January 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Adem PV, Montgomery CP, Husain AN, Koogler TK, Arangelovich V, Humilier M, Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in children. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1245-51.

Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, USA. 

Staphylococcus aureus has increasingly been recognized as a cause of severe invasive illness. We describe three children who died at our institution after rapidly progressive clinical deterioration from this infection, with necrotizing pneumonia and multiple-organ-system involvement. The identification of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage at autopsy was characteristic of the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, a constellation of findings usually associated with fulminant meningococcemia. The close genetic relationship among the three responsible isolates of S. aureus, one susceptible to methicillin and two resistant to methicillin, underscores the close relationship between virulent methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates now circulating in the community. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Guleria R, Nisar N, Chawla TC, Biswas NR. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and central nervous system complications: a review. J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):55-63.

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Little is known about the extrapulmonary manifestations of this organism. Numerous central nervous system (CNS) manifestations have been described with M. pneumoniae. CNS involvement is probably the most common site of involvement in addition to the respiratory system. Up to 7% of patients hospitalized with M. pneumoniae may have CNS symptoms. Common CNS presentations include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, polyradiculitis, cerebellar ataxia, and myelitis. The mechanism behind these CNS manifestations remains unclear. Direct invasion, neurotoxin production, or an immune-mediated mechanism has been proposed. Newer diagnostic techniques for the direct detection of the antigen and the microorganism are proving useful for the detection of extrapulmonary disease. This review comprehensively reviews the CNS complications that have been reported with M. pneumoniae.


March Mde F, Sant'Anna CC. Signs and symptoms indicative of community-acquired pneumonia in infants under six months. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;9(2):150-5.

Martagao Gesteira Pediatric Institute, Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms predicting bacterial and viral pneumonia, in accordance with the Brazilian National Control Program for Acute Respiratory (ARI). METHODS: Observational prospective study. Seventy-six children from birth to six months of age who had pneumonia were studied in the emergency room. The patients were subdivided into two groups, based on radiological findings (gold-standard): 47 had bacterial pneumonia, and 29 had viral pneumonia. The frequencies, sensitivities, and specificities of the signs and symptoms were evaluated. RESULTS: The sensibilities and sensitivities of general findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: fever 53.2%/40.0%; hypoactivity 68.4%/55.6% and prostration detected by the doctor 72.7%/55.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias showed, respectively: 37.9%/40.0%, 66.7%/55.6% and 66.7%/55.6%. The sensibilities and sensitivities of respiratory findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: coughing 66.0/38.1%, Respiratory rate = 50 ripm 76.6%/38.1%, altered respiratory auscultation 91.3%/10.5%, and chest indrawing 46.7%/80.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias were, respectively: 69.0%/38.1%, 86.2%/38.1%, 85.7%/10.5% and 44.8%/80.0%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of signs and symptoms in each group did not distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia. Our findings reinforce the adequacy of the ARI program in Brazil, which gives an early diagnosis of pneumonia, independent of its etiology.

Sandora TJ, Harper MB. Pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Aug;52(4):1059-81, viii.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, LO 650, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Pneumonia is one of the most common infections in the pediatric age group and one of the leading diagnoses that results in overnight hospital admission for children. Various micro-organisms can cause pneumonia, and etiologies differ by age. Clinical manifestations vary, and diagnostic testing is frequently not standardized. Hospital management should emphasize timely diagnosis and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy when appropriate. Issues of particular relevance to inpatient management are emphasized in this article.


Grossman RF, Rotschafer JC, Tan JS. Antimicrobial treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in the hospital setting. Am J Med. 2005 Jul;118 Suppl 7A:29S-38S.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) that may require hospitalization include acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which includes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is treated similar to HAP and may be considered with HAP. For CAP requiring hospitalization, the current guidelines for the treatments of RTIs generally recommend either a beta-lactam and macrolide combination or a fluoroquinolone. The respiratory fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gemifloxacin) are excellent antibiotics due to high levels of susceptibility among gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical pathogens. The fluoroquinolones are active against > 98% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains. Fluoroquinolones are also recommended for AECB requiring hospitalization. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that levofloxacin monotherapy is as efficacious as combination ceftriaxone-erythromycin therapy in the treatment of patients hospitalized with CAP. For early-onset HAP, VAP, and HCAP without the risk of multidrug resistance, ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, or one of the fluoroquinolones is recommended. High-dose, short-course therapy regimens may offer improved treatment due to higher drug concentrations, more rapid killing, increased adherence, and the potential to reduce development of resistance. Recent studies have shown that short-course therapy with levofloxacin, azithromycin, or telithromycin in patients with CAP was effective, safe, and tolerable and may control the rate of resistance.


Brooks WA, Santosham M, Naheed A, Goswami D, Wahed MA, Diener-West M, Faruque AS, Black RE.Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Sep 17-23;366(9490):999-1004

