Complementary Systems of Medicine

(Acupressure, Acupuncture, Alternative Medicine, Aroma therapy, Ayurveda, Complementary Medicine, Herbal Medicine, Homeopathy, Hypnotherapy, Magnetotherapy, Naturopathy, Pranic Healing, Reflexology, Reiki, Siddha, Traditional Medicine, Unani, Yoga & Meditation)


Selected abstracts:

1.                  Armstrong T, Cohen MZ, Hess KR, Manning R, Lee EL, Tamayo G, Baumgartner K, Min SJ, Yung A, Gilbert M. Complementary and alternative medicine use and quality of life in patients with primary brain tumors. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006 Aug;32(2):148-54.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

This study explored the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches and their relationship with demographic and disease characteristics and quality of life (QOL) in the primary brain tumor (PBT) population. One hundred one PBT patients were enrolled in this study. The results showed that 34% of patients reported using CAM. Forty-one percent reported using more than one type of CAM. The average cost of each CAM used per month was 69 dollars, with 20% of patients spending more than 100 dollars per month. The majority (74%) reported that their physicians were unaware of their use of CAM. Data analysis found a higher performance status to be the only factor significantly related to use of CAM therapy (P < 0.005). There was no difference in patient report of QOL between users and nonusers of CAM therapies. The high number of patients who do not report CAM use has potential implications for evaluation of symptoms and response to therapy in this population. This may be especially relevant in those patients with higher functional status participating in clinical trials.

2.                  Baum M, Cassileth BR Daniel R, Ernst E Filshie J Nagel GA Horneber M, Kohn M Lejeune S Maher J Terje R Smith WB. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the management of early breast cancer: recommendations of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA). Eur J Cancer. 2006 Aug;42(12):1711-4.

            Department of Surgery, University College London, The Portland Hospital, Consulting    Rooms, 212-214 Great Portland Street, London W1N 6AH, UK.

            Patients diagnosed with breast cancer have many needs that for a start include the expectation of cure. Where cure is unlikely there is always a place for hope and spiritual support. Furthermore whether dealing with the early stages or with the advanced disease patients require symptomatic control that encompasses pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting and psychological distress. To achieve all of these goals there is a need that goes beyond the role of scientific medicine. This position papers describes the guidelines for the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) developed by a workshop on behalf of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA).

3.                  Baum M, Ernst E, Lejeune S, Horneber M. Role of complementary and alternative medicine in the care of patients with breast cancer: report of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA) Workshop, Florence, Italy, December 2004. Eur J Cancer. 2006 Aug;42(12):1702-10.

            Department of Surgery, University College London, The Portland Hospital, Great portland Street, London W1N 6AH, UK.

            The aim of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA) Workshop, Florence, Italy, December 2004, was to produce guidelines on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for breast cancer. The widespread use of CAM has to be acknowledged and the reasons for this understood. Deficiencies in the practice of conventional medicine that lead to the adoption of CAM need to be addressed. At the same time, CAM use for breast cancer should be quality controlled, avoiding double standards in evaluation, whilst recognising the problems of CAM research. These guidelines, which appear in an accompanying paper, aim to help oncologists and cancer patients alike.

4.                  Chaya MS, Kurpad AV, Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Aug 31;6:28.

Department of Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research foundation, No 19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram circle, Bangalore-560019, India.

BACKGROUND: Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or yogic postures, meditation and pranayama or breathing exercises) for a minimum period of six months, at a residential yoga education and research center at Bangalore. METHODS: The measured BMR of individuals practicing yoga through a combination of practices was compared with that of control subjects who did not practice yoga but led similar lifestyles. RESULTS: The BMR of the yoga practitioners was significantly lower than that of the non-yoga group, and was lower by about 13 % when adjusted for body weight (P < 0.001). This difference persisted when the groups were stratified by gender; however, the difference in BMR adjusted for body weight was greater in women than men (about 8 and 18% respectively). In addition, the mean BMR of the yoga group was significantly lower than their predicted values, while the mean BMR of non-yoga group was comparable with their predicted values derived from 1985 WHO/FAO/UNU predictive equations. CONCLUSION: This study shows that there is a significantly reduced BMR, probably linked to reduced arousal, with the long term practice of yoga using a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory yogic practices.

