(Infants, Children, Adolescents, Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women and Elderly)

January 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Bergman P, Graham J. An approach to "failure to thrive". Auskt Fam Physician. 2005 Sep;34(9):725-9.

Diabetes Ambulatory Care Service, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria.

BACKGROUND: Infants commonly present with failure to thrive. Psychosocial and nutritional causes are commonly responsible, but significant organic pathology requires exclusion in all children with failure to thrive. OBJECTIVE: This article discusses an approach to the assessment of infants presenting with failure to thrive, together with information on management and available resources. DISCUSSION: Close liaison between those involved in the management of infants presenting with failure to thrive--including family, maternal child health nurse, family doctor and paediatrician--should usually allow for appropriate intervention to correct the failure to thrive.


Fowles ER, Gabrielson M. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women. J Community Health Nurs. 2005 Summer;22(2):117-30.

Mennonite College of Nursing, Illinois State University, Normal 61790-5810, USA.

The purpose1 of this study is to test a model describing the relations of various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on the health outcomes of nutritional adequacy and infant birth weight in low-income pregnant women. Descriptive, cohort design assessed low-income women (N=55) in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Eighty percent of the women did not meet the recommended number of food servings outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid. Prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy-related dietary changes explained 19% of the variance in nutritional adequacy. Maternal age, prepregnant BMI, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birth weight. Nutritional adequacy in the 1st trimester and infant birth weight were not significantly related. Most low-income women are not meeting the nutritional requirements of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of dietary quality may help target women in need of additional nutritional education. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy may lead to improved dietary patterns that may reduce low birth weight.


Hakrder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A.Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Sep 1;162(5):397-403.

Clinic of Obstetrics, Division of Experimental Obstetrics, Charite-University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Observational studies suggest a longer duration of breastfeeding to be associated dose dependently with a decrease in risk of overweight in later life. The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of the existing studies on duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight. Studies were included that reported the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (or the data to calculate them) of overweight associated with breastfeeding and that reported the duration of breastfeeding and used exclusively formula-fed subjects as the referent. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. By meta-regression, the duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the risk of overweight (regression coefficient=0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 0.98). Categorical analysis confirmed this dose-response association (<1 month of breastfeeding: odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.55; 1-3 months: OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.88; 4-6 months: OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.86; 7-9 months: OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.82; >9 months: OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.91). One month of breastfeeding was associated with a 4% decrease in risk (OR=0.96/month of breastfeeding, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98). The definitions of overweight and age had no influence. These findings strongly support a dose-dependent association between longer duration of breastfeeding and decrease in risk of overweight.


Jordan S, Emery S, Bradshaw C, Watkins A, Friswell W. The impact of intrapartum analgesia on infant feeding. BJOG. 2005 Jul;112(7):927-34.

School of Health Science, University of Wales, Swansea, UK.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of intrapartum analgesia on infant feeding at hospital discharge. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Maternity unit of a UK district general hospital. POPULATION: A random sample of 425 healthy primiparae delivering healthy singleton babies at term in 2000. METHODS: A random sample of primiparae delivering term neonates was identified from the birth register. We retrieved and analysed the corresponding joint midwifery/obstetric case notes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Infant feeding method at discharge from hospital. RESULTS: Women [190/424 (45%)] were exclusively bottle feeding their babies at discharge from hospital. No one commenced breastfeeding after hospital discharge. Regression analysis revealed that the main determinants of bottle feeding were as follows: maternal age [odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.95 per year]; occupation (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99 for each category, unemployed, manual, non-manual); antenatal feeding intentions (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.080-0.19 for each category, bottle feeding, undecided, breastfeeding); caesarean section (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13-0.47, caesarean or vaginal delivery); and dose of fentanyl administered intrapartum (OR 1.004, 95% CI 1.000-1.008, 90% CI 1.001-1.007 for each microgram administered, range 8-500 mug). CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship between fentanyl and artificial feeding has not been reported elsewhere. When well-established determinants of infant feeding are accounted for, intrapartum fentanyl may impede establishment of breastfeeding, particularly at higher doses.


Lichtenstein AH, Russell RM. Essential nutrients: food or supplements? Where should the emphasis be? JAMA. 2005 Jul 20;294(3):351-8.

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

The consumption of adequate levels and proper balance of essential nutrients is critical for maintaining health. The identification, isolation, and purification of nutrients in the early 20th century raised the possibility that optimal health outcomes could be realized through nutrient supplementation. Recent attempts using this approach for cardiovascular disease and lung cancer have been disappointing, as demonstrated with vitamin E and beta carotene. Moreover, previously unrecognized risks caused by nutrient toxicity and nutrient interactions have surfaced during intervention studies. The most promising data in the area of nutrition and positive health outcomes relate to dietary patterns, not nutrient supplements. These data suggest that other factors in food or the relative presence of some foods and the absence of other foods are more important than the level of individual nutrients consumed. Finally, unknown are the implications on public health behavior of shifting the emphasis away from food toward nutrient supplements. Notwithstanding the justification for targeting recommendations for nutrient supplements to certain segments of the population (eg, the elderly), there are insufficient data to justify an alteration in public health policy from one that emphasizes food and diet to one that emphasizes nutrient supplements.