The Centre for Health and Population Research, International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research, Mohakhali Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhoea cause much morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. Most deaths occur during infancy and in developing countries. Daily regimens of zinc have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhoea, and to reduce child mortality. We aimed to examine whether giving zinc weekly could prevent clinical pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years. METHODS: 1665 poor, urban children aged 60 days to 12 months were randomly assigned zinc (70 mg) or placebo orally once weekly for 12 months. Children were assessed every week by field research assistants. Our primary outcomes were the rate of pneumonia and diarrhoea. The rates of other respiratory tract infections were the secondary outcomes. Growth, final serum copper, and final haemoglobin were also measured. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: 34 children were excluded before random assignment to treatment group because they had tuberculosis. 809 children were assigned zinc, and 812 placebo. After treatment assignment, 103 children in the treatment group and 44 in the control group withdrew. There were significantly fewer incidents of pneumonia in the zinc group than the control group (199 vs 286; relative risk 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95), and a small but significant effect on incidence of diarrhoea (1881 cases vs 2407; 0.94, 0.88-0.99). There were two deaths in the zinc group and 14 in the placebo group (p=0.013). There were no pneumonia-related deaths in the zinc group, but ten in the placebo group (p=0.013). The zinc group had a small gain in height, but not weight at 10 months compared with the placebo group. Serum copper and haemoglobin concentrations were not adversely affected after 10 months of zinc supplementation. INTERPRETATION: 70 mg of zinc weekly reduces pneumonia and mortality in young children. However, compliance with weekly intake might be problematic outside a research programme.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

13502.  Adem PV, Montgomery CP, Husain AN, Koogler TK, Arangelovich V, Humilier M, Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in children. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1245-51. 

13503.  Guleria R, Nisar N, Chawla TC, Biswas NR. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and central nervous system complications: a review. J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):55-63. Review.

13504.  Leroy O, Saux P, Bedos JP, Caulin E. Comparison of levofloxacin and cefotaxime combined with ofloxacin for ICU patients with community-acquired pneumonia who do not require vasopressors. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):172-83. 

13505.  Lynch DA, Travis WD, Muller NL, Galvin JR, Hansell DM, Grenier PA, King TE Jr.  Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: CT features. Radiology. 2005 Jul;236(1):10-21. Review.

13506.  March Mde F, Sant'Anna CC. Signs and symptoms indicative of community-acquired pneumonia in infants under six months. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr;9(2):150-5.

13507.  Rosendahl K. Pediatric chest and hand radiographs revisited. Acta Radiol. 2005 Jul;46(4):334.

13508.  Sandora TJ, Harper MB. Pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Aug;52(4):1059-81, viii. Review.

13509.  Shah SS, Shofer FS, Seidel JS, Baren JM. Significance of extreme leukocytosis in the evaluation of febrile children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jul;24(7):627-30. 

13510.  Shenoy VD, Upadhyaya SA, Rao SP, Shobha KL. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children with acute respiratory infection. J Trop Pediatr. 2005 Aug;51(4):232-5.


13511. Cook C, Gande AR. Aspiration and death associated with the use of the laryngeal mask airway. Br J Anaesth. 2005 Sep;95(3):425-6.

13512.  Grossman RF, Rotschafer JC, Tan JS. Antimicrobial treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in the hospital setting. Am J Med. 2005 Jul;118(Suppl 7A):29S-38S. Review.

13513.  Hess DR. Patient positioning and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir Care. 2005 Jul;50(7):892-8; discussion 898-9. Review.

13514.  Lipsett PA. Can we take the teeth out of ventilator-associated pneumonia? Crit Care Med. 2005 Aug;33(8):1867-8.


13515.    Brooks WA, Santosham M, Naheed A, Goswami D, Wahed MA, Diener-West M, Faruque AS, Black RE. Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Sep 17-23;366(9490):999-1004.

13516.  Romano PS. Improving the quality of hospital care in America. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jul 21;353(3):302-4.

13517.  Weber M. Management of children with cough in developing countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Jul;9(7):707.

13518.  Yoshida M, Yasuda N, Nishikata M, Okamoto K, Uchida T, Matsuyama K. New recommendations for vancomycin dosage for patients with MRSA pneumonia with various degrees of renal function impairment. J Infect Chemother. 2005 Aug;11(4):182-8.


April 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Murin S, Bilello KS. Respiratory tract infections: another reason not to smoke. Cleve Clin J Med. 2005 Oct;72(10):916-20. Review.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento 95817, USA.

Smoking is a risk factor for a number of pulmonary infections, probably because of its adverse effects on respiratory defenses. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from pneumonia and influenza, as well as more days lost from work from lesser respiratory infections. Patients who smoke need to be informed about their increased risk of respiratory infections and of the benefits of both being vaccinated and stopping smoking.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14042.  Ayed AK, Al-Rowayeh A. Lung resection in children for infectious pulmonary diseases. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005 Aug;21(8):604-8.

14043.   Bartholomew C, Bartholomew M, Jones A. HIV transmission from surrogate breastfeeding. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1902.

14044    Bidwell JL, Pachner RW. Hemoptysis: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Oct 1;72(7):1253-60. Review.

14045    Bobat R, Coovadia H, Stephen C, Naidoo KL, McKerrow N, Black RE, Moss WJ. Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation for children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1862-7.

14046.   Cayley WE Jr. Diagnosing the cause of chest pain. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Nov 15;72(10):2012-21. Review.

14047.   Demedts M, Behr J, Buhl R, Costabel U, Dekhuijzen R, Jansen HM, MacNee W, Thomeer M, Wallaert B, Laurent F, Nicholson AG, Verbeken EK, Verschakelen J, Flower CD, Capron F, Petruzzelli S, De Vuyst P, van den Bosch JM, Rodriguez-Becerra E, Corvasce G, Lankhorst I, Sardina M, Montanari M; IFIGENIA Study Group. High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Nov 24;353(21):2229-42.

14048.    Donowitz GR. Commentary: are care guidelines useful in community-acquired pneumonia? Value hinges on improving outcomes. Postgrad Med. 2005 Oct;118(4):13-4, 17.

14049.   Enarson PM, Enarson DA, Gie R. Management of pneumonia in the child aged 0 to 8 weeks. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Oct;9(10):1083-7. Review.

