Some selected abstract:


Alvarez-Lerma F, Grau S, Alvarez-Beltran M. Levofloxacin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 May;12 Suppl 3:81-92. Review.

Service of Intensive Care Medicine, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.

The use of levofloxacin in critically ill patients has progressively increased since commercial marketing of the drug in 1999, despite the fact that few studies have been designed to assess the use of levofloxacin in this population. Pharmacological characteristics, broad spectrum of activity, and tolerability account for the high interest in the drug for the treatment of different infectious diseases, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and the recommendation of levofloxacin in guidelines developed by a number of scientific societies. According to pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data, it seems reasonable to assume that an increase in activity follows from a larger dose, so that 500 mg/12 h is adequate in patients with VAP. In critically ill patients with VAP, levofloxacin monotherapy is indicated for empirical treatment of patients with early onset pneumonia without risk factors for multiresistant pathogens, and in combination therapy for late onset VAP or for patients at risk for multiresistant pathogens. The use of levofloxacin in combination therapy is supported by multiple reasons, including: increased empirical coverage in infections with suspected intracellular pathogens; substitution for more toxic antimicrobial agents (e.g., aminoglycosides) in patients with renal dysfunction and in those at risk for renal insufficiency; and severity of systemic response to infection (septic shock) that justifies multiple treatment with better tolerated antibiotics. The availability of the oral formulation allows sequential therapy, switching from the intravenous route to the oral route. Levofloxacin is well tolerated by critically ill patients, with few adverse events of mild to moderate severity.


Artinian V, Krayem H, DiGiovine B. Effects of early enteral feeding on the outcome of critically ill mechanically ventilated medical patients. Chest. 2006 Apr;129(4):960-7.

Henry Ford Hospital, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, 2799 W Grand Blvd, K-17, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of early enteral feeding on the outcome of critically ill medical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected large multi-institutional ICU database. PATIENTS: A total of 4,049 patients requiring mechanical ventilation for > 2 days. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Patients were classified according to whether or not they received enteral feeding within 48 h of mechanical ventilation onset. The 2,537 patients (63%) who did receive enteral feeding were labeled as the "early feeding group," and the remaining 1,512 patients (37%) were labeled as the "late feeding group." The overall ICU and hospital mortality were lower in the early feeding group (18.1% vs 21.4%, p = 0.01; and 28.7% vs 33.5%, p = 0.001, respectively). The lower mortality rates in the early feeding group were most evident in the sickest group as defined by quartiles of severity of illness scores. Three separate models were done using each of the different scores (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, simplified acute physiology score II, and mortality prediction model at time 0). In all models, early enteral feeding was associated with an approximately 20% decrease in ICU mortality and a 25% decrease in hospital mortality. We also analyzed the data after controlling for confounding by matching for propensity score. In this analysis, early feeding was again associated with decreased ICU and hospital mortality. In all adjusted analysis, early feeding was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) developing. CONCLUSION: Early feeding significantly reduces ICU and hospital mortality based mainly on improvements in the sickest patients, despite being associated with an increased risk of VAP developing. Routine administration of such therapy in medical patients receiving mechanical ventilation is suggested, especially in patients at high risk of death.


Bose A, Coles CL, Gunavathi, John H, Moses P, Raghupathy P, Kirubakaran C, Black RE, Brooks WA, Santosham M. Efficacy of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized children <2 y old. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006May;83(5):1089-96; quiz 1207.

Departments of Community Medicine and Child Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in undernourished young children in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adjuvant zinc therapy on recovery from severe pneumonia by hospitalized children in southern India who were receiving standard antibiotic therapy. DESIGN: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at the Christian Medical College Hospital, an 1800-bed teaching hospital in Tamilnadu, India. Enrollment and follow-up occurred between September 2003 and August 2004. Children aged 2-23 mo (n = 299) who were hospitalized with severe pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive 10-mg tablets of zinc sulfate or placebo twice a day during hospitalization, along with standard therapy for severe pneumonia. All clinical signs and symptoms of pneumonia were assessed and recorded at 8-h intervals. RESULTS: There were no clinical or statistically significant differences in the duration of tachypnea, hypoxia, chest indrawing, inability to feed, lethargy, severe illness, or hospitalization. Zinc supplementation was associated with a significantly longer duration of pneumonia in the hot season (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation had no overall effect on the duration of hospitalization or of clinical signs associated with severe infection in young children hospitalized for severe pneumonia in southern India. This finding differs from the results of 2 previously reported trials wherein zinc supplementation was associated with a shorter period of recovery from severe pneumonia. Given the conflicting results, further research in representative settings is required to help clarify the role of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia.