Mahoney CR, Taylor HA, Kanarek RB, Samuel P. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children. Physiol Behav. 2005 Aug 7;85(5):635-45.

Tufts University, Department of Psychology, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.


McDowell MA, Fryar CD, Hirsch R, Ogden CL.Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: U.S. population, 1999-2002. Adv Data. 2005 Jul 7;(361):1-5.

Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, U.S. DEpartment of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

This report presents national anthropometric reference data based on health examination survey results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, for all ages of the U.S. population. Weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles are presented for the total U.S. population by sex, race or ethnic group, and age in years or age group. Findings for some population groups are reported in a way that is comparable with results reported from National Health Examination Surveys (NHES) and NHANES conducted between 1960 and 1994. These data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and are used to monitor prevalent conditions in the U.S. population such as overweight and obesity.


Olsen IE, Richardson DK, Schmid CH, Ausman LM, Dwyer JT.Dietitian involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit: more is better. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Aug;105(8):1224-30.

Department of Nutrition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Describe the level of registered dietitian (RD) involvement in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and associations with NICU nutrition practices. DESIGN: Questionnaires were mailed to 820 NICUs in the United States with two follow-up mailings to nonresponders. Abbreviated phone surveys were conducted with a random sample of 10% of nonresponders. A nutrition care score was devised based on a sum of 10 survey questions (range 0 to 10) to summarize the intensity of reported practices. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Directors of NICUs in the United States and RDs associated with them. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Chi2, analysis of variance, Bonferroni and Duncan multiple range tests, regression. RESULTS: Respondents from 417 (54%) of the 772 NICUs eligible for the study provided completed questionnaires. Among NICUs responding, 76% involved RDs in care (41% employed full- or part-time RDs, 35% employed consult RDs), and 24% had no RD. NICUs with full- or part-time RDs provided fewer kilocalories and more protein parenterally, and more kilocalories and protein enterally. NICUs with less RD involvement were more likely to provide full-term infant feedings (eg, unfortified breast milk, full-term formula) to very-low-birth-weight infants. Mean nutrition care score varied with RD involvement from 4.6+/-1.7 (mean+/-standard deviation) for NICUs with a consult RD and 4.7+/-1.4 for NICUs employing no RD to 5.6+/-1.7 for NICUs with a full- or part-time RD (overall P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: More involvement of RDs in NICUs increased the intensity of important aspects of nutrition care that may improve outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants in NICUs. These findings highlight the importance of RDs as NICU team members.


Paquette MC. Perceptions of healthy eating: state of knowledge and research gaps. Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96 Suppl 3:S15-9, S16-21.

Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Montreal.

To effectively promote and support healthy eating among Canadians, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviours. Perceptions of healthy eating can be considered as one of the many factors influencing people's eating habits. For this review, "perceptions of healthy eating" are defined as the public's and health professionals' meanings, understandings, views, attitudes and beliefs about healthy eating, eating for health, and healthy foods. This article's aim is to review and summarize the literature on the perceptions of healthy eating and to identify the current state of knowledge and key knowledge gaps. Databases, the worldwide web, selected journals and reference lists were searched for relevant papers from the last 20 years. Reviewed articles suggest relative homogeneity in the perceptions of healthy eating despite the studies being conducted in different countries and involving different age groups, sexes and socio-economic status. Perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on food choice. Fruits and vegetables were consistently recognized as part of healthy eating. Characteristics of food such as naturalness, and fat, sugar and salt contents were also important in people's perceptions of healthy eating. Concepts related to healthy eating, such as balance, variety and moderation, were often mentioned, but they were found to be polysemous, conveying multiple meanings. The main gap identified in this review concerns the lack of knowledge available on perceptions of healthy eating. More data are needed on the perceptions of healthy eating in general, on the influence on perceptions of messages from diverse sources such as food companies, and, most important, on the role of perceptions of healthy eating as a determinant of food choice.


Sainz Bueno JA, Romano MR, Teruel RG, Benjumea AG, Palacin AF, Gonzalez CA, Manzano MC.Early discharge from obstetrics-pediatrics at the Hospital de Valme, with domiciliary follow-up. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 1):714-26.

Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Hospital de Valme, Sevilla, Spain.

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a program of early obstetric-pediatric discharge (24 hours postpartum) with domiciliary follow-up, compared with the traditional postpartum hospital stay (more than 48 hours), according to the criteria described by reviewers of the subject. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of early obstetric discharge for healthy mothers and term infants, with postpartum randomization, with no prenatal preparation and with observational and clinical follow-up was performed. The participants were mothers with healthy, term neonates (37-42 weeks) weighing more than 2500 g and produced via vaginal delivery and with a verified normal evolution before discharge. The sample consisted of 430 cases (213 cases with early discharge, and 217 control cases) in which the following variables were evaluated: existence of complications in the mother and/or child that required rehospitalization or a medical consultation, existence of maternal problems of fatigue or anxiety/depression after the birth, continuity of lactation and its problems, satisfaction of the mother and family, and relative costs. CONCLUSION: After demonstrating the homogeneity of the groups, no significant differences were found in the rates of maternal rehospitalization (1.9% in the early discharge group vs 2.3% in the control group, relative risk 0.81, 95% CI 0.21-3.03) or in the rates of rehospitalization of the neonates (1.4% in the early discharge group vs 2.3% in the control group, relative risk 0.16, 95% CI 0.15-2.56). No increases were observed in maternal or neonatal disease, puerperal fatigue, or maternal anxiety/depression. A prolongation of maternal lactation to 3 months was observed in the early discharge group (P=.016 <.05 Fisher exact test). When the cost of early discharge is compared with that of traditional discharge with a minimum of 48 hours hospital stay, we find a saving of 18% to 20%. The level of maternal satisfaction with early discharge is better than 90%.


