=104) and two private pediatric clinics (n=100) of urban Vadodara. RESULTS: Results revealed that about half (50.5%) of the children were stunted Ht for Age Z score (HAZ<-2SD), nearly one-fourth (25.5%) were underweight Wt for Age Z score (WAZ<-2SD), but wasting (WHZ Wt for Ht Z score<-2SD) was low (3%). Significant associations were revealed between almost all positive CF practices and nutritional status of the children as measured by HAZ and WAZ (p<0.01), but not with WHZ. Good associations were revealed between ICFI and HAZ and WAZ, but not with WHZ. On multivariate analysis of factors affecting the HAZ, WAZ and WHZ scores, ICFI was not found to be significant whereas maternal education was the most significant factor, which was also found to be associated significantly with ICFI. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the composite index in its present form can reflect the CF practices more holistically than just one or few behaviors studied separately. More research is needed in the direction of constituting a composite index which can then be used for research, monitoring, evaluation and much needed advocacy for complementary feeding.

14.         Straub DA. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;22(3):286-96. Review.

Canyon Ranch, 10237 East Desert Flower Place, Tucson, AZ 85749, USA.

Most Americans do not meet the adequate intake (AI) for calcium; calcium supplements can help meet requirements. Calcium supplementation has been found to be beneficial for bone health in children, young adults, and menopausal women. In addition to calcium, vitamin D is necessary for bone health and is generally deficient in the industrialized world. Calcium from carbonate and citrate are the most common forms of calcium supplements. Calcium carbonate, the most cost-effective form, should be taken with a meal to ensure optimal absorption. Calcium citrate can be taken without food and is the supplement of choice for individuals with achlorhydria or who are taking histamine-2 blockers or protein-pump inhibitors. Calcium lactate and calcium gluconate are less concentrated forms of calcium and are not practical oral supplements. Research on hydroxyapatite as a source of calcium is limited, so this form of calcium is not recommended. The maximum dose of elemental calcium that should be taken at a time is 500 mg. U.S. Pharmacopeia-verified calcium supplements meet vigorous manufacturing and quality requirements. Absorption from calcium-fortified beverages varies and in general is not equal to that of milk. Potential adverse effects of calcium supplementation include gastrointestinal complaints. Renal calculi in most studies have not been associated with calcium supplementation. The risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer has been associated with calcium intakes from food or supplements in amounts >1500 mg/d.

15.         Woo K, Spatz D. Human milk donation: what do you know about it? MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007 May-Jun;32(3):150-5; quiz 156-7. Review.

Emergency Department, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly endorses that human milk is species specific and the optimal nutrition for infants, and that banked human milk is a suitable alternative. After the death of an infant, breast milk often is disposed of without consideration of donation because the public and healthcare providers are unaware of human milk banks. In the United States, 10 human milk banks operate under strict guidelines established by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Donors are screened, and milk is pasteurized while preserving many of the beneficial components of breast milk. It is imperative that healthcare providers become educated regarding human milk banking because of the increase in informal sharing of breast milk via the Internet. Breast milk that has not been screened and treated has the risk of transmitting infections such as hepatitis and HIV. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the selection criteria for suitable donors and how to approach families when the death of an infant is imminent. Human milk banks are able to provide human milk to adopted, preterm, or ill infants whose mothers are unable to provide their own milk.


16466.   Adebami OJ, Oyedeji GA, Owa JA, Oyelami OA. Maternal factors in the etiology of fetal malnutrition in Nigeria. Pediatr Int. 2007 Apr;49(2):150-5.

16467. Adibe OO, Nichol PF, Lim FY, Mattei P. Ad libitum feeds after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: a retrospective comparison with a standardized feeding regimen in 227 infants. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2007 Apr;17(2):235-7.

16468.  Andreasyan K, Ponsonby AL, Dwyer T, Morley R, Riley M, Dear K, Cochrane J. Higher maternal dietary protein intake in late pregnancy is associated with a lower infant ponderal index at birth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;61(4):498-508.

16469.   Arora P, Arora RS. Vitamin D supplementation for non-Western pregnant women: the British experience. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1164-5.

16470.  Ball SC, Benjamin SE, Ward DS. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Apr;107(4):656-61.

16471.   Chisti MJ, Hossain MI, Malek MA, Faruque AS, Ahmed T, Salam MA. Characteristics of severely malnourished under-five children hospitalized with diarrhoea, and their policy implications. Acta Paediatr. 2007 May;96(5):693-6.

