(Infants, Children, Adolescents, Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women & Elderly)


Selected abstracts:

1.                  Abrams SA.  In utero physiology: role in nutrient delivery and fetal development for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):604S-607S.  

US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Only limited aspects of the transfer of calcium across the placenta to the fetus are known. Clinical outcome studies suggest that bone mineral mass in newborn infants is related to maternal size and dairy intake. Available data indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also limit in utero fetal bone mineral accumulation. Recent data suggest that maternal vitamin D status affects long-term childhood bone status. At present, no strong evidence exists showing that improving maternal calcium or vitamin D status has a long-term positive effect on childhood bone mass. In premature infants, clinical rickets and fractures are common. In utero rates of calcium accretion during the third trimester cannot be readily achieved. The use of fortifiers designed for human-milk-fed infants or specially designed high-mineral-containing formulas allows for bone mineral accretion at or near in utero rates. Recent data have shown that physical therapy programs, judiciously used, in combination with adequate mineral content, can enhance bone mineral mass in preterm infants. There is little evidence for the use of high doses of vitamin D in the management of premature infants. After hospital discharge, continuation of a relatively high mineral intake has been shown to enhance bone mineral acquisition. Future research should include evaluations of the role of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal and infant bone mass, the mineral needs of infants weighing <800 g or <25 wk gestation, and the optimal discharge management of premature infants who are at risk of low bone mass.

2.                  Agostoni C, Goulet O, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, Moreno L, Puntis J, Rigo J, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Turck D; ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.  Fermented infant formulae without live bacteria. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Mar;44(3):392-7.

San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Infant and follow-on (or "follow-up") formulae fermented with lactic acid-producing bacteria during the production process contain no viable bacteria in the final product due to their inactivation by heat or other means. In this article the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews published information on their clinical evaluation. In a systematic literature review, 2 randomized clinical trials including 933 infants were identified as meeting our predefined inclusion criteria. Our analysis reveals that only limited published data are available on the effects of fermented infant formulae. There are indications from 2 studies that some fermented infant formulae may reduce the occurrence or severity of infectious diarrhea in infants. It is recommended that the effects of fermented infant formulae on infectious diarrhea and other relevant outcomes should be assessed in further randomized controlled trials according to current scientific standards. The available data do not allow general conclusions to be drawn on the use and effects of fermented formulae for infants.

3.                  De Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Borghi E.  Comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the CDC 2000 growth charts. J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):144-8. 

Department of Nutrition, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The evaluation of child growth trajectories and the interventions designed to improve child health are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The U.S. CDC and the WHO, in May 2000 and April 2006, respectively, released new growth charts to replace the 1977 NCHS reference. The WHO charts are based for the first time on a prescriptive, prospective, international sample of infants selected to represent optimum growth. This article compares the WHO and CDC curves and evaluates the growth performance of healthy breast-fed infants according to both. As expected, there are important differences between the WHO and CDC charts that vary by age group, growth indicator, and specific Z-score curve. Differences are particularly important during infancy, which is likely due to differences in study design and characteristics of the sample, such as type of feeding. Overall, the CDC charts reflect a heavier, and somewhat shorter, sample than the WHO sample. This results in lower rates of undernutrition (except during the first 6 mo of life) and higher rates of overweight and obesity when based on the WHO standards. Healthy breast-fed infants track along the WHO standard's weight-for-age mean Z-score while appearing to falter on the CDC chart from 2 mo onwards. Shorter measurement intervals in the WHO standards result in a better tool for monitoring the rapid and changing rate of growth in early infancy. Their adoption would have important implications for the assessment of lactation performance and the adequacy of infant feeding and would bring coherence between the tools used to assess growth and U.S. national guidelines that recommend breast-feeding as the optimal source of nutrition during infancy.

4.                  Erikson KM, Thompson K, Aschner J, Aschner M.  Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on the neonate. Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;113(2):369-77.

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA.

Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal found in all tissues, and it is required for normal amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. While Mn deficiency is extremely rare in humans, toxicity due to overexposure of Mn is more prevalent. The brain appears to be especially vulnerable. Mn neurotoxicity is most commonly associated with occupational exposure to aerosols or dusts that contain extremely high levels (>1-5 mg Mn/m(3)) of Mn, consumption of contaminated well water, or parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with liver disease or immature hepatic functioning such as the neonate. This review will focus primarily on the neurotoxicity of Mn in the neonate. We will discuss putative transporters of the metal in the neonatal brain and then focus on the implications of high Mn exposure to the neonate focusing on typical exposure modes (e.g., dietary and parenteral). Although Mn exposure via parenteral nutrition is uncommon in adults, in premature infants, it is more prevalent, so this mode of exposure becomes salient in this population. We will briefly review some of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity and conclude with a discussion of ripe areas for research in this underreported area of neurotoxicity.