Carey TS, Hanson L, Garrett JM, Lewis C, Phifer N, Cox CE, Jackman A. Expectations and outcomes of gastric feeding tubes. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6):527.e11-6.

The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7590, USA.

PURPOSE: To compare expected outcomes with actual outcomes from tube feeding in adult patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two North Carolina hospitals. Surrogates were interviewed shortly after feeding tube insertion and at 3- and 6-month follow-up; chart abstraction and death certificate review also were carried out. Participants were surrogate decision-makers for consecutive adult patients who received new feeding tubes. RESULTS: There were 288 patients with surrogate decision-makers enrolled. Mean age was 65 years; 30% had a primary diagnosis of stroke, 16% neurodegenerative disorder, 20% head and neck cancer, and 30% other diagnoses. At 3 months, 21% of patients had died, and 6-month mortality was 30%. At 3 months, 38% of survivors were residing in a nursing home, and 27% had the feeding tube removed. Patients were impaired in most activities of daily living (ADLs) with little change over time. Medical complications were common: 25% of patients had decubitus ulcers at 3 months, and 24% had at least one episode of pneumonia. Perceived global quality of life was poor at 4.6 (on a 0-10 scale) at baseline, and surrogates anticipated this would improve to 8.0 with tube feeding. Family surrogates' expectations for improvement from the feeding tube were very high at baseline and remained so at 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Families' high expectations of benefit from tube feeding are in contrast to clinical outcomes. Providers and families need better information about the outcomes of this common procedure.


Demirkaya E, Atay AA, Musabak U, Sengul A, Gok F. Ceftriaxone-related hemolysis and acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 May;21(5):733-6.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, 06018, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey.

A 5-year-old girl with no underlying immune deficiency or hematologic disease was treated with a combination of ceftriaxone and ampicilline-sulbactam for pneumonia. On the ninth day of the therapy, she developed oliguria, paleness, malaise, immune hemolytic anemia (IHA) and acute renal failure (ARF). Laboratory studies showed the presence of antibodies against ceftriaxone. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) was diagnosed by renal biopsy. The patient's renal insufficiency was successfully treated with peritoneal dialysis without any complications. The patient recovered without any treatment using steroids or other immunosuppressive agents.


Depuydt P, Myny D, Blot S. Nosocomial pneumonia: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):192-7. review.

Department of Intensive Care, Ghent University, De Pintelaan, Belgium.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent advances in the aetiology of nosocomial pneumonia, and in strategies to increase accuracy of diagnosis and antibiotic prescription while limiting unnecessary antibiotic consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Bacterial pathogens still cause the bulk of nosocomial pneumonia and are of concern because of ever-rising antimicrobial resistance. Yet, the pathogenic role of fungal and viral organisms is increasingly recognized. Since early appropriate antimicrobial therapy is the cornerstone of an effective treatment, further studies have been conducted to improve appropriateness of early antibiotic therapy. De-escalation strategies combine initial broad-spectrum antibiotics to maximize early antibiotic coverage with a subsequent focusing of the antibiotic spectrum when the cause is identified. Invasive techniques probably do not alter the immediate outcome but have the potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure. Decisions to stop or change antibiotic therapy are hampered due to a lack of reliable parameters to assess the resolution of pneumonia. SUMMARY: Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pneumonia both challenges treatment and mandates limitation of selection pressure by reducing antibiotic burden. Treating physicians should be both aggressive in initiating antimicrobials when suspecting nosocomial pneumonia but willing to discontinue antimicrobials when diagnostic results point to an alternative diagnosis. Efforts should be made to limit duration of antibiotic therapy when possible.