14050.  Goodnight WH, Soper DE. Pneumonia in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct;33(10 Suppl):S390-7. Review.

14051.   Masia M, Gutierrez F, Shum C, Padilla S, Navarro JC, Flores E, Hernandez I. Usefulness of procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia according to the patients outcome research team pneumonia severity index. Chest. 2005 Oct;128(4):2223-9.

14052.   Meyer D. Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS. SADJ. 2005 Oct;60(9):386-7.

14053.   Miles F, Voss L, Segedin E, Anderson BJ. Review of Staphylococcus aureus infections requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Dec;90(12):1274-8.

14054.   Morgan M. Staphylococcus aureus, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and necrotising pneumonia. BMJ. 2005 Oct 8;331(7520):793-4.

14055.     Morovic M. Q Fever pneumonia: are clarithromycin and moxifloxacin alternative treatments only? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Nov;73(5):947-8.

14056.    Muthukumaran CS, Govindaraj PR, Vettukattil J. Testicular swelling with pneumonia and septicaemia: a rare presentation of right-sided endocarditis. Cardiol Young. 2005 Oct;15(5):532-3.

14057.    Phillips J, Palmer A, Baliga R. Glomerulonephritis associated with acute pneumococcal pneumonia: a case report. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Oct;20(10):  1494-5.


14058.     Bhasin R, Arce FC, Pasmantier R. Hypoglycemia associated with the use of gatifloxacin. Am J Med Sci. 2005 Nov;330(5):250-3.

14059.   Boeckh M, Erard V, Zerr D, Englund J. Emerging viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2005 Dec;9 Suppl 7:48-54. Review.

14060.   Gupta R, Gupta A, Goyal V, Guleria R, Kumar A. Mycoplasma pneumonia associated with rhabdomyolysis and the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2005 Oct-Dec;47(4):305-8.

14061.   Suzuki K, Hirano K, Onodera N, Takahashi T, Tanaka H. Acute IgA nephropathy associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Pediatr Int. 2005 Oct;47(5):583-5.

14062.   Teig N, Anders A, Schmidt C, Rieger C, Gatermann S. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens of children with chronic lung diseases. Thorax. 2005 Nov;60(11):962-6.


14063.     Kellner JD, Church DL, MacDonald J, Tyrrell GJ, Scheifele D. Progress in the prevention of pneumococcal infection. CMAJ. 2005 Nov 8;173(10):1149-51.

14064.   Nagel BH, Williams H, Stewart L, Paul J, Stumper O. Splenic state in surviving patients with visceral heterotaxy. Cardiol Young. 2005 Oct;15(5):469-73.



14065.     Ajayi MT, Oladokun RA, Falade AG. Antibiotic treatment of community acquired pneumonia in well-nourished young Nigerian children. J Trop Pediatr. 2005 Oct;51(5):319-20.  .

14066.  Baughman RP, Glauser MP. Managing serious infections in the hospital: a new model. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005 Oct;11 Suppl 5:1-3.

14067.   Bender BS. Quality of care in U.S. hospitals. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 27;353(17):1860-1; author reply 1860-1.

14068.   Bercault N, Wolf M, Runge I, Fleury JC, Boulain T. Intrahospital transport of critically ill ventilated patients: a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia--a matched cohort study. Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov;33(11):2471-8.

14069.  Bua J, Marchetti F, Barbi E, Sarti A, Ventura A. Tremors and chorea induced by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a child with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Oct;24(10):934-5.

14070.     Drehobl MA, De Salvo MC, Lewis DE, Breen JD. Single-dose azithromycin microspheres vs clarithromycin extended release for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Chest. 2005 Oct;128(4):2230-7.

14071.   Goldmann K, Jakob C. Prevention of aspiration under general anesthesia by use of the size 2 ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in a 6-year-old boy: a case report. Paediatr Anaesth. 2005 Oct;15(10):886-9.

14072.    Milbrandt EB, Angus DC. What's in a day? Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5):3091-3.

14073.   Rello J, Diaz E, Rodriguez A. Advances in the management of pneumonia in the intensive care unit: review of current thinking. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005 Oct;11 Suppl 5:30-8. Review.

14074.  Russell G. Paediatric respiratory mortality: past triumphs, future challenges. Thorax. 2005 Dec;60(12):985-6.  .

14075.  Yang YY, Lin HC. Bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Chin Med Assoc. 2005 Oct;68(10):447-51. Review. 




July 2006

Some selected abstracts:


Braman SS. Postinfectious cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1 Suppl):138S-146S.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, 595 Eddy St, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