Wiley AS.Does milk make children grow? Relationships between milk consumption and height in NHANES 1999-2002. Am J Hum Biol. 2005 Jul-Aug;17(4):425-41.

Program in Anthropology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807, USA.

In the United States, milk (usually cow's milk) is widely considered an "essential food" to support bone growth among post-weaning age children, as evident in government-sponsored nutrition policies that mandate milk for children. Milk contains calories, protein, and calcium, among other nutrients, and bioactive components such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), all of which may facilitate bone growth. There is a large literature on milk and/or calcium intake and its effects on bone density, but one aspect of bone mass--height--is not well studied in relation to milk consumption. Limited experimental studies show no consistent relationship across populations. To investigate this linkage among American children, analysis of the NHANES 1999-2002 was undertaken. NHANES data allow two hypotheses to be tested: (1) reported frequency of childhood milk consumption will be positively related to adult height and (2) height of children 5-18 years will be predicted by the reported frequency of milk consumption and/or milk intake from a 24-h dietary recall. Results indicate that adult height was positively associated with milk consumption at ages 5-12 and 13-17, after controlling for sex, education, and ethnicity. Among contemporary children, milk consumption had no effect on the height of 5-11 year olds after controlling for age, birthweight, energy intake, and ethnicity. In contrast, milk consumption frequency and milk intake (measured as grams of milk, or protein or calcium from milk) were significant predictors of the height of 12-18 year olds, along with age, sex, household income, and ethnicity. The greatest ethnic contrasts were between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and blacks, and milk variables remained significant predictors of height in these comparisons. Thus NHANES data show substantial variability in the effects of milk consumption on height. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

13427.  Adams R, Tremblay M. Use of growth charts. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005 Summer;66(2):60; author reply 60.

13428.  Allison SP. Integrated nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 Aug;64(3):319-23.

13429.  Astrup A. The satiating power of protein--a key to obesity prevention? Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):1-2.

13430.  Bansal N, Cruickshank JK, McElduff P, Durrington PN. Cord blood lipoproteins and prenatal influences. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Aug;16(4):400-8. Review.

13431.  Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Turner-McGrievy G, Lanou AJ, Glass J. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med. 2005 Sep;118(9):991-7.

13432.  Beard BJ. Orphan care in Malawi: current practices. J Community Health Nurs. 2005 Summer;22(2):105-15.

13433.  Bell AC, Swinburn BA. School canteens: using ripples to create a wave of healthy eating. Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):5-6.

13434.  Bergman P, Graham J. An approach to "failure to thrive". Aust Fam Physician. 2005 Sep;34(9):725-9. Review.

13435.  Bourre JM. Where to find omega-3 fatty acids and how feeding animals with diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids to increase nutritional value of derived products for human: what is actually useful ? J Nutr Health Aging. 2005 Jul-Aug;9(4):232-42. Review.

13436.  Buchan IE, Heller RF, Clayton P, Bundred PE, Cole TJ. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: early feeding is crucial target for preventing obesity in children. BMJ. 2005 Aug 20;331(7514):453-4;

13437.  Burden ST, Stoppard E, Shaffer J, Makin A, Todd C. Can we use mid upper arm anthropometry to detect malnutrition in medical inpatients? A validation study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005 Aug;18(4):287-94.

13438.  Chang ZM, Heaman MI. Epidural analgesia during labor and delivery: effects on the initiation and continuation of effective breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2005 Aug;21(3):305-14; quiz 315-9, 326.

13439.  Contillo C. Muffin diet: a recipe for belonging? Am J Nurs. 2005 Jul;105(7):39.

13440.  Coutinho SB, de Lira PI, de Carvalho Lima M, Ashworth A. Comparison of the effect of two systems for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. Lancet. 2005 Sep 24-30;366(9491):1094-100.

13441.  Crawley H. Is school food finally getting the attention it deserves? J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005 Aug;18(4):239-41.

13442.  Cripps RL, Martin-Gronert MS, Ozanne SE. Fetal and perinatal programming of appetite. Clin Sci (Lond). 2005 Jul;109(1):1-11. Review.

13443.  Damato EG, Dowling DA, Standing TS, Schuster SD. Explanation for cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of twins. J Hum Lact. 2005 Aug;21(3):296-304.

13444.  de Fine Olivarius N, Palmvig B, Andreasen AH, Thorgersen JT, Hundrup C. An educational model for improving diet counselling in primary care A case study of the creative use of doctors' own diet, their attitudes to it and to nutritional counselling of their patients with diabetes. Patient Educ Couns. 2005 Aug;58(2):199-202.