5.                  Fewtrell MS, Morgan JB, Duggan C, Gunnlaugsson G, Hibberd PL, Lucas A, Kleinman RE.  Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):635S-638S. 

MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

Before 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed for 4-6 mo with the introduction of complementary foods (any fluid or food other than breast milk) thereafter. In 2001, after a systematic review and expert consultation, this advice was changed, and exclusive breastfeeding is now recommended for the first 6 mo of life. The systematic review commissioned by the WHO compared infant and maternal outcomes for exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 mo versus 6 mo. That review concluded that infants exclusively breastfed for 6 mo experienced less morbidity from gastrointestinal infection and showed no deficits in growth but that large randomized trials are required to rule out small adverse effects on growth and the development of iron deficiency in susceptible infants. Others have raised concerns that the evidence is insufficient to confidently recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo for infants in developed countries, that breast milk may not meet the full energy requirements of the average infant at 6 mo of age, and that estimates of the proportion of exclusively breastfed infants at risk of specific nutritional deficiencies are not available. Additionally, virtually no data are available to form evidence-based recommendations for the introduction of solids in formula-fed infants. Given increasing evidence that early nutrition and growth have effects on both short- and longer-term health, it is vital that this issue be investigated in high-quality randomized studies. Meanwhile, the consequences of the WHO recommendation should be monitored in different settings to assess compliance and record and act on adverse events. The policy should then be reviewed in the context of new data to formulate evidence-based recommendations.

6.                  Heiman H, Schanler RJ.  Enteral nutrition for premature infants: the role of human milk. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;12(1):26-34.

Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, Manhasset, NY, USA.

Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. Although human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk might not meet the expanded nutrient requirements of very low birth weight premature infants. Human milk fortifiers are available to provide optimum nutrition. This chapter summarizes the benefits and limitations of human milk for the premature infant.

7.                  Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.  Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):639S-645S. 

Section of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80252, USA.

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

8.                  O'Connor MJ, Whaley SE.  Brief intervention for alcohol use by pregnant women. Am J Public Health. 2007 Feb;97(2):252-8.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

OBJECTIVES: We examined the efficacy of brief intervention as a technique to help pregnant women achieve abstinence from alcohol. A second aim was to assess newborn outcomes as a function of brief intervention. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-five pregnant women who were participants in the Public Health Foundation Enterprises Management Solutions Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and who reported drinking alcohol were assigned to an assessment-only or a brief intervention condition and followed to their third trimester of pregnancy. Brief intervention consisted of 10- to 15-minute sessions of counseling by a nutritionist, who used a scripted manual to guide the intervention. Newborn outcomes of gestation, birth-weight, birth length, and viability were assessed. RESULTS: Women in the brief intervention condition were 5 times more likely to report abstinence after intervention compared with women in the assessment-only condition. Newborns whose mothers received brief intervention had higher birthweights and birth lengths, and fetal mortality rates were 3 times lower (0.9%) compared with newborns in the assessment-only (2.9%) condition. CONCLUSIONS: The success of brief intervention conducted in a community setting by nonmedical professionals has significant implications for national public health policies.

9.                  Rao R, Georgieff MK.  Iron in fetal and neonatal nutrition. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;12(1):54-63.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Both iron deficiency and iron excess during the fetal and neonatal period bode poorly for developing organ systems. Maternal conditions such as iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking, and preterm birth are the common causes of perinatal iron deficiency. Long-term neurodevelopmental impairments and predisposition to future iron deficiency that are prevalent in infants with perinatal iron deficiency require early diagnosis, optimal treatment and adequate follow-up of infants at risk for the condition. However, due to the potential for oxidant-mediated tissue injury, iron overload should be avoided in the perinatal period, especially in preterm infants.

10.              Sala-Vila A, Barbosa VM, Calder PC.  Olive oil in parenteral nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Mar;10(2):165-74.