BACKGROUND: Patients who complain of a persistent cough lasting >3 weeks after experiencing the acute symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection may have a postinfectious cough. Such patients are considered to have a subacute cough because the condition lasts for no >8 weeks. The chest radiograph findings are normal, thus ruling out pneumonia, and the cough eventually resolves, usually on its own. The purpose of this review is to present the evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of postinfectious cough, including the most virulent form caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, and make recommendations that will be useful for clinical practice. METHODS: Recommendations for this section of the guideline were obtained from data using a National Library of Medicine (PubMed) search dating back to 1950, which was performed in August 2004, of the literature published in the English language. The search was limited to human studies, using the search terms "cough," "postinfectious cough," "postviral cough," "Bordetella pertussis," "pertussis infection," and "whooping cough." RESULTS: The pathogenesis of the postinfectious cough is not known, but it is thought to be due to the extensive inflammation and disruption of upper and/or lower airway epithelial integrity. When postinfectious cough emanates from the lower airway, this is often associated with the accumulation of an excessive amount of mucus hypersecretion and/or transient airway and cough receptor hyperresponsiveness; all may contribute to the subacute cough. In these patients, the optimal treatment is not known. Except for bacterial sinusitis or early on in a B pertussis infection, therapy with antibiotics has no role, as the cause is not bacterial infection. The use of inhaled ipratropium may be helpful. Other causes of postinfectious cough are persistent inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which leads to an upper airway cough syndrome (previously referred to as postnasal drip syndrome), and gastroesophageal reflux disease, which may be a complication of the vigorous coughing. One type of postinfectious cough that is particularly virulent is that caused by B pertussis infection. When the cough is accompanied by paroxysms of coughing, posttussive vomiting, and/or an inspiratory whooping sound, the diagnosis of a B pertussis infection should be made unless another diagnosis is proven. This infection is highly contagious but responds to antibiotic coverage with an oral macrolide when administered early in the course of the disease. A safe and effective vaccine to prevent B pertussis is now available for adults as well as children. It is recommended according to CDC guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who have a cough lasting from 3 to 8 weeks with normal chest radiograph findings, consider the diagnosis of postinfectious cough. In most patients, a specific etiologic agent will not be identified, and empiric therapy may be helpful. A high degree of suspicion for cough due to B pertussis infection will lead to earlier diagnosis, patient isolation, and antibiotic treatment.


Hagerman JK, Hancock KE, Klepser ME. Aerosolised antibiotics: a critical appraisal of their use. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2006 Jan;3(1):71-86

Ferris State University, Hurley Medical Center, One Hurley Plaza, Pharmacy Department, Flint, MI 48503, USA.

Aerosolised antimicrobial agents have been used in clinical practice since the 1950s. The main advantage of this route of administration is the targeted drug delivery to the site of infection in the lung. Exploitation of this targeted delivery can yield high concentrations at the site of infection/colonisation while minimising systemic toxicities. It is important to note that the ability of a drug to reach the target area in the lung effectively is dependent on a number of variables, including the nebuliser, patient technique, host anatomy and disease-specific factors. The most convincing data to support the use of aerosolised antimicrobials has been generated with tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI, Chiron Corp.) for maintenance treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis. In addition to cystic fibrosis, the use of aerosolised antimicrobials has also been studied for the treatment or prevention of a number of additional disease states including non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia and prophylaxis against pulmonary fungal infections. Key studies evaluating the benefits and shortcomings of aerosolised antimicrobial agents in these areas are reviewed. Although the theory behind aerosolised administration of antibiotics seems to be sound, there are limited data available to support the routine use of this modality. Owing to the gaps still existing in our knowledge base regarding the routine use of aerosolised antibiotics, caution should be exercised when attempting to administer antimicrobials via this route in situations falling outside clearly established indications such as the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis or Pneumocystis pneumonia.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14481.  Baker EH, Janaway CH, Philips BJ, Brennan AL, Baines DL, Wood DM, Jones PW. Hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2006 Apr;61(4):284-9.

14482.  Butler KH, Swencki SA. Chest pain: a clinical assessment. Radiol Clin North Am. 2006 Mar;44(2):165-79, vii. Review.

14483.   Castro AV, Nascimento-Carvalho C M, Ney-Oliveira F, Araujo-Neto CA, Andrade SCS, Loureiro LLS, Luz PO. Additional markers to refine the World Health Organization algorithm for diagnosis of pneumonia. Indian Pediat. 2005;42(8):773-81.

14484.  Kollef MH. Providing appropriate antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit: surveillance vs. de-escalation. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar;34(3):903-5.

14485.  Kosut JS, Kamani NR, Jantausch BA. One-month-old infant with multilobar round pneumonias. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):95, 97.

14486.   Laibl V, Sheffield J. The management of respiratory infections during pregnancy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2006 Feb;26(1):155-72, viii. Review.

14487.   Madhi SA, Kohler M, Kuwanda L, Cutland C, Klugman KP. Usefulness of C-reactive protein to define pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy in the prevention of pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):30-6.

14488.   Meltzer E, Guranda L, Vassilenko L, Krupsky M, Steinlauf S, Sidi Y. Lipoid pneumonia: a preventable complication. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006 Jan;8(1):33-5.

14489.   Tiryaki T, Livanelioglu Z, Atayurt H. Eventration of the diaphragm. Asian J Surg. 2006 Jan;29(1):8-10.

14490.   Tsiodras S, Kelesidis T, Kelesidis I, Voumbourakis K, Giamarellou H. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated myelitis: a comprehensive review. Eur J Neurol. 2006 Feb;13(2):112-24. Review.


14491.  Esposito S, Noviello S, Leone S, Ianniello F, Ascione T, Gaeta GB. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin in patients with liver disease: a prospective, non comparative, observational study. J Chemother. 2006 Feb;18(1):33-7.

14492.  Gonzales R, Camargo CA Jr, MacKenzie T, Kersey AS, Maselli J, Levin SK, McCulloch CE, Metlay JP; IMPAACT Trial Investigators. Antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections in acute care settings. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Mar;13(3):288-94.

14493.  Hui M. An excellent pharmacokinetic profile can actually act as a double-edged sword. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan;34(1):267-8;

14494.  Lodder J, van Raak L, Hilton A, Hardy E, Kessels A; EGASIS Study Group. Diazepam to improve acute stroke outcome: results of the early GABA-Ergic activation study in stroke trial. a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;21(1-2):120-7.



October 2006


Some selected abstract:


Alvarez-Lerma F, Grau S, Alvarez-Beltran M. Levofloxacin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 May;12 Suppl 3:81-92. Review.
Service of Intensive Care Medicine, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.