13445.  Dietrich T, Nunn M, Dawson-Hughes B, Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and gingival inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):575-80.

13446.  Dorling J, Kempley S, Leaf A. Feeding growth restricted preterm infants with abnormal antenatal Doppler results. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Sep;90(5):F359-63. Review.

13447.  Dsilna A, Christensson K, Alfredsson L, Lagercrantz H, Blennow M. Continuous feeding promotes gastrointestinal tolerance and growth in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2005 Jul;147(1):43-9.

13448.  Dunn-Emke SR, Weidner G, Pettengill EB, Marlin RO, Chi C, Ornish DM. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Sep;105(9):1442-6.

13449.  Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 Suppl):236S-241S. Review.

13450.  Ells LJ, Campbell K, Lidstone J, Kelly S, Lang R, Summerbell C. Prevention of childhood obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;19(3):441-54. Review.

13451.  Ferry M, Sidobre B, Lambertin A, Barberger-Gateau P. The SOLINUT study: analysis of the interaction between nutrition and loneliness in persons aged over 70 years. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005 Jul-Aug;9(4):261-8.

13452.  Fischer Walker C, Kordas K, Stoltzfus RJ, Black RE. Interactive effects of iron and zinc on biochemical and functional outcomes in supplementation trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):5-12. Review.

13453.  Ford ES, Abbasi F, Reaven GM. Prevalence of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome with alternative definitions of impaired fasting glucose. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):143-8.

13454.  Fowles ER, Gabrielson M. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women. J Community Health Nurs. 2005 Summer;22(2):117-30.

13455.  Friedlander AL, Braun B, Pollack M, MacDonald JR, Fulco CS, Muza SR, Rock PB, Henderson GC, Horning MA, Brooks GA, Hoffman AR, Cymerman A. Three weeks of caloric restriction alters protein metabolism in normal-weight, young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;289(3):E446-55.

13456.  Garcia V, Arts IC, Sterne JA, Thompson RL, Shaheen SO.  Dietary intake of flavonoids and asthma in adults. Eur Respir J. 2005 Sep;26(3):449-52.

13457.  Gardner JM, Powell CA, Baker-Henningham H, Walker SP, Cole TJ, Grantham-McGregor SM.  Zinc supplementation and psychosocial stimulation: effects on the development of undernourished Jamaican children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):399-405.

13458.  Genta RM. A spaghetto a day keeps allergies away. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Sep;50(9):1710-1.

13459.  Gillen DL, Coe FL, Worcester EM. Nephrolithiasis and increased blood pressure among females with high body mass index. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Aug;46(2):263-9.

13460.  Haisma H, Wells JC, Coward WA, Filho DD, Victora CG, Vonk RJ, Wright A, Visser GH.  Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1889-95.

13461.  Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Sep 1;162(5):397-403.

13462.  Hazelbaker AK. Newborn tongue-tie and breast-feeding. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005 Jul-Aug;18(4):326; author reply 326-7.

13463.  Hoerr S, Utech AE, Ruth E. Child control of food choices in Head Start families. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005 Jul-Aug;37(4):185-90.

13464.  Jenkins S, Horner SD. Barriers that influence eating behaviors in adolescents. J Pediatr Nurs. 2005 Aug;20(4):258-67. Review.

13465.  Jolley J, Elliott B, Williams R. Commentary on Nyqvist KH, Sorell A & Ewald U (2005) Litmus tests for verification of feeding tube locations in infants: evaluation of their clinical use. Journal of Clinical Nursing 14, 486-495. J Clin Nurs. 2005 Sep;14(8):1029-30; discussion 1031.

13466.  Jordan S, Emery S, Bradshaw C, Watkins A, Friswell W. The impact of intrapartum analgesia on infant feeding. BJOG. 2005 Jul;112(7):927-34.

13467.  Kanekura T, Yotsumoto S, Maeno N, Kamenosono A, Saruwatari H, Uchino Y, Mera Y, Kanzaki T. Selenium deficiency: report of a case. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005 Jul;30(4):346-8.

13468.  Lawrence RA. Lactation support when the infant will require general anesthesia: assisting the breastfeeding dyad in remaining content through the preoperative fasting period. J Hum Lact. 2005 Aug;21(3):355-7. Review.

13469.  Leung AK, Sauve RS. Breast is best for babies. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Jul;97(7):1010-9. Review.

13470.  Lichtenstein AH, Russell RM. Essential nutrients: food or supplements? Where should the emphasis be? JAMA. 2005 Jul 20;294(3):351-8.

13471.  Loughridge JL, Barratt J. Does the provision of cooled filtered water in secondary school cafeterias increase water drinking and decrease the purchase of soft drinks? J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005 Aug;18(4):281-6.

13472.  Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Overweight children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 8;353(10):1070-1; author reply 1070-1.

13473.  Mahoney CR, Taylor HA, Kanarek RB, Samuel P. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children. Physiol Behav. 2005 Aug 7;85(5):635-45.

13474.  Marcason W. Can dietary intervention play a part in the treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jul;105(7):1161-2.

13475.  McDowell MA, Fryar CD, Hirsch R, Ogden CL. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: U.S. population, 1999-2002. Adv Data. 2005 Jul 7;(361):1-5.