5.                  Herman PM, Sherman KJ, Erro JH, Cherkin DC, Milliman B, Adams LA.  A method for describing and evaluating naturopathic whole practice. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):20-8.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson.

CONTEXT: Even though complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is generally practiced as distinct systems of medicine, almost all CAM research has focused on single therapies. In order to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of these medical systems, studies that evaluate the outcome of intact whole systems are needed. One challenge lies in defining the whole medical system (and any medical system it is compared to) in a way that ensures treatment fidelity. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a proposed method to measure treatment fidelity (treatment criteria) in studies of the naturopathic medical system. DESIGN: Illustrative example of the theory-based development and post-hoc "testing" of treatment criteria against an existing database of actual treatments prescribed by a random sample of naturopathic physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment criteria for 3 conditions--menopausal symptoms, bowel dysfunction, and fatigue/fibromyalgia--and their comparison to actual treatments prescribed. RESULTS: A set of meaningful, measurable treatment criteria based on the naturopathic practice principles were defined that could have generated the majority (82%-93%) of treatment prescriptions given at visits for these conditions. Several of the treatment criteria components are common across the 3 conditions studied, and might be appropriate for all visits to doctors of naturopathy (NDs). Others are specific to each condition. In addition to ensuring model validity, these criteria help identify critical components of care, enable study replication, provide a measure of quality of care, and are one step toward allowing CAM to be studied as it is generally practiced-as distinct systems of medicine. SETTING: Work was performed at Bastyr University and the University of Arizona.

6.                  Huang MI, Nir Y, Chen B, Schnyer R, Manber R. A randomized controlled pilot study of acupuncture for postmenopausal hot flashes: effect on nocturnal hot flashes and sleep quality. Fertil Steril. 2006 Sep;86(3):700-10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture on postmenopausal nocturnal hot flashes and sleep. DESIGN: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Stanford University School of Medicine and private acupuncture offices. INTERVENTION(S): Active or placebo acupuncture was administered for nine sessions over seven weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Severity and frequency of nocturnal hot flashes from daily diaries and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). PATIENT(S): Twenty-nine postmenopausal women experiencing at least seven moderate to severe hot flashes daily, with E(2) <18 pg/mL and FSH 30.0-110.0 IU/L. RESULT(S): Nocturnal hot-flash severity significantly decreased in the active acupuncture group (28%) compared with the placebo group (6%), P=.017. The frequency of nocturnal hot flashes also decreased in the active group (47%, P=.001), though it was not significantly different from the placebo group (24%, P=.170; effect size = 0.65). Treatment did not differentially influence sleep; however, correlations between improvements in PSQI and reductions in nocturnal hot flash severity and frequency were significant (P<.026). CONCLUSION(S): Acupuncture significantly reduced the severity of nocturnal hot flashes compared with placebo. Given the strength of correlations between improvements in sleep and reductions in nocturnal hot flashes, further exploration is merited.

7.                  Jankun J, Selman SH, Aniola J, Skrzypczak-Jankun E. Nutraceutical inhibitors of urokinase: potential        applications in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Oncol Rep. 2006 Aug;16(2):341-6.

Urology Research Center, Medical University of Ohio, Department of Urology, Toledo, OH 43614-5807, USA.