El Moussaoui R, de Borgie CA, van den Broek P, Hustinx WN, Bresser P, van den Berk GE, Poley JW, van den Berg B, Krouwels FH, Bonten MJ, Weenink C, Bossuyt PM, Speelman P, Opmeer BC, Prins JM. Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study. BMJ. 2006 Jun 10;332(7554):1355.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of discontinuing treatment with amoxicillin after three days or eight days in adults admitted to hospital with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia who substantially improved after an initial three days' treatment. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled non-inferiority trial. SETTING: Nine secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia (pneumonia severity index score < or = 110). INTERVENTIONS: Patients who had substantially improved after three days' treatment with intravenous amoxicillin were randomly assigned to oral amoxicillin (n = 63) or placebo (n = 56) three times daily for five days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the clinical success rate at day 10. Secondary outcome measures were the clinical success rate at day 28, symptom resolution, radiological success rates at days 10 and 28, and adverse events. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable, with the exception of symptom severity, which was worse in the three day treatment group. In the three day and eight day treatment groups the clinical success rate at day 10 was 93% for both (difference 0.1%, 95% confidence interval--9% to 10%) and at day 28 was 90% compared with 88% (difference 2.0%,--9% to 15%). Both groups had similar resolution of symptoms. Radiological success rates were 86% compared with 83% at day 10 (difference 3%,--10% to 16%) and 86% compared with 79% at day 28 (difference 6%,--7% to 20%). Six patients (11%) in the placebo group and 13 patients (21%) in the active treatment group reported adverse events (P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuing amoxicillin treatment after three days is not inferior to discontinuing it after eight days in adults admitted to hospital with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia who substantially improved after an initial three days' treatment.


Glikman D, Matushek SM, Kahana MD, Daum RS. Pneumonia and empyema caused by penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis: a case report and literature review. Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):e1061-6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Pneumonia is an uncommon manifestation of Neisseria meningitidis infection, and empyema is rarely reported. Uniform penicillin susceptibility has been assumed for meningococcal infections for many years, but decreased penicillin susceptibility has been recognized recently with increasing frequency. Breakpoints to define different categories of susceptibility were published recently by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. We report the case of a teenage girl with sepsis and extensive bilateral pneumonia with empyema caused by an N meningitidis isolate that was resistant to penicillin. Her protracted clinical course suggested that penicillin resistance contributed to her delayed recovery. Our experience with this patient suggests that susceptibility testing should be performed in every case of N meningitidis isolation, and treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin should be provided until the susceptibility results are known. Clinical suspicion of N meningitidis as a possible cause of respiratory symptoms accompanied by hypotension, even in the absence of a rash, may aid in diagnosis and therefore in the treatment and provision of prophylaxis to contacts of patients with meningococcal disease.


Nathan RV, Rhew DC, Murray C, Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Weingarten SR.  In-hospital observation after antibiotic switch in pneumonia: a national evaluation. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6):512.e1-7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, Calif, USA.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical benefit of in-hospital observation after the switch from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics in a large Medicare population. Retrospective studies of relatively small size indicate that the practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unnecessary. METHODS: We performed a retrospective examination of the US Medicare National Pneumonia Project database. Eligible patients were discharged with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis consistent with community-acquired pneumonia and divided into 2 groups: 1) a "not observed" cohort, in which patients were discharged on the same day as the switch from IV to oral antibiotics and 2) an "observed for 1 day" cohort, in which patients remained hospitalized for 1 day after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics. We compared clinical outcomes between these 2 cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 39,242 cases were sampled, representing 4341 hospitals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. There were 5248 elderly patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria involving a length of stay of no more than 7 hospital days (2536 "not observed" and 2712 "observed for 1 day" patients). Mean length of stay was 3.8 days for the "not observed" cohort and 4.5 days for the "observed for 1 day" cohort (P <.0001). There was no significant difference in 14-day hospital readmission rate (7.8% in the "not observed" cohort vs 7.2% "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.12; P =.367) and 30-day mortality rate (5.1% "not observed" cohort vs 4.4% in the "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67-1.11; P =.258) between the "not observed" and "observed for 1 day" cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the US Medicare Pneumonia Project database provides further evidence that the routine practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients with CAP may be avoided in patients who are clinically stable although these findings should be verified in a large randomized controlled trial.


Sharma A, Ohri S, Bambery P, Singh S. Idiopathic endogenous lipoid pneumonia. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006 Apr-Jun;48(2):143-5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Lipoid pneumonia is a rare pulmonary disorder having no classical radiological appearance. We report a 33-year-old male, ex-smoker who was referred to us with history of cough, mild mucoid expectoration and progressively increasing dyspnoea since one year. He was investigated at local hospital and was treated with 30 mg prednisolone per day for 6 months for sarcoidosis without any response. On examination, he was normal except for fine basal crepitations in chest. Pulmonary function test (PFT) revealed mild airway obstruction. High resolution computerised tomographic scan (HRCT scan) revealed bilateral reticulonodular shadows and bronchiectasis in lower zones. Open lung biopsy revealed lipoid pneumonia. As there was no history of nasal distillation of oils, it was diagnosed to be idiopathic. The relevant literature is reviewed.