13476.  McIntyre J. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: successes and challenges. BJOG. 2005 Sep;112(9):1196-203. Review.

13477.  Meydani A, Ahmed T, Meydani SN. Aging, nutritional status, and infection in the developing world. Nutr Rev. 2005 Jul;63(7):233-46. Review.

13478.  Morin K. Water-soluble vitamins. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2005 Jul-Aug;30(4):271. Review.

13479.  Muskiet FA. The importance of (early) folate status to primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention. Reprod Toxicol. 2005 Sep-Oct;20(3):403-10. Review.

13480.  Olsen IE, Richardson DK, Schmid CH, Ausman LM, Dwyer JT. Dietitian involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit: more is better. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Aug;105(8):1224-30.

13481.  Paquette MC. Perceptions of healthy eating: state of knowledge and research gaps. Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96 Suppl 3:S15-9, S16-21. Review.

13482.  Pelletier CA. Feeding beliefs of certified nurse assistants in the nursing home: a factor influencing practice. J Gerontol Nurs. 2005 Jul;31(7):5-10.

13483.  Pettifor JM. Rickets and vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2005 Sep;34(3):537-53, vii. Review.

13484.  Prakash R. High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):708-9.

13485.  Radcliffe M. A report into the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nurs Times. 2005 Jul 26-Aug 1;101(30):120. Review.

13486.  Radford A. Baby friendly hospitals are the answer. Pract Midwife. 2005 Sep;8(8):29-30.

13487.  Reilly JJ. Physical activity and obesity in childhood and adolescence. Lancet. 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):268-9.

13488.  Rinne M, Kalliomaki M, Arvilommi H, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Effect of probiotics and breastfeeding on the bifidobacterium and lactobacillus/enterococcus microbiota and humoral immune responses. J Pediatr. 2005 Aug;147(2):186-91.

13489.  Sachs M. Baby growth needs proper re-evaluation. BMJ. 2005 Aug 13;331(7513):406.

13490.  Sahyoun NR, Anderson AL, Kanaya AM, Koh-Banerjee P, Kritchevsky SB, de Rekeneire N, Tylavsky FA, Schwartz AV, Lee JS, Harris TB. Dietary glycemic index and load, measures of glucose metabolism, and body fat distribution in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):547-52.

13491.  Sainz Bueno JA, Romano MR, Teruel RG, Benjumea AG, Palacin AF, Gonzalez CA, Manzano MC. Early discharge from obstetrics-pediatrics at the Hospital de Valme, with domiciliary follow-up. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 1):714-26.

13492.  Sleigh G. Mothers' voice: a qualitative study on feeding children with cerebral palsy. Child Care Health Dev. 2005 Jul;31(4):373-83. 

13493.  Smith JR. Early enteral feeding for the very low birth weight infant: the development and impact of a research-based guideline. Neonatal Netw. 2005 Jul-Aug;24(4):9-19.

13494.  Smith KD. Helping preschoolers become healthy eaters. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005 Jul-Aug;19(4):262; author reply 262.

13495.  Sorensen HJ, Mortensen EL, Reinisch JM, Mednick SA. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Jul;112(1):26-9.

13496.  Szwajcer EM, Hiddink GJ, Koelen MA, van Woerkum CM. Nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours before and throughout the course of pregnancy: consequences for nutrition communication. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;59 Suppl 1:S57-65.

13497.  Thorley V. Breast hypoplasia and breastfeeding: a case history. Breastfeed Rev. 2005 Jul;13(2):13-6.

13498.  Walters M, Rainville AJ. Making competitive food choices in schools more nutritious. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Aug;105(8):1249-50.

13499.  Wiley AS. Does milk make children grow? Relationships between milk consumption and height in NHANES 1999-2002. Am J Hum Biol. 2005 Jul-Aug;17(4):425-41.

13500.  Yeh WT, Chang HY, Yeh CJ, Tsai KS, Chen HJ, Pan WH. Do centrally obese Chinese with normal BMI have increased risk of metabolic disorders? Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jul;29(7):818-25.

13501.  Zhang J, Hebert JR, Muldoon MF. Dietary fat intake is associated with psychosocial and cognitive functioning of school-aged children in the United States. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1967-73



 April 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Bowen WH, Lawrence RA. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose. Pediatrics. 2005 Oct;116(4):921-6.

Center for Oral Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood caries, although direct experimental evidence is lacking. METHODS: We used our desalivated rat model because the approach mimics the situation found in infants, whereby the flow of saliva is interrupted through mechanical effects of a nipple. The animals received basic nutrition by gavage, and the fluids being tested were available ad libitum. Thus, the only substances that came in contact with teeth were the test fluids. The investigation continued for 14 days. RESULTS: Cola, sucrose, and honey were by far the most cariogenic. In addition, cola and honey induced considerable erosion. Human milk was significantly more cariogenic than cow milk probably because of its lower mineral content and higher level of lactose. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the use of honey, cola, and sucrose water in nursing bottles should be discouraged. Although human milk is more cariogenic than cow milk, it is no more cariogenic than are common infant formulas. Protracted exposure to human milk or formula through allowing an infant to sleep on the nipple should be discouraged, and the need for oral hygiene after tooth eruption should be emphasized.