The use of levofloxacin in critically ill patients has progressively increased since commercial marketing of the drug in 1999, despite the fact that few studies have been designed to assess the use of levofloxacin in this population. Pharmacological characteristics, broad spectrum of activity, and tolerability account for the high interest in the drug for the treatment of different infectious diseases, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and the recommendation of levofloxacin in guidelines developed by a number of scientific societies. According to pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data, it seems reasonable to assume that an increase in activity follows from a larger dose, so that 500 mg/12 h is adequate in patients with VAP. In critically ill patients with VAP, levofloxacin monotherapy is indicated for empirical treatment of patients with early onset pneumonia without risk factors for multiresistant pathogens, and in combination therapy for late onset VAP or for patients at risk for multiresistant pathogens. The use of levofloxacin in combination therapy is supported by multiple reasons, including: increased empirical coverage in infections with suspected intracellular pathogens; substitution for more toxic antimicrobial agents (e.g., aminoglycosides) in patients with renal dysfunction and in those at risk for renal insufficiency; and severity of systemic response to infection (septic shock) that justifies multiple treatment with better tolerated antibiotics. The availability of the oral formulation allows sequential therapy, switching from the intravenous route to the oral route. Levofloxacin is well tolerated by critically ill patients, with few adverse events of mild to moderate severity.


Artinian V, Krayem H, DiGiovine B. Effects of early enteral feeding on the outcome of critically ill mechanically ventilated medical patients. Chest. 2006 Apr;129(4):960-7.
Henry Ford Hospital, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, 2799 W Grand Blvd, K-17, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of early enteral feeding on the outcome of critically ill medical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected large multi-institutional ICU database. PATIENTS: A total of 4,049 patients requiring mechanical ventilation for > 2 days. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Patients were classified according to whether or not they received enteral feeding within 48 h of mechanical ventilation onset. The 2,537 patients (63%) who did receive enteral feeding were labeled as the "early feeding group," and the remaining 1,512 patients (37%) were labeled as the "late feeding group." The overall ICU and hospital mortality were lower in the early feeding group (18.1% vs 21.4%, p = 0.01; and 28.7% vs 33.5%, p = 0.001, respectively). The lower mortality rates in the early feeding group were most evident in the sickest group as defined by quartiles of severity of illness scores. Three separate models were done using each of the different scores (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, simplified acute physiology score II, and mortality prediction model at time 0). In all models, early enteral feeding was associated with an approximately 20% decrease in ICU mortality and a 25% decrease in hospital mortality. We also analyzed the data after controlling for confounding by matching for propensity score. In this analysis, early feeding was again associated with decreased ICU and hospital mortality. In all adjusted analysis, early feeding was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) developing. CONCLUSION: Early feeding significantly reduces ICU and hospital mortality based mainly on improvements in the sickest patients, despite being associated with an increased risk of VAP developing. Routine administration of such therapy in medical patients receiving mechanical ventilation is suggested, especially in patients at high risk of death.


Bose A, Coles CL, Gunavathi, John H, Moses P, Raghupathy P, Kirubakaran C, Black RE, Brooks WA, Santosham M. Efficacy of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized children <2 y old. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006May;83(5):1089-96; quiz 1207.
Departments of Community Medicine and Child Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.
BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in undernourished young children in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adjuvant zinc therapy on recovery from severe pneumonia by hospitalized children in southern India who were receiving standard antibiotic therapy. DESIGN: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at the Christian Medical College Hospital, an 1800-bed teaching hospital in Tamilnadu, India. Enrollment and follow-up occurred between September 2003 and August 2004. Children aged 2-23 mo (n = 299) who were hospitalized with severe pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive 10-mg tablets of zinc sulfate or placebo twice a day during hospitalization, along with standard therapy for severe pneumonia. All clinical signs and symptoms of pneumonia were assessed and recorded at 8-h intervals. RESULTS: There were no clinical or statistically significant differences in the duration of tachypnea, hypoxia, chest indrawing, inability to feed, lethargy, severe illness, or hospitalization. Zinc supplementation was associated with a significantly longer duration of pneumonia in the hot season (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation had no overall effect on the duration of hospitalization or of clinical signs associated with severe infection in young children hospitalized for severe pneumonia in southern India. This finding differs from the results of 2 previously reported trials wherein zinc supplementation was associated with a shorter period of recovery from severe pneumonia. Given the conflicting results, further research in representative settings is required to help clarify the role of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia.


Carey TS, Hanson L, Garrett JM, Lewis C, Phifer N, Cox CE, Jackman A. Expectations and outcomes of gastric feeding tubes. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6):527.e11-6.
The Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7590, USA.

PURPOSE: To compare expected outcomes with actual outcomes from tube feeding in adult patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two North Carolina hospitals. Surrogates were interviewed shortly after feeding tube insertion and at 3- and 6-month follow-up; chart abstraction and death certificate review also were carried out. Participants were surrogate decision-makers for consecutive adult patients who received new feeding tubes. RESULTS: There were 288 patients with surrogate decision-makers enrolled. Mean age was 65 years; 30% had a primary diagnosis of stroke, 16% neurodegenerative disorder, 20% head and neck cancer, and 30% other diagnoses. At 3 months, 21% of patients had died, and 6-month mortality was 30%. At 3 months, 38% of survivors were residing in a nursing home, and 27% had the feeding tube removed. Patients were impaired in most activities of daily living (ADLs) with little change over time. Medical complications were common: 25% of patients had decubitus ulcers at 3 months, and 24% had at least one episode of pneumonia. Perceived global quality of life was poor at 4.6 (on a 0-10 scale) at baseline, and surrogates anticipated this would improve to 8.0 with tube feeding. Family surrogates' expectations for improvement from the feeding tube were very high at baseline and remained so at 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Families' high expectations of benefit from tube feeding are in contrast to clinical outcomes. Providers and families need better information about the outcomes of this common procedure.