Shiber JR, Santana J. Dyspnea. Med Clin North Am. 2006 May;90(3):453-79. Review.

Department of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA.

When evaluating a dyspneic patient in the office, a quick initial assessment of the airway, breathing, and circulation, while gathering a brief history and focused physical examination are necessary. Most often, an acute cardiopulmonary disorder, such as CHF, cardiac ischemia, pneumonia, asthma, or COPD exacerbation, can be identified and treated. Stable patients who improve can be sent home, but those in acute distress with unstable or impending unstable conditions need to be transferred emergently to definitive care. Because of the difficult logistics involved in attempting to work up an outpatient for new onset of SOB, some patients will need to be transferred to the nearest ED for a definitive diagnosis.


Rojas MX, Granados C. Oral antibiotics versus parenteral antibiotics for severe pneumonia in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD004979. Review.

Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio, Cr. 7 #40-62, 2nd floor, Bogota, DC, Colombia.

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries. When hospitalisation is required, the usual practice includes administering parenteral antibiotics if a bacterial infection is suspected. This has disadvantages as it causes pain and discomfort to the children, which may lead to treatment refusal or reduced compliance. It is also associated with needle-related complications. In some settings this equipment is in short supply or unavailable necessitating transfer of the child, which increases risks and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the equivalence in effectiveness and safety of oral antibiotic compared to parenteral antibiotic therapies in the treatment of severe pneumonia in children between three months and five years of age. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005); MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2005); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2005) and LILACS (February 2005). SELECTION CRITERIA: The review included published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing any oral antibiotic therapy with any parenteral antibiotic therapy for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children from three months to five years of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The search yielded more than 1300 titles. Only three studies met all criteria for eligibility. One of the identified trials is yet to publish its results. We did not perform a meta-analysis because of clinical heterogeneity of therapies compared in the included trials. MAIN RESULTS: Campbell 1988 compared oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular procaine penicillin followed by oral ampicillin in 134 children. At the seventh day of follow up, treatment failure occurred in 6/66 (9.1%) in the oral co-trimoxazole group and 7/68 (10.2%) in the combined-treatment group. The risk difference was -0.01% (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11 to 0.09). The APPIS Group 2004 evaluated 1702 patients comparing oral amoxicillin versus intravenous penicillin for two days followed by oral amoxicillin. After 48 hours, treatment failure occurred in 161/845 (19%) in the amoxicillin group and 167/857 (19%) in the parenteral penicillin group. The risk difference was -0.4% (95% CI -4.2 to 3.3). The authors reported similar recovery in both groups at 5 and 14 days. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral therapy appears to be an effective and safe alternative to parenteral antibiotics in hospitalised children with severe pneumonia who do not have any serious signs or symptoms.


Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 May;21(4):410-20.Review.

The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.

Varicella infection during the first and second trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk for congenital varicella syndrome 0.5-1.5% above the baseline risk for major malformation. Third trimester infection may lead to maternal pneumonia which can be life threatening if not treated appropriately. Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) should be administered as soon as possible preferably within 96 h from exposure to prevent maternal infection or subsequent complications. Later than 96 h, the effectiveness of VZIG has not been evaluated. Neonatal varicella is more severe if maternal rash appears 5 days prior to or 2 days after delivery. The newborn should be given VZIG immediately. Intravenous acyclovir is recommended for maternal pneumonia and severely affected neonate. No controlled study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of acyclovir or valacyclovir for postexposure prophylaxis to pregnant women or neonates. Unlike primary varicella infection in pregnancy, herpes zoster has not been documented to cause complications unless in the disseminated form. The advent of advanced imaging techniques and molecular biotechniques has improved prenatal diagnosis. With increase use of vaccination, the incidence of chickenpox in pregnancy is expected to decline in the future.

Diagnosis,  Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14813.  Bratzler DW. Blood cultures in pneumonia patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jun;47(6):580; author reply 581.

14814.  Broom MA, Wang LL, Otta SK, Knutsen AP, Siegfried E, Batanian JR, Kelly ME, Shah M. Successful umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and combined immunodeficiency. Clin Genet. 2006 Apr;69(4):337-43.

14815.  Chu WC, Li AM, Ng AW, So HK, Lam WW, Lo KL, Yeung MC, Yau YS, Chiu K, Leung CW, Ng PC, Hon KL, Mo KW, Fok TF, Ahuja AT. Thin-Section CT 12 Months After the Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Pediatric Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Jun;186(6):1707-14.