Corkins MR. Are diet and constipation related in children? Nutr Clin Pract. 2005 Oct;20(5):536-9. Review.

Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University, 702 Barnhill Drive, ROC 4210, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Constipation is a common complaint in childhood, and the etiology of many healthcare referrals. Despite literature documenting the high frequency of this problem, there is little research directly relating the food consumed and the eventual stool consistency. There is literature suggesting the importance of adequate fiber intake in children to maintain soft stools. Other dietary modifications actually have not been shown to be helpful or are not based on actual clinical studies. The presence of dietary allergies may also contribute to etiology of constipation. More studies to provide further linkages between diet and constipation are clearly needed.


Glick M, Greenberg BL. The potential role of dentists in identifying patients' risk of experiencing coronary heart disease events. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005 Nov;136(11):1541-6.

Department of Diagnostic Sciences, University of Dentistry and Medicine of New Jersey, School of Dentistry, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of people with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not identified before they develop clinical signs and symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes a cardiovascular screening by oral health care providers can affect the identification of people at risk of experiencing cardiovascular events. METHODS: The authors extracted data from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 2001-2002 NHANES for people aged 40 to 85 years with no reported specific risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and who had not seen a physician in the previous 12 months but had seen a dentist. They used these data to estimate the 10-year Framingham-based risk calculation scores for each subject to determine their global risk of experiencing acute CHD events. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of the male subjects had an increased 10-year global risk of experiencing a CHD event (> 10 percent risk score), 14.3 percent had a moderate, above-average risk score (> 10-< 20 percent), and an additional 4.3 percent had a high risk score (> or = 20 percent). Only one female subject had a risk score greater than 10 percent. When the authors extrapolated these results to the 2000 U.S. census data, they found that among men aged 40 to 85 years without reported risk factors who had not seen a physician but had seen a dentist in the previous 12 months, 332,262 had a greater than 10 to less than 20 percent risk of experiencing a CHD event, and 72,625 had a 20 percent or greater 10-year risk of experiencing a CHD event. CONCLUSION: Dentists can play an important role in identifying people in need of primary prevention strategies for CVD.


Merten S, Dratva J, Ackermann-Liebrich U. Do baby-friendly hospitals influence breastfeeding duration on a national level? Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):e702-8.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

OBJECTIVES: In Switzerland, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) proposed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was introduced in 1993 to promote breastfeeding nationwide. This study reports results of a national study of the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in 2003 throughout Switzerland and analyzes the influence of compliance with UNICEF guidelines of the hospital where delivery took place on breastfeeding duration. METHODS: Between April and September 2003, a random sample of mothers who had given birth in the past 9 months in Switzerland received a questionnaire on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Seventy-four percent of the contacted mothers (n = 3032) participated; they completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported the age at first introduction of various foods and drinks. After excluding questionnaires with missing information relevant for the analyses, we analyzed data for 2861 infants 0 to 11 months of age, born in 145 different health facilities. Because it was known whether each child was born in a designated baby-friendly hospital (45 hospitals) or in a health facility in the process of being evaluated for BFHI inclusion (31 facilities), we were able to assess a possible influence of the BFHI on breastfeeding success. For this purpose, we merged individual data with hospital data on compliance with the UNICEF guidelines, from a data source collected on an annual basis for quality monitoring of designated baby-friendly hospitals and health facilities in the evaluation process. Information on actual compliance with the guidelines allowed us to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding outcomes and compliance with UNICEF guidelines. We were also able to compare the breastfeeding results with those for non-baby-friendly health facilities. The comparison was based on median durations of exclusive, full, and any breastfeeding calculated for each group. To allow for other known influencing factors, we calculated adjusted hazard ratios by using Cox regression; we also conducted logistic regression analyses with the 24-hour dietary recall data, to calculate adjusted odds ratios for validation of results from the retrospectively collected data. RESULTS: In 2003, the median duration of any breastfeeding was 31 weeks at the national level, compared with 22 weeks in 1994, and the median duration of full breastfeeding was 17 weeks, compared with 15 weeks in 1994. The proportion of exclusively breastfed infants 0 to 5 months of age was 42% for infants born in baby-friendly hospitals, compared with 34% for infants born elsewhere. Breastfeeding duration for infants born in baby-friendly hospitals, compared with infants born in other hospitals, was longer if the hospital showed good compliance with the UNICEF guidelines (35 weeks vs 29 weeks for any breastfeeding, 20 weeks vs 17 weeks for full breastfeeding, and 12 weeks vs 6 weeks for exclusive breastfeeding). To control for differences in the study population between the different types of health facilities, hazard and odds ratios were calculated as described above, taking into account socioeconomic and medical factors. Although the analysis of the retrospective data showed clearly that the duration of exclusive and full breastfeeding was significantly longer if delivery occurred in a baby-friendly hospital with high compliance with the UNICEF guidelines, whereas this effect was less prominent in other baby-friendly health facilities, this difference was less obvious in the 24-hour recall data. Only for the duration of any breastfeeding could a positive effect be seen if delivery occurred in a baby-friendly hospital with high compliance with the UNICEF guidelines. Known factors involved in the evaluation of baby-friendly hospitals showed the expected influence, on the individual level, on duration of exclusive, full, and any breastfeeding. If a child had been exclusively breastfed in the hospital, the median duration of exclusive, full, and any breastfeeding was considerably longer than the mean for the entire population or for those who had received water-based liquids or supplements in the hospital. A positive effect on breastfeeding duration could be shown for full rooming in, first suckling within 1 hour, breastfeeding on demand, and also the much-debated practice of pacifier use. After controlling for medical problems before, during, and after delivery, type of delivery, well-being of the mother, maternal smoking, maternal BMI, nationality, education, work, and income, all of the factors were still significantly associated with the duration of full, exclusive, or any breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that the general increase in breastfeeding in Switzerland since 1994 can be interpreted in part as a consequence of an increasing number of baby-friendly health facilities, whose clients breastfeed longer. Nevertheless, several alternative explanations for the longer breastfeeding duration for deliveries that occurred in baby-friendly hospitals can be discussed. In Switzerland, baby-friendly hospitals actively use their certification by UNICEF as a promotional asset. It is thus possible that differences in breastfeeding duration are attributable to the fact that mothers who intend to breastfeed longer would choose to give birth in a baby-friendly hospital and these mothers would be more willing to comply with the recommendations of the UNICEF guidelines. Even if this were the case, however, this selection bias would not explain the differences in breastfeeding duration between designated baby-friendly health facilities with higher compliance with the UNICEF guidelines and those with lower compliance. Especially this last point strongly supports a beneficial effect of the BFHI, because mothers do not know how well hospitals comply with the UNICEF program. The fact that breastfeeding rates have generally improved even in non-baby-friendly health facilities may be indirectly influenced by the BFHI; its publicity and training programs for health professionals have raised public awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding, and the number of professional lactation counselors has increased continuously. Breastfeeding prevalence and duration in Switzerland have improved in the past 10 years. Children born in a baby-friendly health facility are more likely to be breastfed for a longer time, particularly if the hospital shows high compliance with UNICEF guidelines. Therefore, the BFHI should be continued but should be extended to include monitoring for compliance, to promote the full effect of the BFHI.