Epidemiological studies have shown that the clinical incidence of prostate cancer varies by geographical area. When individuals move from low to high prostate cancer incidence areas, the risk of developing cancer increases to the level observed in the indigenous population. It was hypothesized that this observation is related to diet or more specifically to nutraceuticals present in food, medicinal plants, and herbs. Nutraceuticals can inhibit or downregulate enzymes critical for cancer formation. We tested this hypothesis by searching the 3D database of nutraceuticals and docking them to the 3D structure of urokinase. In addition to nutraceuticals, the data-base contains known uPA inhibitors that served as positive controls. From >1,000 compounds, several potential uPA inhibitors have been selected (antipain, leupeptin, folic acid, rosmarinic acid, lavendustin A, fisetin, myricetin, tolfenamic acid). Some of these were subject to further tests on inhibitory activity and inhibition of sprout formation. We found that compounds selected by computational methods indeed inhibit uPA and sprout formation. However, because the database of nutraceuticals was small, we did not expect to find either many or high affinity/specific inhibitors. Rather, we tested this method as a proof of concept. All the facts described above support the hypothesis that nutrients selected by computerized searches can inhibit unwanted uPA activity and thus reduce angiogenesis. If true, a proper diet rich in uPA-inhibiting nutraceuticals might support the prevention of prostrate cancer and be a supportive tool in prostate cancer treatment.

8.                  Joske DJ, Rao A, Kristjanson L. Critical review of complementary therapies in haemato-oncology. Intern Med J. 2006 Sep;36(9):579-86. Review.

Cancer Support Centre and Department of Haematology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

There is evidence of the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine by Australians diagnosed with cancer. Given the increasing desire of cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicine, it is important that clinicians have a good understanding of the evidence available in this field. This critical review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence pertaining to a range of complementary therapies that are used in a supportive role in the treatment of cancer patients. Treatment methods considered are acupuncture, music therapy, massage and touch therapies and psychological interventions. The efficacy of these complementary therapies in terms of improvement in symptoms and quality of life is examined. Evidence that relates to an effect on immune function and survival is also investigated.

9.                  Khalsa SB, Cope S. Effects of a yoga lifestyle intervention on performance-related characteristics of musicians: a preliminary study. Med Sci Monit. 2006 Aug;12(8):CR325-31.

Division of Sleep Medicine BI, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that yoga and meditation practices are effective in stress management, alleviating anxiety and musculoskeletal problems and improving mood and cognitive and physical performance. Musicians experience a number of challenges in their profession including high levels of stress, performance anxiety and performance-related musculoskeletal conditions. Yoga and meditation techniques are therefore potentially useful practices for professional musicians. MATERIAL/METHODS: Musicians enrolled in a prestigious 2-month summer fellowship program were invited to participate in a regular yoga and meditation program at a yoga center during the course of the program. The 10 participants in the yoga program completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating performance-related musculoskeletal conditions, performance anxiety, mood and flow experience. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited to serve as controls and completed the same assessments (N=8). RESULTS: The yoga participants showed some improvements relative to control subjects on most measures, with the relative improvement in performance anxiety being the greatest. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this preliminary study suggest that yoga and meditation may be beneficial as a routine practice to reduce performance anxiety in musicians.

10.              Kumar D, Bajaj S, Mehrotra R. Knowledge, attitude and practice of complementary and alternative medicines for diabetes. Public Health. 2006 Aug;120(8):705-11.  

Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh, India.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes relating to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in an Indian community, and to determine perceptions about the use of CAM and factors influencing knowledge and usage. SETTING: Endocrine clinic of Swaroop Rani, Nehru Hospital, Allahabad, India. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabetes attending the clinic for the first time. SAMPLE SIZE: A sample of 493 study participants selected by systematic sampling from a population of 6094 patients with diabetes. STUDY VARIABLES: Age, socio-economic status, educational status, religion, family history of disease, knowledge and practice of CAM, reasons for using CAM, method of use and perceived relief. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Normal test of proportions, chi(2) test, Kolomogorov-Smirnov test. RESULTS: Awareness of CAM among patients was high (71%). High prevalence of CAM use was found (67.7%) among all participants, and 95% among participants aware of CAM, mostly using 'naturopathy' (97.3% among users). No significant gap (P>0.10) between knowledge and practice in different categories was observed. Desire for quick and additional relief was the most common perceived reason for using CAM (86.8%). Higher levels of education and socio-economic status were significant positive correlates of CAM use. Knowledge of CAM was gained mainly from friends and neighbours. About 30% of users adopted CAM without allopathic treatment earlier. Only 42.2% of users perceived some relief by using CAM. Lowering of blood sugar was the most common perceived relief. CAM, along with diet control and exercise, resulted in maximum degree of satisfaction (61.9%) experienced by users. No relief was experienced by 53.6% of users of 'naturopathy'. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS: Use of CAM in diabetes is highly prevalent despite high levels of disappointment after its use. In this study, we suggest the need for health education relating to CAM and self-care in diabetes. Use of CAM should be explored with patients before clinical decisions are made.