14816.  Gibbons FK, Branda JA, Shepard JA. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 12-2006. A 37-year-old man with hemoptysis and a pulmonary infiltrate. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 20;354(16):1729-37.

14817.  Goossens H, Little P. Community acquired pneumonia in primary care. BMJ. 2006 May 6;332(7549):1045-6.

14818.  Hoare Z, Lim WS. Pneumonia: update on diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2006 May 6;332(7549):1077-9. Review.

14819.  Hoque KM, Binder HJ. Zinc in the treatment of acute diarrhea: current status and assessment. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jun;130(7):2201-5. Review.

14820.  Kamath AV, Myint PK. Recognizing and managing severe community-acquired pneumonia. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2006 Apr;67(4):M76-8. Review.

14821.  Koga T, Aizawa H. Pneumonia: ... and to tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in community acquired pneumonia. BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1214.

14822.  Kuzucu A. Parasitic diseases of the respiratory tract. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):212-21. Review.

14823.  Lednicky JA, Rayner JO. Uncommon respiratory pathogens. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):235-9. Review.

14824.  Lomas DA. The selective advantage of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 May 15;173(10):1072-7.    Review.

14825.  Peralta G, Rodriguez-Lera MJ, Garrido JC, Ansorena L, Roiz MP. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 27;6:79.

14826.  Porcel JM, Light RW.  Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Apr 1;73(7):1211-20. Review.

14827.  Ranganathan LN, Ramaratnam S.  Rapid versus slow withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005003. Review.

14828.  Romero-Gomez M, Otero MA, Sanchez-Munoz D, Ramirez-Arcos M, Larraona JL, Suarez Garcia E, Vargas-Romero J. Acute hepatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in adult patients. J Hepatol. 2006 Apr;44(4):827-8.

14829.  Rice LB. Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6 Suppl 1):S11-9; discussion S62-70. Review.

14830.  Wazni OM, Fahmy TS, Natale A. Circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 25;354(21):2289-91; author reply 2289-91.


14831.  Cals J, Hopstaken R. Lower respiratory tract infections: treating patients or diagnoses? J Fam Pract. 2006 Jun;55(6):545-6; author reply 546-7.

14832.  Carratala J, Martin-Herrero JE, Mykietiuk A, Garcia-Rey C. Clinical experience in the management of community-acquired pneumonia: lessons from the use of fluoroquinolones. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 May;12 Suppl 3:2-11. Review.

14833.  Challen K, Walter D, Bright J, Bentley A.  More on pneumonia: clinical judgment is also needed with CURB score. BMJ. 2006 Jun 3;332(7553):1333.

14834.  Chua Tde J, File TM Jr. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: gearing towards shorter-course therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;19(2):185-8. Review.

14835.  Craven DE. What is healthcare-associated pneumonia, and how should it be treated? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;19(2):153-60. Review.

14836.  Dean NC, Sperry P, Wikler M, Suchyta MS, Hadlock C. Comparing gatifloxacin and clarithromycin in pneumonia symptom resolution and process of care. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Apr;50(4):1164-9.

14837.  Hambidge KM. Zinc and pneumonia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):991-2.

14838.  Jeena P, Thea DM, MacLeod WB, Chisaka N, Fox MP, Coovadia HM, Qazi S; Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (APPIS Group). Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Apr;84(4):269-75.  Jereb M, Kotar T. Usefulness of procalcitonin to differentiate typical from atypical community-acquired pneumonia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 Apr;118(5-6):170-4.

14839.  Laifer G, Frei R, Adler H, Fluckiger U. Necrotising pneumonia complicating a nasal furuncle. Lancet. 2006 May 13;367(9522):1628.

14840.  Lim WS, Hoare Z.  Pneumonia: let's avoid confusion of secondary and primary care issues in pneumonia. BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1214.

14841.  Marchetti F, Berti I. Pneumonia: macrolides or amoxicillin for community acquired pneumonia? BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1213-4.

14842.  Maroun V, Cochrane D, Allegra J. Delays in antibiotic administration associated with chest X-ray negative and computed tomographic scan positive for pneumonia. Am J Emerg Med. 2006 May;24(3):390-1.

14843.  Owen D, Shiner T, Sivakumar R, Dent R, Hilton C. Pneumonia: are we putting the CURB score into practice? BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1213.

14844.  Ramphal R, Ambrose PG. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and clinical outcomes: current data. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 15;42 Suppl 4:S164-72. Review.

14845.  Ranganathan LN, Ramaratnam S.  Rapid versus slow withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005003. Review.

14846.  Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 May;21(4):410-20.Review.