Demirkaya E, Atay AA, Musabak U, Sengul A, Gok F. Ceftriaxone-related hemolysis and acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 May;21(5):733-6.
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, 06018, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey.
A 5-year-old girl with no underlying immune deficiency or hematologic disease was treated with a combination of ceftriaxone and ampicilline-sulbactam for pneumonia. On the ninth day of the therapy, she developed oliguria, paleness, malaise, immune hemolytic anemia (IHA) and acute renal failure (ARF). Laboratory studies showed the presence of antibodies against ceftriaxone. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) was diagnosed by renal biopsy. The patient's renal insufficiency was successfully treated with peritoneal dialysis without any complications. The patient recovered without any treatment using steroids or other immunosuppressive agents.


Depuydt P, Myny D, Blot S. Nosocomial pneumonia: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):192-7. review.
Department of Intensive Care, Ghent University, De Pintelaan, Belgium.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent advances in the aetiology of nosocomial pneumonia, and in strategies to increase accuracy of diagnosis and antibiotic prescription while limiting unnecessary antibiotic consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Bacterial pathogens still cause the bulk of nosocomial pneumonia and are of concern because of ever-rising antimicrobial resistance. Yet, the pathogenic role of fungal and viral organisms is increasingly recognized. Since early appropriate antimicrobial therapy is the cornerstone of an effective treatment, further studies have been conducted to improve appropriateness of early antibiotic therapy. De-escalation strategies combine initial broad-spectrum antibiotics to maximize early antibiotic coverage with a subsequent focusing of the antibiotic spectrum when the cause is identified. Invasive techniques probably do not alter the immediate outcome but have the potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure. Decisions to stop or change antibiotic therapy are hampered due to a lack of reliable parameters to assess the resolution of pneumonia. SUMMARY: Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pneumonia both challenges treatment and mandates limitation of selection pressure by reducing antibiotic burden. Treating physicians should be both aggressive in initiating antimicrobials when suspecting nosocomial pneumonia but willing to discontinue antimicrobials when diagnostic results point to an alternative diagnosis. Efforts should be made to limit duration of antibiotic therapy when possible.


El Moussaoui R, de Borgie CA, van den Broek P, Hustinx WN, Bresser P, van den Berk GE, Poley JW, van den Berg B, Krouwels FH, Bonten MJ, Weenink C, Bossuyt PM, Speelman P, Opmeer BC, Prins JM. Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study. BMJ. 2006 Jun 10;332(7554):1355.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of discontinuing treatment with amoxicillin after three days or eight days in adults admitted to hospital with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia who substantially improved after an initial three days' treatment. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled non-inferiority trial. SETTING: Nine secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia (pneumonia severity index score < or = 110). INTERVENTIONS: Patients who had substantially improved after three days' treatment with intravenous amoxicillin were randomly assigned to oral amoxicillin (n = 63) or placebo (n = 56) three times daily for five days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the clinical success rate at day 10. Secondary outcome measures were the clinical success rate at day 28, symptom resolution, radiological success rates at days 10 and 28, and adverse events. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable, with the exception of symptom severity, which was worse in the three day treatment group. In the three day and eight day treatment groups the clinical success rate at day 10 was 93% for both (difference 0.1%, 95% confidence interval--9% to 10%) and at day 28 was 90% compared with 88% (difference 2.0%,--9% to 15%). Both groups had similar resolution of symptoms. Radiological success rates were 86% compared with 83% at day 10 (difference 3%,--10% to 16%) and 86% compared with 79% at day 28 (difference 6%,--7% to 20%). Six patients (11%) in the placebo group and 13 patients (21%) in the active treatment group reported adverse events (P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuing amoxicillin treatment after three days is not inferior to discontinuing it after eight days in adults admitted to hospital with mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia who substantially improved after an initial three days' treatment.


Glikman D, Matushek SM, Kahana MD, Daum RS. Pneumonia and empyema caused by penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis: a case report and literature review. Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):e1061-6.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Pneumonia is an uncommon manifestation of Neisseria meningitidis infection, and empyema is rarely reported. Uniform penicillin susceptibility has been assumed for meningococcal infections for many years, but decreased penicillin susceptibility has been recognized recently with increasing frequency. Breakpoints to define different categories of susceptibility were published recently by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. We report the case of a teenage girl with sepsis and extensive bilateral pneumonia with empyema caused by an N meningitidis isolate that was resistant to penicillin. Her protracted clinical course suggested that penicillin resistance contributed to her delayed recovery. Our experience with this patient suggests that susceptibility testing should be performed in every case of N meningitidis isolation, and treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin should be provided until the susceptibility results are known. Clinical suspicion of N meningitidis as a possible cause of respiratory symptoms accompanied by hypotension, even in the absence of a rash, may aid in diagnosis and therefore in the treatment and provision of prophylaxis to contacts of patients with meningococcal disease.