Institute of Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A lipid emulsion for use in parenteral nutrition containing a significant proportion of olive oil in place of soybean oil (ClinOleic; Baxter, Maurepas, France) is now available. The purpose of this review is to provide background information about the rationale for this emulsion, to collate and synthesize the literature about it, and to highlight recent studies in which it has been used. RECENT FINDINGS: ClinOleic offered significant advantage over soybean oil-based emulsions in terms of glucose metabolism in preterm infants. ClinOleic was recently used for the first time in malnourished haemodialysis, trauma and burn patients and was found to be safe and well tolerated. In burn patients ClinOleic was associated with better liver function. SUMMARY: ClinOleic is safe and well tolerated in preterm infants, and in home parenteral nutrition, haemodialysis, trauma and burn patients and may offer advantages with regard to liver function, oxidative stress and immune function. ClinOleic may offer significant advantage over soybean oil-based emulsions in terms of glucose metabolism in preterm infants. More clinical studies of ClinOleic are required and these should include evaluation of oxidative stress markers and immune function as well as of clinical outcomes.

11.              Sanchez C, Lopez-Herce J, Carrillo A, Mencia S, Vigil D.  Early transpyloric enteral nutrition in critically ill children. Nutrition. 2007 Jan;23(1):16-22. 

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

OBJECTIVE: We compared the tolerance of early (within the first 24 h after admission to the pediatric intensive care unit) and late transpyloric enteral nutrition in critically ill children. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study including all critically ill children fed using transpyloric enteral nutrition. The clinical characteristics, energy intake, tolerance, and complications of nutritional delivery between the children with early (first 24 h) and late (after 24 h, range 1-43 d) transpyloric enteral nutrition were compared. RESULTS: Transpyloric nutrition was started within the first 24 h in 202 (38.5%) of the 526 children. There were no differences in the diagnoses, incidence of organ disturbances, doses of vasoactive drugs, or mortality between the two groups. There were no differences in the maximum number of calories delivered or in the duration of the nutrition between children with early and late transpyloric nutrition. The incidence of abdominal distention was lower in the children receiving early transpyloric nutrition (3.5%) than in those receiving nutrition at a later date (7.8%; P < 0.05). Moreover, 6.3% of patients presented diarrhea, with no difference being found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Early transpyloric enteral nutrition is well tolerated in critically ill children and is not associated with an increase in incidence of complications.

12.              Sauer PJ.  Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):608S-613S. 

Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about gestational age, reasons for preterm birth, and, for body-composition data, the reasons for the death of the infant. Second, preterm infants after birth are not comparable with fetuses, being in a completely different environment and receiving a completely different nutrition. For instance, a higher percentage of body fat in preterm infants might well be an adequate adaptation to their environment. To get preterm infants to adhere to their supposed growth curve percentile, catch-up growth is needed. Recent studies indicate that catch-up growth might be advantageous for brain development. It might at the same time increase the incidence of cardiovascular disease in later life. The use of intrauterine growth curves to evaluate postnatal growth needs a critical reevaluation.

13.              Schack-Nielsen L, Michaelsen KF.  Advances in our understanding of the biology of human milk and its effects on the offspring. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):503S-510S.

Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

There is an intense interest in the effects of breast-feeding on the offspring and in understanding the mechanisms behind these effects. More than 50 papers are published monthly on topics such as the influence of breast-feeding on aspects of growth, immune-related effects, mental development, and noncommunicable diseases. Most breast-feeding data are observational; confounding can be difficult to rule out because some maternal factors are associated with both breast-feeding and infant outcomes (e.g., obesity and mental development). The most important short-term immunological benefit of breast-feeding is the protection against infectious diseases. There is also some evidence of lower prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases, childhood cancers, and type I diabetes in breast-fed infants, suggesting that breast-feeding influences the development of the infant's own immune system. One of the most consistent findings of breast-feeding is a positive effect on later intelligence tests with a few test points advantage for breast-fed infants. In the last few years, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effect of breast-feeding on noncommunicable diseases. There seems to be a small protective effect against later overweight and obesity. Blood pressure and blood cholesterol seem to be slightly lower in breast-fed infants; however, the few studies examining breast-feeding and the risk of coronary heart disease in later life did not find an association. Recent data have suggested that breast-feeding can program the insulin-like growth factor-I axis, as 3 studies found that breast-fed infants are taller as adults.