11.              Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Fisher P, Richardson J. Homeopathy for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the  research. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul;95(3):151-62. Review.

School of Integrated Health, University of Westminster, London, UK.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the clinical research evidence on homeopathy in the treatment of anxiety and anxiety disorders. METHODS: A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library; and of specialist complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) databases: AMED, CISCOM and Hom-Inform was conducted. Efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research using relevant sources and experts in the field. Relevant research was categorised by study type and appraised according to study design. Clinical commentaries were obtained for studies reporting clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Eight randomised controlled studies were identified. The types of anxiety and anxiety disorders studied were test anxiety, generalised anxiety disorder and anxiety related to medical or physical conditions such as cancer or surgical procedures. Single case reports/studies were the most frequently encountered study type but other study types including uncontrolled trials/case series and surveys were also found. No relevant qualitative research was identified. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive search demonstrates that the evidence on the benefit of homeopathy in anxiety and anxiety disorders is limited. A number of studies of homeopathy in such conditions were located but the randomised controlled trials report contradictory results, are underpowered or provide insufficient details of methodology. Several uncontrolled and observational studies reported positive results including high levels of patient satisfaction but because of the lack of a control group, it is difficult to assess the extent to which any response is due to homeopathy. Adverse effects reported appear limited to 'remedy reactions' and included temporary worsening of symptoms and reappearance of old symptoms. On the basis of this review it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on the efficacy or effectiveness of homeopathy for anxiety. However, surveys suggest that homeopathy is quite frequently used by people suffering from anxiety. If shown to be effective, it is possible that homeopathy may have benefits in terms of adverse effects and acceptability to patients. Consequently, further investigation is indicated. Future research should be of pragmatic design and include qualitative studies.

12.              Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the transcendental meditation program and Maharishi consciousness-based health are. Ethn Dis. 2006 Summer;16(3 Suppl 4):S4-15-26. Review.

Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, USA.

This article summarizes the background, rationale, and clinical research on a traditional system of natural health care that may be useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotion of health. Results recently reported include reductions in blood pressure, psychosocial stress, surrogate markers for atherosclerotic CVD, and mortality. The randomized clinical trials conducted so far have involved applications to both primary and secondary prevention as well as to health promotion more generally. The results support the applicability of this approach for reducing ethnic health disparities associated with environmental and psychosocial stress. Proposed mechanisms for the effects of this traditional system include enhanced resistance to physiological and psychological stress and improvements in homeostatic and self-repair processes. This system may offer clinical and cost effectiveness advantages for health care, particularly in preventive cardiology.

13.              Sterer N, Rubinstein Y. Effect of various natural medicinals on salivary protein putrefaction and malodor production. Quintessence Int. 2006 Sep;37(8):653-8.

Department of Prosthodontics, The Hebrew University, Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.

OBJECTIVE: Salivary incubation assays are commonly used in oral malodor studies. Using an in vitro model system, the effect of various natural medicinals (i.e., echinacea, propolis, elder, mastic gum, marigold, sage, lavender, thyme, and chamomile) on salivary protein putrefaction and malodor production was examined. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Malodor production levels were scored by an experienced odor judge. Volatile sulfide levels were measured using a sulfide monitor (Halimeter), and salivary protein degradation was determined densitometrically following electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE). Microbial population was evaluated by viable counts and microscopy. RESULTS: Whereas all of the various medicinals caused some reduction in malodor production from the incubated whole saliva, echinacea and lavender were the most effective. CONCLUSION: The bioassay utilized in the present study suggests that these herbs may inhibit oral malodor production.