1.                   Reilly JJ, Wells JC. Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):869-72. Review.

Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, G3 8SJ, UK.

The WHO recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life. At present, <2 % of mothers who breast-feed in the UK do so exclusively for 6 months. We propose the testable hypothesis that this is because many mothers do not provide sufficient breast milk to feed a 6-month-old baby adequately. We review recent evidence on energy requirements during infancy, and energy transfer from mother to baby, and consider the adequacy of exclusive breast-feeding to age 6 months for mothers and babies in the developed world. Evidence from our recent systematic review suggests that mean metabolisable energy intake in exclusively breast-fed infants at 6 months is 2.2-2.4 MJ/d (525-574 kcal/d), and mean energy requirement approximately 2.6-2.7 MJ/d (632-649 kcal/d), leading to a gap between the energy provided by milk and energy needs by 6 months for many babies. Our hypothesis is consistent with other evidence, and with evolutionary considerations, and we briefly review this other evidence. The hypothesis would be testable in a longitudinal study of infant energy balance using stable-isotope techniques, which are both practical and valid.


1.                   Solanki K, Matnani M, Kale M, Joshi K, Bavdekar A, Bhave S, Pandit A. Transcutaneous absorption of topically massaged oil in neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2005 Oct;42(10):998-1005.

Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital, Pune 411 011, India.

OBJECTIVE: To study the transcutaneous absorption of traditionally massaged oil in newborns and to specifically compare the effects of (i) essential fatty acid (EFA) rich - safflower oil and (ii) saturated fat rich coconut oil, on fatty acid profiles of massaged babies. DESIGN: A short term randomised controlled study. SETTING: Tertiary care NICU of a large teaching hospital and a research laboratory of a University complex. METHODS: 120 study babies were randomly assigned to three oil groups (i) safflower oil (n = 40) (ii) coconut oil (n = 40) and (iii) no oil controls (n = 40). In each group, babies were selected in three subsets as per their gestational ages viz (a) less than 34 weeks, (b) 34-37 weeks, (c) greater than 37 weeks. 5 mL of the designated oil was massaged four times a day for five days under controlled conditions of temperature and feeding. Pre and post oil massage samples of blood were analysed for triglycerides and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography. RESULTS: Post oil triglyceride values were significantly raised in both the oil groups and also in controls. However, the quantum of rise was significantly higher in oil groups as compared to controls. Fatty acid profiles (gas chromatography) showed significant rise in EFAs (linolenic acid and arachidonic acid) in safflower oil group and saturated fats in coconut oil group. Changes were more evident in term babies. There were no side effects associated with the massage. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that topically applied oil can be absorbed in neonates and is probably available for nutritional purposes. The fatty acid constituents of the oil can influence the changes in the fatty acid profiles of the massaged babies.

13979.     Abouleish AE, Chung DH, Cohen M. Caudal anesthesia for vascular access procedures in two extremely small premature neonates. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005 Sep;21(9):749-51.  

13980.   Ahmed F, Khan MR, Akhtaruzzaman M, Karim R, Marks GC, Banu CP, Nahar B, Williams G. Efficacy of twice-weekly multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving the hemoglobin and micronutrient status of anemic adolescent schoolgirls in Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):829-35.