16472.  Coulthard MG, Skinner R. Should paediatric central lines be aspirated before use? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Jun;92(6):517-8.

16473.   Cusick SE, Mei Z, Cogswell ME. Continuing anemia prevention strategies are needed throughout early childhood in low-income preschool children. J Pediatr. 2007 Apr;150(4):422-8, 428.e1-2. 

16474.   Fanjiang G, Kleinman RE. Nutrition and performance in children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 May;10(3):342-7. Review.

16475.   Fitzpatrick E, Edmunds LS, Dennison BA. Positive effects of family dinner are undone by television viewing. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Apr;107(4):666-71.

16476.  Fogg L. Home enteral feeding part 1: an overview. Br J Community Nurs. 2007 Jun;12(6):246, 248, 250-52. Review.

16477.   Howard KR. Childhood overweight: parental perceptions and readiness for change. J Sch Nurs. 2007 Apr;23(2):73-9. Review. 

16478.   Hughes LJ. Creating a farm and food learning box curriculum for preschool-aged children and their families. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2007 May-Jun;39(3):171-2.

16479.   Kashyap S. Enteral intake for very low birth weight infants: what should the composition be? Semin Perinatol. 2007 Apr;31(2):74-82. Review.

16480.   Kawchak DA, Schall JI, Zemel BS, Ohene-Frempong K, Stallings VA. Adequacy of dietary intake declines with age in children with sickle cell disease. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 May;107(5):843-8. 

16481.   Kochhar A, Nagi M, Sachdeva R.  Nutrient adequacy of non insulin dependent male diabetics influenced by nutrition counseling. J Hum Ecol 2006; 19(2): 131-7.

16482.   Li C, Ford ES. Is there a single underlying factor for the metabolic syndrome in adolescents? A confirmatory factor analysis. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jun;30(6):1556-61.

16483.   Lumeng JC, Patil N, Blass EM. Social influences on formula intake via suckling in 7 to 14-week-old-infants. Dev Psychobiol. 2007 May;49(4):351-61.

16484.   Mannion CA, Gray-Donald K, Johnson-Down L, Koski KG. Lactating women restricting milk are low on select nutrients. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr;26(2):149-55.

16485.   Martin H, Lindblad B, Norman M. Endothelial function in newborn infants is related to folate levels and birth weight. Pediatrics. 2007 Jun;119(6):1152-8. 

16486.  Miller MC. How important is a good breakfast for children? Harv Ment Health Lett. 2007 May;23(11):8.

16487.   Mitra S P. Study on nutritional status of under five children in slums of Kolkata city. Indian Med J 2006; 100(7): 249-50.

16488.   Morales Y, Schanler RJ. Human milk and clinical outcomes in VLBW infants: how compelling is the evidence of benefit? Semin Perinatol. 2007 Apr;31(2):83-8. Review.

16489.   Moyer-Mileur LJ. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment of very low birth weight infants: the most helpful measurements and why. Semin Perinatol. 2007 Apr;31(2):96-103. Review.

16490.  Mukhopadhyay K, Narnag A, Mahajan R. Effect of human milk fortification in appropriate for gestation and small for gestation preterm babies: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr. 2007 Apr;44(4):286-90.

16491.   Ng PC, Lee CH, Wong SP, Lam HS, Liu FY, So KW, Lee CY, Fok TF. High-dose oral erythromycin decreased the incidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in preterm infants. Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(5):1726-39.

16492.   Olendzki B, Speed C, Domino F. Nutritional assessment and counseling for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease . Indian J Clin Pract 2006; 16(12): 60-7.

16493.   Perlman SE, Saiman L, Larson EL. Risk factors for late-onset health care-associated bloodstream infections in patients in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Infect Control. 2007 Apr;35(3):177-82.

16494.   Phillips S, Edlbeck A, Kirby M, Goday P.  Ideal body weight in children. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Apr;22(2):240-5. Review.

16495.   Roos N, Wahab MA, Chamnan C, Thilsted SH. The role of fish in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A and mineral deficiencies in developing countries. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):1106-9. 

16496.   Wammanda RD, Alegbejo JO. Mothers' perception of the use of nasogastric feeding tubes on their children. Trop Doct. 2007 Apr;37(2):118-9.

16497.   Woolf AD, Goldman R, Bellinger DC. Update on the clinical management of childhood lead poisoning. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Apr;54(2):271-94, viii. Review.