14.              Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, Thorpe L, Brazier J, Fitter M, Campbell MJ, Roman M, Walters SJ, Nicholl J. Randomised controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent non-specific low back pain. BMJ. 2006 Sep 23;333(7569):623

Objective: To determine whether a short course of traditional acupuncture improves longer term outcomes  

for patients with persistent non-specific low back pain in primary care. Design: Pragmatic, open, randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three private acupuncture clinics and 18 general practices in York, England. Participants: 241 adults aged 18-65 with non-specific low back pain of 4-52 weeks' duration. Interventions: 10 individualised acupuncture treatments from one of six qualified acupuncturists (160 patients) or usual care only (81 patients).  Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was SF-36 bodily pain, measured at 12 and 24 months. Other outcomes included reported use of analgesics, scores on the Oswestry pain disability index, safety, and patient satisfaction. Results: 39 general practitioners referred 289 patients of whom 241 were randomised. At 12 months average SF-36 pain scores increased by 33.2 to 64.0 in the acupuncture group and by 27.9 to 58.3 in the control group. Adjusting for baseline score and for any clustering by acupuncturist, the estimated intervention effect was 5.6 points (95% confidence interval -0.2 to 11.4) at 12 months (n = 213) and 8.0 points (2.8 to 13.2) at 24 months (n = 182). The magnitude of the difference between the groups was about 10%-15% of the final pain score in the control group. Functional disability was not improved. No serious or life threatening events were reported. Conclusions: Weak evidence was found of an effect of acupuncture on persistent non-specific low back pain at 12 months, but stronger evidence of a small benefit at 24 months. Referral to a qualified traditional acupuncturist for a short course of treatment seems safe and acceptable to patients with low back pain.

15.              Woolhouse M. Complementary medicine for pregnancy complications. Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Sep;35(9):695. Review.

For some women, pregnancy can bring a myriad of distressing symptoms. Nausea affects up to 85% of women during early pregnancy and about half of these women also experience vomiting. For some women, it can be very debilitating. Conventional anti-emetics bring with them a risk of potential teratogenic effects during the critical stage of early pregnancy. Women tend to feel more comfortable taking a natural or herbal substance to help manage these issues.

16.              Yeh GY, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Use of complementary therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 1;98(5):673-80. 

Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Previous studies have suggested that patients with chronic medical conditions use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at a higher rate than the general population. Despite recent interest in CAM for cardiovascular disease, few data are available regarding patterns of use in patients with cardiovascular disease in the United States. This study used the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and analyzed data on CAM use in 10,572 respondents with cardiovascular disease. Among those with cardiovascular disease, 36% had used CAM (excluding prayer) in the previous 12 months. The most commonly used therapies were herbal products (18%) and mind-body therapies (17%). Among herbs, echinacea, garlic, ginseng, ginkgo biloba, and glucosamine with or without chondroitin were most commonly used. Among mind-body therapies, deep-breathing exercises and meditation were most commonly used. Overall, CAM was used most frequently for musculoskeletal complaints (24% of respondents who used mind-body therapies, 22% who used herbs, 45% who used any CAM). Mind-body therapies were also used for anxiety or depression (23%) and stress or emotional health and wellness (16%). Herbs were commonly used for head and chest colds (22%). Fewer respondents (10%) used CAM specifically for their cardiovascular conditions (5% for hypertension, 2% for coronary disease, 3% for vascular insufficiency, < 1% for heart failure or stroke). Most, however, who used CAM for their cardiovascular condition perceived the therapies to be helpful (80% for herbs, 94% for mind-body therapies). CAM use was more common in younger respondents, women, Asians, and those with more education and greater incomes. In conclusion, CAM use, particularly herbs and mind-body therapies, is common in the United States in patients with cardiovascular disease and mirrors use in the general population. CAM use specifically to treat cardiovascular conditions, however, is less common.

