Some Selected Abstracts:


Karasz A Cultural differences in conceptual models of depression. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Apr;60(7):1625-35.

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3544 Jerome Avenue, Bronx, NY 10467, USA.

Members of ethnic minority groups are less likely than white middle class people to seek professional treatment for depression and other mental health problems. One explanation is that the former conceptualize depressive symptoms as social problems or emotional reactions to situations, while the latter are more apt to view depression as a disease requiring professional treatment. Though considerable evidence supports this hypothesis, it is rarely explored directly through cross-cultural comparisons. The present study compares conceptual models of depressive symptoms in two diverse cultural groups in New York City (USA): 36 South Asian (SA) immigrants and 37 European Americans (EA) were presented with a vignette describing depressive symptoms and participated in a semi-structured interview designed to elicit representational models of the symptoms. Results indicate pervasive differences in representational models across the two groups. SA participants identified the "problem" in the vignette in largely social and moral terms. Suggestions for management and health seeking in this group emphasized self-management and lay referral strategies. EAs, by contrast, often proposed alternate, sometimes contradictory, explanatory models for the depressive symptoms. One model emphasized biological explanations ranging from "hormonal imbalance" to "neurological problem." The second model resembled the "situational stress" or "life problem" model described by SAs. The implications of these findings, and directions for future research, are discussed.


Kash KM, Mago R, Kunkel EJ. Psychosocial oncology: supportive care for the cancer patient. Semin Oncol. 2005 Apr;32(2):211-8.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Increasing attention is being paid to the emotional and psychosocial needs of cancer patients. As a result of huge advances in early detection and in treatment modalities, there now are millions of cancer survivors in the United States. There has been a realization that cancer survivors have distinct psychosocial needs. As cancer survivors live longer, reduction of psychological distress has been recognized as being an important part of having an improved quality of life. There have been numerous changes in the field of psychosocial oncology since it first began 25 years ago. Guidelines now exist for the definition of distress and decision trees are available for making the appropriate referrals. Advances in pharmacologic treatment for depression and anxiety have made it possible to decrease distress and increase coping in cancer patients undergoing treatment as well as in cancer survivors. Numerous individual and group therapies have demonstrated effectiveness in improving mood and quality of life in cancer patients and those at high risk for developing cancer. Due to the forthright efforts of cancer patients, there are now many organizations and list serves (e-mailing lists) that cancer survivors can turn to for help before, during, and after cancer treatment. Finally, with the rapid expansion of the internet not only are there websites available as resources, but also the creation of interactive online support is becoming a reality. One of the most important issues in providing supportive care to cancer patients in the future is to meet the individual needs of patients and provide the type of psychological therapy that will work best for them.


Laifenfeld D, Karry R, Klein E, Ben-Shachar D Alterations in cell adhesion molecule L1 and functionally related genes in major depression: a postmortem study. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Apr 1;57(7):716-25.

Laboratory of Psychobiology, The Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, and B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion IIT, Haifa, Israel.

BACKGROUND: Current research in depression aims to delineate genes involved in neuronal plasticity that are altered in the disease or its treatment. We have shown antidepressant induced increases in three interrelated genes, cell adhesion molecule L1 (CAM-L1), laminin, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and a reciprocal decrease in these genes consequent to stress. Presently we hypothesized that CAM-L1, CREB, and laminin may be altered in post mortem brains of depressed subjects. METHODS: Studies were performed in the prefrontal and in the ventral parieto-occipital cortices, of 59 brains from depressed, bipolar, and schizophrenic subjects, and normal controls, obtained from the Stanley Foundation Brain Collection. mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Levels of CAM-L1 and of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) were increased in the prefrontal cortex of the depressed group, while CAM-L1, laminin and pCREB were decreased in the parieto-occipital cortex. Depressed subjects receiving antidepressants differed from subjects not receiving antidepressants in the expression of CAM-L1 and laminin in the parieto-occipital cortex, and in the expression of pCREB in the prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings of specific alterations in depression and antidepressant treatment particularly in CAM-L1 suggest that this gene may play an important role in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression.


Plante GE Depression and cardiovascular disease: a reciprocal relationship. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):45-8.

Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Institute of Geriatrics, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

Until relatively recently, depression has been considered a purely "mental" disorder and therefore in the natural domain of psychologists and psychiatrists. However, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that aging, physical and psychological stress, chronic pain, several metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and established diabetes, alcoholism, inflammatory conditions, and vascular disorders such as arterial hypertension all may be associated with depression. The present review examines some of these depression-associated factors and the mechanisms by which they might give rise to vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, microcirculation endothelial dysfunction, and interstitial disturbances leading to organ damage. A number of disorders involving the circulation can lead progressively and insidiously to large artery rigidity, remodeling of peripheral arteries, and alterations of the microcirculation of large blood vessels. Perturbations in vasa vasorum blood flow may contribute to atherogenesis, in addition to the influence of numerous cellular events involved in inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, etc). Since Hans Selye first described the neuroendocrine cascade generated by experimentally induced stress half a century ago, phenomena such as the axonal release of neurotransmitters (including serotonin), accumulation of metabolites such as homocysteine, platelet-activating factor, and nitric oxide also have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Moreover, vascular consequences of depression such as heart rate and pulse pressure variations may lead to endothelial dysfunction in critical microcirculation networks (cerebral, myocardial, and renal) and initiate physicochemical alterations in interstitial compartments adjacent to vital organs. The appropriate use of ambulatory monitoring of vascular parameters, such as heart rate and pulse pressure, and eventually, early identification of genetic and metabolic markers may prove helpful in the early detection of events preceding and predicting the clinical manifestations of depression.


Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > or = 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;95(9):1060-4

Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, USA.

Psychosocial stress contributes to high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous controlled studies have associated decreasing stress with the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program with lower blood pressure. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, over the long term, all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older subjects who had high blood pressure and who participated in randomized controlled trials that included the TM program and other behavioral stress-decreasing interventions. Patient data were pooled from 2 published randomized controlled trials that compared TM, other behavioral interventions, and usual therapy for high blood pressure. There were 202 subjects, including 77 whites (mean age 81 years) and 125 African-American (mean age 66 years) men and women. In these studies, average baseline blood pressure was in the prehypertensive or stage I hypertension range. Follow-up of vital status and cause of death over a maximum of 18.8 years was determined from the National Death Index. Survival analysis was used to compare intervention groups on mortality rates after adjusting for study location. Mean follow-up was 7.6 +/- 3.5 years. Compared with combined controls, the TM group showed a 23% decrease in the primary outcome of all-cause mortality after maximum follow-up (relative risk 0.77, p = 0.039). Secondary analyses showed a 30% decrease in the rate of cardiovascular mortality (relative risk 0.70, p = 0.045) and a 49% decrease in the rate of mortality due to cancer (relative risk 0.49, p = 0.16) in the TM group compared with combined controls. These results suggest that a specific stress-decreasing approach used in the prevention and control of high blood pressure, such as the TM program, may contribute to decreased mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in older subjects who have systemic hypertension.


12925.  Fedorov IA, Wilson SJ, Davies DE, Holgate ST. Epithelial stress and structural remodelling in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2005 May;60(5):389-94.

12926.  Nel A. Atmosphere. Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles. Science. 2005. May 6;308(5723):804-6.


12927. Adewuya AO, Ola BA. Prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and depressive disorders in Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2005 May;6(3):342-7.

12928.   Azoulay E, Pochard F, Kentish-Barnes N, Chevret S, Aboab J, Adrie C, Annane D, Bleichner G, Bollaert PE, Darmon M, Fassier T, Galliot R, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Goulenok C, Goldgran-Toledano D, Hayon J, Jourdain M, Kaidomar M, Laplace C, Larche J, Liotier J, Papazian L, Poisson C, Reignier J, Saidi F, Schlemmer B; FAMIREA Study Group.  Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 May 1;171(9):987-94.

12929.  Birkeland R, Thompson JK, Phares V. Adolescent motherhood and postpartum depression. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2005 Jun;34(2):292-300.

12930.  Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Babyak MA, Watkins LL, Waugh R, Georgiades A, Bacon SL, Hayano J, Coleman RE, Hinderliter A.  Effects of exercise and stress management training on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Apr 6;293(13):1626-34.

12931.  Chandra PS, Desai G, Ranjan S. HIV & psychiatric disorders. Indian J Med Res. 2005 Apr;121(4):451-67. Review.

12932.  Dahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. Stress and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Med Educ. 2005 Jun;39(6):594-604.

12933.  Davies V, Gledhill J, McFadyen A, Whitlow B, Economides D. Psychological outcome in women undergoing termination of pregnancy for ultrasound-detected fetal anomaly in the first and second trimesters: a pilot study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr;25(4):389-92.

12934. de Kloet ER, Sibug RM, Helmerhorst FM, Schmidt M. Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the brain for later life. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005 Apr;29(2):271-81.