14.              Seal A, Kerac M.  Operational implications of using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards in nutrition programmes: secondary data analysis. BMJ. 2007 Apr 7;334(7596):733.

Centre for International Health and Development, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the implications of adopting the World Health Organization 2006 growth standards in combination with current diagnostic criteria in emergency and non-emergency child feeding programmes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from three standardised nutrition surveys (n=2555) for prevalence of acute malnutrition, using weight for height z score (<-2 and <-3) and percentage of the median (<80% and <70%) cut-offs for moderate and severe acute malnutrition from the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO growth reference (NCHS reference) and the new WHO 2006 growth standards (WHO standards). SETTING: Refugee camps in Algeria, Kenya, and Bangladesh. Population Children aged 6-59 months. RESULTS: Important differences exist in the weight for height cut-offs used for defining acute malnutrition obtained from the WHO standards and NCHS reference data. These vary according to a child's height and according to whether z score or percentage of the median cut-offs are used. If applied and used according to current practice in nutrition programmes, the WHO standards will result in a higher measured prevalence of severe acute malnutrition during surveys but, paradoxically, a decrease in the admission of children to emergency feeding programmes and earlier discharge of recovering patients. The expected impact on case fatality rates of applying the new standards in conjunction with current diagnostic criteria is unknown. CONCLUSIONS: A full assessment of the appropriate use of the new WHO standards in the diagnosis of acute malnutrition is urgently needed. This should be completed before the standards are adopted by organisations that run nutrition programmes targeting acute malnutrition.

15.              Sun J, Huang J, Li W, Wang L, Wang A, Huo J, Chen J, Chen C.  Effects of wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants on iron status and anemia prevalence in iron deficient anemic students in Northern China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(1):116-21.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nan Wei Road, Beijing 100050, China.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of wheat flours fortified with NaFeEDTA, FeSO4 and elemental iron (electrolytic iron), in improving iron status in anemic students. METHODS: Four hundreds anemic students (11 to 18 years old) were divided into four groups and given wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants at different concentrations: control group (no added iron); NaFeEDTA group (20 mg Fe/kg); FeSO4 group (30 mg Fe/kg); and elemental iron group (60 mg Fe/kg). The trial lasted for 6 months and the following parameters were examined every 2 months: whole blood hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin receptor. RESULTS: The flour consumption in the 4 groups was 300-400 g/person/day, accounted for 70% of total cereal consumption in the diets. There were no significant differences in flour consumption among the 4 groups. Blood hemoglobin level increased in all the 3 intervened groups, but the increment in the NaFeEDTA group was significantly higher and earlier than the other 2 groups; and only 1% of the subjected remained anemic at the end of the trial in the NaFeEDTA group, while 40% and 60% of the subjects in the FeSO4 and electrolytic iron group remained anemic, respectively. The order of improvements in free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin and transferring receptor levels were: NaFeEDTA > FeSO4 > electrolytic iron. No significant changes were found in the control group on all the tested parameters during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that even NaFeEDTA was added at a lower level, it has better effects than FeSO4and elemental iron on controlling iron deficiency anemia and improving iron status in anemic children; while elemental iron was the least effective.

15919.  Aly H, Abdel-Hady H, Khashaba M, El-Badry N.  Erythromycin and feeding intolerance in premature infants: a randomized trial. J Perinatol. 2007 Jan;27(1):39-43.

15920.  Barlow SE, Bobra SR, Elliott MB, Brownson RC, Haire-Joshu D.  Recognition of childhood overweight during health supervision visits: Does BMI help pediatricians? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jan;15(1):225-32. 

15921.  Bartle C.  Developing a service for children with iron deficiency anaemia. Nurs Stand. 2007 Jan 17-23;21(19):44-9. 

15922.  Beard J.  Recent evidence from human and animal studies regarding iron status and infant development. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):524S-530S. 

15923.  Bhandari A, Bhandari V.  Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: an update. Indian J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;74(1):73-7. Review. 

15924.  Day SM, Strauss DJ, Vachon PJ, Rosenbloom L, Shavelle RM, Wu YW. Growth patterns in a population of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Mar;49(3):167-71. 

15925.  De Baets AJ, Bulterys M, Abrams EJ, Kankassa C, Pazvakavambwa IE. Care and treatment of HIV-infected children in Africa: issues and challenges at the district hospital level. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Feb;26(2):163-73. Review. 