15248.  Acero N, Llinares F, Galan de Mera A, Oltra B, Munoz-Mingarro D. Apoptotic and free radical scavenging properties of the methanolic extract of Gentianella alborosea. itoterapia. 2006 Sep;77(6):475-7.  

15249.  Agnoletto V, Chiaffarino F, Nasta P, Rossi R, Parazzini F. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in HIV-infected subjects. Complement Ther Med. 2006 Sep;14(3):193-9.  

15250.  Ahmed N, Coffey JB, Oh R. Clinical inquiries. What is the best management for patients who have a TIA while on aspirin therapy? J Fam Pract. 2006 Jul;55(7):627-8. Review.

15251.  Anitha G, Josepha Lourdu Raj J, Narasimhan S, Anand Solomon K, Rajan SS.   Nimbolide and isonimbolide. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;8(5):445-9.

15252.  Azzazy HM, Mansour MM, Kazmierczak SC. Nanodiagnostics: a new frontier for clinical laboratory medicine. Clin Chem. 2006 Jul;52(7):1238-46.   Review.

15253.  Beal T, Kemper KJ, Gardiner P, Woods C. Long-term impact of four different strategies for delivering an on-line curriculum about herbs and other dietary supplements. BMC Med Educ. 2006 Aug 7;6:39.

15254.  Bellack AS. Scientific and consumer models of recovery in schizophrenia: concordance, contrasts, and implications. Schizophr Bull. 2006 Jul;32(3):432-42.   

15255.  Cohen M. Complementary medicines and weight management. Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Aug;35(8):605-6. Review.

15256.  Ernst E. Integrated medicine: good intentions, poor logic? J R Soc Health. 2006 Sep;126(5):206-7.

15257.  Evanson TA. Addressing domestic violence through maternal-child health home visiting: what we do and do not know. J Community Health Nurs. 2006 Summer;23(2):95-111. Review.

15258.  Fitzpatrick M. Complementary and alternative medicine: why I'm opposed to integration. J R Soc Health. 2006 Sep;126(5):207-8.

15259.  Frei H, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A. Treatment of hyperactive children: increased efficiency through modifications of homeopathic diagnostic procedure. Homeopathy. 2006 Jul;95(3):163-70.

15260.  Goldman E. Cutting costs through prevention. J Med Pract Manage. 2006 Jul-Aug;22(1):41-4.

15261.  Harris RE, Gracely RH, McLean SA, Williams DA, Giesecke T, Petzke F, Sen A, Clauw DJ. Comparison of clinical and evoked pain measures in fibromyalgia. J Pain. 2006 Jul;7(7):521-7.

15262.  Herman CJ, Dente JM, Allen P, Hunt WC.  Ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative therapies among adults with osteoarthritis. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006 Jul;3(3):A80.  

15263.  Kennedy S, Jin X, Yu H, Zhong S, Magill P, van Vliet T, Kistemaker C, Voors C, Pasman W. Randomized controlled trial assessing a traditional Chinese medicine remedy in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2006 Sep;86(3):762-4.  

15264.  Kerr C. New consumer guidance on herbal medicines. Lancet Oncol. 2006 Sep;7(9):714.

15265.  Lamas GA, Hussein SJ. EDTA chelation therapy meets evidence-based medicine. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;12(3):213-5.   Review.

15266.  Letasiova S, Jantova S, Cipak L, Muckova M. Berberine-antiproliferative activity in vitro and induction of apoptosis/necrosis of the U937 and B16 cells. Cancer Lett. 2006 Aug 8;239(2):254-62.  

15267.  Leung WK, Wu JC, Liang SM, Chan LS, Chan FK, Xie H, Fung SS, Hui AJ,  Wong VW, Che CT, Sung JJ.  Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul;101(7):1574-80.