Nathan RV, Rhew DC, Murray C, Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Weingarten SR.  In-hospital observation after antibiotic switch in pneumonia: a national evaluation. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6):512.e1-7.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, Calif, USA.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical benefit of in-hospital observation after the switch from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics in a large Medicare population. Retrospective studies of relatively small size indicate that the practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unnecessary. METHODS: We performed a retrospective examination of the US Medicare National Pneumonia Project database. Eligible patients were discharged with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis consistent with community-acquired pneumonia and divided into 2 groups: 1) a "not observed" cohort, in which patients were discharged on the same day as the switch from IV to oral antibiotics and 2) an "observed for 1 day" cohort, in which patients remained hospitalized for 1 day after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics. We compared clinical outcomes between these 2 cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 39,242 cases were sampled, representing 4341 hospitals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. There were 5248 elderly patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria involving a length of stay of no more than 7 hospital days (2536 "not observed" and 2712 "observed for 1 day" patients). Mean length of stay was 3.8 days for the "not observed" cohort and 4.5 days for the "observed for 1 day" cohort (P <.0001). There was no significant difference in 14-day hospital readmission rate (7.8% in the "not observed" cohort vs 7.2% "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.12; P =.367) and 30-day mortality rate (5.1% "not observed" cohort vs 4.4% in the "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67-1.11; P =.258) between the "not observed" and "observed for 1 day" cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the US Medicare Pneumonia Project database provides further evidence that the routine practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients with CAP may be avoided in patients who are clinically stable although these findings should be verified in a large randomized controlled trial.


Sharma A, Ohri S, Bambery P, Singh S. Idiopathic endogenous lipoid pneumonia. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006 Apr-Jun;48(2):143-5.
Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Lipoid pneumonia is a rare pulmonary disorder having no classical radiological appearance. We report a 33-year-old male, ex-smoker who was referred to us with history of cough, mild mucoid expectoration and progressively increasing dyspnoea since one year. He was investigated at local hospital and was treated with 30 mg prednisolone per day for 6 months for sarcoidosis without any response. On examination, he was normal except for fine basal crepitations in chest. Pulmonary function test (PFT) revealed mild airway obstruction. High resolution computerised tomographic scan (HRCT scan) revealed bilateral reticulonodular shadows and bronchiectasis in lower zones. Open lung biopsy revealed lipoid pneumonia. As there was no history of nasal distillation of oils, it was diagnosed to be idiopathic. The relevant literature is reviewed.


Shiber JR, Santana J. Dyspnea. Med Clin North Am. 2006 May;90(3):453-79. Review.
Department of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA.
When evaluating a dyspneic patient in the office, a quick initial assessment of the airway, breathing, and circulation, while gathering a brief history and focused physical examination are necessary. Most often, an acute cardiopulmonary disorder, such as CHF, cardiac ischemia, pneumonia, asthma, or COPD exacerbation, can be identified and treated. Stable patients who improve can be sent home, but those in acute distress with unstable or impending unstable conditions need to be transferred emergently to definitive care. Because of the difficult logistics involved in attempting to work up an outpatient for new onset of SOB, some patients will need to be transferred to the nearest ED for a definitive diagnosis.


Rojas MX, Granados C. Oral antibiotics versus parenteral antibiotics for severe pneumonia in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD004979. Review.
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio, Cr. 7 #40-62, 2nd floor, Bogota, DC, Colombia.
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries. When hospitalisation is required, the usual practice includes administering parenteral antibiotics if a bacterial infection is suspected. This has disadvantages as it causes pain and discomfort to the children, which may lead to treatment refusal or reduced compliance. It is also associated with needle-related complications. In some settings this equipment is in short supply or unavailable necessitating transfer of the child, which increases risks and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the equivalence in effectiveness and safety of oral antibiotic compared to parenteral antibiotic therapies in the treatment of severe pneumonia in children between three months and five years of age. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005); MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2005); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2005) and LILACS (February 2005). SELECTION CRITERIA: The review included published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing any oral antibiotic therapy with any parenteral antibiotic therapy for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children from three months to five years of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The search yielded more than 1300 titles. Only three studies met all criteria for eligibility. One of the identified trials is yet to publish its results. We did not perform a meta-analysis because of clinical heterogeneity of therapies compared in the included trials. MAIN RESULTS: Campbell 1988 compared oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular procaine penicillin followed by oral ampicillin in 134 children. At the seventh day of follow up, treatment failure occurred in 6/66 (9.1%) in the oral co-trimoxazole group and 7/68 (10.2%) in the combined-treatment group. The risk difference was -0.01% (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11 to 0.09). The APPIS Group 2004 evaluated 1702 patients comparing oral amoxicillin versus intravenous penicillin for two days followed by oral amoxicillin. After 48 hours, treatment failure occurred in 161/845 (19%) in the amoxicillin group and 167/857 (19%) in the parenteral penicillin group. The risk difference was -0.4% (95% CI -4.2 to 3.3). The authors reported similar recovery in both groups at 5 and 14 days. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral therapy appears to be an effective and safe alternative to parenteral antibiotics in hospitalised children with severe pneumonia who do not have any serious signs or symptoms.


Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 May;21(4):410-20.Review.
The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.
Varicella infection during the first and second trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk for congenital varicella syndrome 0.5-1.5% above the baseline risk for major malformation. Third trimester infection may lead to maternal pneumonia which can be life threatening if not treated appropriately. Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) should be administered as soon as possible preferably within 96 h from exposure to prevent maternal infection or subsequent complications. Later than 96 h, the effectiveness of VZIG has not been evaluated. Neonatal varicella is more severe if maternal rash appears 5 days prior to or 2 days after delivery. The newborn should be given VZIG immediately. Intravenous acyclovir is recommended for maternal pneumonia and severely affected neonate. No controlled study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of acyclovir or valacyclovir for postexposure prophylaxis to pregnant women or neonates. Unlike primary varicella infection in pregnancy, herpes zoster has not been documented to cause complications unless in the disseminated form. The advent of advanced imaging techniques and molecular biotechniques has improved prenatal diagnosis. With increase use of vaccination, the incidence of chickenpox in pregnancy is expected to decline in the future.