15926.  Ellis KJ.  Evaluation of body composition in neonates and infants. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;12(1):87-91.

15927.  Gaber KR, Farag MK, Soliman SE, El-Bassyouni HT, El-Kamah G.  Maternal vitamin B12 and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in Egyptian patients. Clin Lab. 2007;53(1-2):69-75. 

15928.  Gibbs K, Lin J, Holzman IR.  Necrotising enterocolitis: the state of the science. Indian J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;74(1):67-72. Review. 

15929.  Grover Z, Tubman R, McGuire W. Glutamine supplementation for young infants with severe gastrointestinal disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD005947. Review. 

15930.  Hulzebos CV, Sauer PJ.  Energy requirements. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;12(1):2-10.

15931.  Jacobs LA, Dickinson JE, Hart PD, Doherty DA, Faulkner SJ.  Normal nipple position in term infants measured on breastfeeding ultrasound. J Hum Lact. 2007 Feb;23(1):52-9. 

15932.  Kelly BN, Huckabee ML, Jones RD, Frampton CM.  The first year of human life: coordinating respiration and nutritive swallowing. Dysphagia. 2007 Jan;22(1):37-43.

15933.  Kim HM, Park J, Kim HS, Kim DH.  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents aged 12-19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2001. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Jan;75(1):111-4.

15934.  Krebs NF.  Food choices to meet nutritional needs of breast-fed infants and toddlers on mixed diets. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):511S-517S. 

15935.  Leaf AA; RCPCH Standing Committee on Nutrition.  Vitamins for babies and young children. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Feb;92(2):160-4. Review. 

15936.  Lee SJ, Cho SJ, Park EA.  Effects of probiotics on enteric flora and feeding tolerance in preterm infants. Neonatology. 2007;91(3):174-9.

15937.  Makay B, Duman N, Ozer E, Kumral A, Yesilirmak D, Ozkan H.  Randomized, controlled trial of early intravenous nutrition for prevention of neonatal jaundice in term and near-term neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Mar;44(3):354-8. 

15938.  Meier PP, Engstrom JL.  Test weighing for term and premature infants is an accurate procedure. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Mar;92(2):F155-6.

15939.  Milla PJ.  Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2007;(59):105-11; discussion 111-4. Review. 

15940.  Neu J.  Gastrointestinal development and meeting the nutritional needs of premature infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):629S-634S. Review. 

15941.  Nguyen SP.  An apple a day keeps the doctor away: children's evaluative categories of food. Appetite. 2007 Jan;48(1):114-8.

15942.  Porcelli PJ.  Practice ordering guidance for neonatal parenteral nutrition. J Perinatol. 2007 Apr;27(4):220-4.

15943.  Pratap A, Kaur N, Shakya VC, Sapkota G, Tanveer-ur Rahman S, Biswas BK, Agrawal CS, Adhikary S.  Triple tube therapy: a novel enteral feeding technique for short bowel syndrome in low-income countries. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Mar;42(3):470-3. 

15944.  Puccio G, Cajozzo C, Meli F, Rochat F, Grathwohl D, Steenhout P.  Clinical evaluation of a new starter formula for infants containing live Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and prebiotics. Nutrition. 2007 Jan;23(1):1-8. 

15945.  Reismann M, von Kampen M, Laupichler B, Suempelmann R, Schmidt AI, Ure BM.  Fast-track surgery in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan;42(1):234-8. 

15946.  Shaw AC, Kalidas K, Crosby AH, Jeffery S, Patton MA.  The natural history of Noonan syndrome: a long-term follow-up study. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Feb;92(2):128-32.

15947.  Singhal A, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M, Kennedy K, Stephenson T, Elias-Jones A, Lucas A.   Promotion of faster weight gain in infants born small for gestational age: is there an adverse effect on later blood pressure? Circulation. 2007 Jan 16;115(2):213-20.

15948.  Te Braake FW, van den Akker CH, Riedijk MA, van Goudoever JB.  Parenteral amino acid and energy administration to premature infants in early life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;12(1):11-8.

15949.  Wilkinson JD, Lee DJ, Arheart KL.  Secondhand smoke exposure and C-reactive protein levels in youth. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Feb;9(2):305-7. 

15950.  Zehle K, Wen LM, Orr N, Rissel C.  "It's not an issue at the moment": a qualitative study of mothers about childhood obesity. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007 Jan-Feb;32(1):36-41.