15268.  Lowenfels AB. Does gum chewing ameliorate postoperative ileus? J Am Coll Surg. 2006 Sep;203(3):404-5.

15269.  Lu Y, Zhang C, Bucheli P, Wei D. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006 Jun;61(2):57-65.  

15270.  McKay DL, Blumberg JB.  A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother Res. 2006 Aug;20(8):619-33. Review.

15271.  Milgrom LR. Is homeopathy possible? J R Soc Health. 2006 Sep;126(5):211-8. Review.

15272.  Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and perioperative care.  Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep;105(3):441-2.

15273.  Niggemann B, Gruber C. Does unconventional medicine work through conventional modes of action? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Sep;118(3):569-73. Review.

15274.  O'Mara A. Complementary and alternative medicine research and cooperative groups: can it happen? J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2006 Sep-Oct;23(5):258-60.

15275.  Petit-Zeman S. Better research for better healthcare. J R Soc Med. 2006 Jul;99(7):330-1.

15276.  Post-White J, Hawks R, O'Mara A, Ott MJ.  Future directions of CAM research in pediatric oncology. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2006 Sep-Oct;23(5):265-8. Review.

15277.  Post-White J. Complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric oncology. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2006 Sep-Oct;23(5):244-53. Review.

15278.  Presho M. Earning and learning: recruitment and retention in post registration nurse education. Nurse Educ Today. 2006 Aug;26(6):511-8.  

15279.  Ratcliffe J, Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, Brazier J. A randomised controlled trial of acupuncture care for persistent low back pain: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ. 2006 Sep 23;333(7569):626.  

15280.  Ribeiro MA, Harrigan RC. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Asian women of Hawai'i in the treatment of breast cancer. Hawaii Med J. 2006 Jul;65(7):198-205.

15281.  Ribeiro MA, Harrigan RC. A literature review on Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of breast cancer: Hawai'i. Hawaii Med J. 2006 Jul;65(7):190-7. Review.

15282.  Ricotti V, Delanty N. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in epilepsy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006 Jul;6(4):347-53. Review.

15283.  Shen X, Ding G, Wei J, Zhao L, Zhou Y, Deng H, Lao L. An infrared radiation study of the biophysical characteristics of traditional moxibustion. Complement Ther Med. 2006 Sep;14(3):213-9.  

15284.  Sookkongwaree K, Geitmann M, Roengsumran S, Petsom A, Danielson UH.  Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora. Pharmazie. 2006 Aug;61(8):717-21.

15285.  Sun Z, Stevenson G. Transrenal fixation of aortic stent-grafts: short- to midterm effects on renal function--a systematic review. Radiology. 2006 Jul;240(1):65-72.   Review.

15286.  Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG, Fazio VA, Inge KE. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med J Aust. 2006 Aug 21;185(4 Suppl):S4-24. Review. 

15287.  Torkelson C, Harris I, Kreitzer MJ. Evaluation of a complementary and alternative medicine rotation in medical school. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):30-4.

15288.  Tseng TH, Lee YJ. Evaluation of natural and synthetic compounds from East Asiatic folk medicinal plants on the mediation of cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 Jul;6(4):347-65. Review.

15289.  van den Brink-Muinen A, Rijken PM. Does trust in health care influence the use of complementary and alternative medicine by chronically ill people? BMC Public Health. 2006 Jul 18;6:188.

15290.  Vejdani R, Shalmani HR, Mir-Fattahi M, Sajed-Nia F, Abdollahi M, Zali MR, Alizadeh AH, Bahari A, Amin G. The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1501-7.  

15291.  Verhoef MJ, Boon HS, Mutasingwa DR. The scope of naturopathic medicine in Canada: an emerging profession. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jul;63(2):409-17.    

15292.  White P, Lewith G.  Could neuroimaging help us to interpret the clinical effects of acupuncture? Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2006 Aug;49(8):743-8.

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