Diagnosis,  Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14813.  Bratzler DW. Blood cultures in pneumonia patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jun;47(6):580; author reply 581.

14814.  Broom MA, Wang LL, Otta SK, Knutsen AP, Siegfried E, Batanian JR, Kelly ME, Shah M. Successful umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and combined immunodeficiency. Clin Genet. 2006 Apr;69(4):337-43.

14815.  Chu WC, Li AM, Ng AW, So HK, Lam WW, Lo KL, Yeung MC, Yau YS, Chiu K, Leung CW, Ng PC, Hon KL, Mo KW, Fok TF, Ahuja AT. Thin-Section CT 12 Months After the Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Pediatric Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Jun;186(6):1707-14.

14816.  Gibbons FK, Branda JA, Shepard JA. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 12-2006. A 37-year-old man with hemoptysis and a pulmonary infiltrate. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 20;354(16):1729-37.

14817.  Goossens H, Little P. Community acquired pneumonia in primary care. BMJ. 2006 May 6;332(7549):1045-6.

14818.  Hoare Z, Lim WS. Pneumonia: update on diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2006 May 6;332(7549):1077-9. Review.

14819.  Hoque KM, Binder HJ. Zinc in the treatment of acute diarrhea: current status and assessment. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jun;130(7):2201-5. Review.

14820.  Kamath AV, Myint PK. Recognizing and managing severe community-acquired pneumonia. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2006 Apr;67(4):M76-8. Review.

14821.  Koga T, Aizawa H. Pneumonia: ... and to tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in community acquired pneumonia. BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1214.

14822.  Kuzucu A. Parasitic diseases of the respiratory tract. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):212-21. Review.

14823.  Lednicky JA, Rayner JO. Uncommon respiratory pathogens. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 May;12(3):235-9. Review.

14824.  Lomas DA. The selective advantage of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 May 15;173(10):1072-7.    Review.

14825.  Peralta G, Rodriguez-Lera MJ, Garrido JC, Ansorena L, Roiz MP. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 27;6:79.

14826.  Porcel JM, Light RW.  Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Apr 1;73(7):1211-20. Review.

14827.  Ranganathan LN, Ramaratnam S.  Rapid versus slow withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005003. Review.

14828.  Romero-Gomez M, Otero MA, Sanchez-Munoz D, Ramirez-Arcos M, Larraona JL, Suarez Garcia E, Vargas-Romero J. Acute hepatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in adult patients. J Hepatol. 2006 Apr;44(4):827-8.

14829.  Rice LB. Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6 Suppl 1):S11-9; discussion S62-70. Review.

14830.  Wazni OM, Fahmy TS, Natale A. Circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 25;354(21):2289-91; author reply 2289-91.


14831.  Cals J, Hopstaken R. Lower respiratory tract infections: treating patients or diagnoses? J Fam Pract. 2006 Jun;55(6):545-6; author reply 546-7.

14832.  Carratala J, Martin-Herrero JE, Mykietiuk A, Garcia-Rey C. Clinical experience in the management of community-acquired pneumonia: lessons from the use of fluoroquinolones. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 May;12 Suppl 3:2-11. Review.

14833.  Challen K, Walter D, Bright J, Bentley A.  More on pneumonia: clinical judgment is also needed with CURB score. BMJ. 2006 Jun 3;332(7553):1333.

14834.  Chua Tde J, File TM Jr. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: gearing towards shorter-course therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;19(2):185-8. Review.

14835.  Craven DE. What is healthcare-associated pneumonia, and how should it be treated? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;19(2):153-60. Review.

14836.  Dean NC, Sperry P, Wikler M, Suchyta MS, Hadlock C. Comparing gatifloxacin and clarithromycin in pneumonia symptom resolution and process of care. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Apr;50(4):1164-9.

14837.  Hambidge KM. Zinc and pneumonia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):991-2.

14838.  Jeena P, Thea DM, MacLeod WB, Chisaka N, Fox MP, Coovadia HM, Qazi S; Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (APPIS Group). Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Apr;84(4):269-75.  Jereb M, Kotar T. Usefulness of procalcitonin to differentiate typical from atypical community-acquired pneumonia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 Apr;118(5-6):170-4.

14839.  Laifer G, Frei R, Adler H, Fluckiger U. Necrotising pneumonia complicating a nasal furuncle. Lancet. 2006 May 13;367(9522):1628.

14840.  Lim WS, Hoare Z.  Pneumonia: let's avoid confusion of secondary and primary care issues in pneumonia. BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1214.

14841.  Marchetti F, Berti I. Pneumonia: macrolides or amoxicillin for community acquired pneumonia? BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1213-4.

14842.  Maroun V, Cochrane D, Allegra J. Delays in antibiotic administration associated with chest X-ray negative and computed tomographic scan positive for pneumonia. Am J Emerg Med. 2006 May;24(3):390-1.

14843.  Owen D, Shiner T, Sivakumar R, Dent R, Hilton C. Pneumonia: are we putting the CURB score into practice? BMJ. 2006 May 20;332(7551):1213.

14844.  Ramphal R, Ambrose PG. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and clinical outcomes: current data. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 15;42 Suppl 4:S164-72. Review.

14845.  Ranganathan LN, Ramaratnam S.  Rapid versus slow withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005003. Review.

14846.  Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 May;21(4):410-20.Review.