12935.  Furlan PM, Ten Have T, Cary M, Zemel B, Wehrli F, Katz IR, Gettes DR, Evans DL. The role of stress-induced cortisol in the relationship between depression and decreased bone mineral density. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Apr 15;57(8):911-7.

12936.  Hamet P, Tremblay J. Genetics and genomics of depression. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):10-5. Review.

12937.  Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Zatzick D, Bundy C, Roy-Byrne PP. The impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder on short-term clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 May;162(5):970-6.

12938.  Horowitz JA, Damato EG, Duffy ME, Solon L. The relationship of maternal attributes, resources, and perceptions of postpartum experiences to depression. Res Nurs Health. 2005 Apr;28(2):159-71.

12939.  Jacobsen PB, Donovan KA, Trask PC, Fleishman SB, Zabora J, Baker F, Holland JC.   Screening for psychologic distress in ambulatory cancer patients. Cancer. 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1494-502.

12940.  Karasz A. Cultural differences in conceptual models of depression. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Apr;60(7):1625-35.

12941.  Kash KM, Mago R, Kunkel EJ. Psychosocial oncology: supportive care for the cancer patient. Semin Oncol. 2005 Apr;32(2):211-8. Review.

12942.  Katerndahl D, Burge S, Kellogg N. Predictors of development of adult psychopathology in female victims of childhood sexual abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005 Apr;193(4):258-64.

12943.  Laifenfeld D, Karry R, Klein E, Ben-Shachar D. Alterations in cell adhesion molecule L1 and functionally related genes in major depression: a postmortem study. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Apr 1;57(7):716-25.

12944.  McEwen BS. Glucocorticoids, depression, and mood disorders: structural remodeling in the brain. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):20-3. Review.

12945.  Miyaoka T, Yasukawa R, Yasuda H, Shimizu M, Mizuno S, Sukegawa T, Inagaki T, Horiguchi J. Urinary excretion of biopyrrins, oxidative metabolites of bilirubin, increases in patients with psychiatric disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 May;15(3):249-52.

12946.  Monroe SM, Harkness KL. Life stress, the "kindling" hypothesis, and the recurrence of depression: considerations from a life stress perspective. Psychol Rev. 2005 Apr;112(2):417-45. Review.

12947.  Noble RE. Depression in women. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):49-52. Review.

12948.  Plante GE. Depression and cardiovascular disease: a reciprocal relationship. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):45-8. Review.

12949.  Steptoe A, Whitehead DL. Depression, stress, and coronary heart disease: the need for more complex models. Heart. 2005 Apr;91(4):419-20.

12950.  Wurtman RJ. Genes, stress, and depression. Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5 Suppl 1):16-9. Review.

Heart Disease:

12951. Armstrong WF, Zoghbi WA. Stress echocardiography: current methodology and clinical applications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jun 7;45(11):1739-47. Review.

12952.  Biagini E, Schinkel AF, Bax JJ, Rizzello V, van Domburg RT, Krenning BJ, Bountioukos M, Pedone C, Vourvouri EC, Rapezzi C, Branzi A, Roelandt JR, Poldermans D. Long term outcome in patients with silent versus symptomatic ischaemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography. Heart. 2005 Jun;91(6):737-42.

12953.  French D, Maissi E, Marteau TM.  The purpose of attributing cause: beliefs about the causes of myocardial infarction. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Apr;60(7):1411-21.

12954.  Friedman E. Neurobiology of managing perceived stress. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Apr;97(4):583-4.

12955.  Maseri A. Myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress. N Engl J Med. 2005 May 5;352(18):1923-5; author reply 1923-5.

12956. Petix NR, Sestini S, Coppola A, Marcucci G, Nassi F, Taiti A, Guarnaccia V, Mennuti A, Mazzoni V, Zipoli A.  Prognostic value of combined perfusion and function by stress technetium-99m sestamibi gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jun 1;95(11):1351-7.

12957.  Sanfilippo AJ, Abdollah H, Knott TC, Link C, Hopman W. Stress echocardiography in the evaluation of women presenting with chest pain syndrome: a randomized, prospective comparison with electrocardiographic stress testing. Can J Cardiol. 2005 Apr;21(5):405-12.


12958.  Hogue CJ, Bremner JD. Stress model for research into preterm delivery among black women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;192(5 Suppl):S47-55. Review.

12959.  Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI.  Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > or = 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;95(9):1060-4.