13981.  American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family docter. Taking care of yourself after having a baby. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Dec 15;72(12):2497-8.  .

13982.  Amir LH, Cwikel J. Why do women stop breastfeeding? A closer look at 'not enough milk' among Israeli women in the Negev Region. Breastfeed Rev. 2005 Nov;13(3):7-13.

13983.   Apgar BS, Serlin D, Kaufman A. The postpartum visit: is six weeks too late? Am Fam Physician. 2005 Dec 15;72(12):2443-4.  

13984. Attar MA, Lang SW, Gates MR, Iatrow AM, Bratton SL. Back transport of neonates: effect on hospital length of stay.  J Perinatol. 2005 Nov;25(11):731-6.

13985.   Baker-Henningham H, Powell C, Walker S, Grantham-McGregor S. The effect of early stimulation on maternal depression: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Dec;90(12):1230-4.  

13986.   Bakker-Zierikzee AM, Alles MS, Knol J, Kok FJ, Tolboom JJ, Bindels JG. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life. Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):783-90.

13987.   Bartholomew C, Bartholomew M, Jones A. HIV transmission from surrogate breastfeeding. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1902. 

13988.   Baum A. Expression of love. Pract Midwife. 2005 Nov;8(10):29-30, 32, 34.  .

13989.   Bhooma N, Chitra P. Trace minerals, calcium and magnesium profile of institutionalized elderly. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2005 May; 42( 5): 201-206.

13990.  Buyken AE, Dettmann W, Kersting M, Kroke A. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the diet of healthy schoolchildren: trends from 1990 to 2002, contribution of different carbohydrate sources and relationships to dietary quality. Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):796-803.

13991.  Caicedo RA, Schanler RJ, Li N, Neu J. The developing intestinal ecosystem: implications for the neonate. Pediatr Res. 2005 Oct;58(4):625-8. Review.

13992.   Colson S. Maternal breastfeeding positions: have we got it right? Pract Midwife. 2005 Nov;8(10):24, 26-7. Review. 

13993.   Dadhich JP. Exclusive breastfeeding and postnatal transmission of HIV. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Nov;83(11):879; author reply 879-80.   

13994.   Dalidowitz C. Fortified breast milk safety. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Oct;105(10):1572-3.  .

13995.   Dollman J, Norton K, Norton L. Evidence for secular trends in children's physical activity behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;39(12):892-7; discussion 897. Review.

13996.  Dorosko SM. Vitamin A, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding: current information and gaps in knowledge. Nutr Rev. 2005 Oct;63(10):332-46. Review.

13997.  Egal S, Hounsa A, Gong YY, Turner PC, Wild CP, Hall AJ, Hell K, Cardwell KF.  Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005 Oct 15;104(2):215-24.

13998.  Eglash A, Kendall SK, Fashner J. Clinical inquiries. What vitamins and minerals should be given to breastfed and bottle-fed infants? J Fam Pract. 2005 Dec;54(12):1089-91. Review.  .

13999.  Gribble KD. Adoptive breastfeeding. Breastfeed Rev. 2005 Nov;13(3):6.  .

14000.  Gunasekera H. Designer infant formulas: making a killing. J R Soc Med. 2005 Dec;98(12):551-2. Review. 

14001.   Hall DM, Renfrew MJ.  Tongue tie. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Dec;90(12):1211-5. Review. 

14002.   Heath DL, Panaretto KS. Nutrition status of primary school children in Townsville. Aust J Rural Health. 2005 Oct;13(5):282-9.

14003.   Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Strik CM, Renton H, Hails S. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of commercially available products in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):922-30.

14004.   Hertzler AA. Nutrition trends during 150 years of children's cookbooks. Nutr Rev. 2005 Oct;63(10):347-51.

14005.   Hill PD, Aldag JC, Chatterton RT, Zinaman M. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers. West J Nurs Res. 2005 Oct;27(6):676-93; discussion 694-700.

14006.   Holmes W. Seeking rational policy settings for PMTCT. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1835-6. 

14007.   Hong L, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Dawson DV, Bergus GR, Wefel JS. Association of amoxicillin use during early childhood with developmental tooth enamel defects. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Oct;159(10):943-8.

14008.   Kanjilal A, Prasad PL. Clinical assessment of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Nov;90(11):1202; author reply 1202. 

14009.   Kapur D, Sharma S, Agarwal KN. Dietary intake and growth pattern of children 9-36 months of age in an urban slum in Delhi . Indian Pediatrics. 2005 Apr; 42(4): 351-356 .

14010.   Kent G. Infant feeding in the context of HIV-positive mothers. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Nov;83(11):878-9; author reply 879-80.   

14011.   Kibel MA, Molteno CD, De Decker R. Cot death controversies. S Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;95(11):853-7. 

14012.   Martin RM, Gunnell D, Owen CG, Smith GD. Breast-feeding and childhood cancer: A systematic review with metaanalysis. Int J Cancer. 2005 Dec 20;117(6):1020-31. Review.

14013.   McMahon MM, Hurley DL, Kamath PS, Mueller PS. Medical and ethical aspects of long-term enteral tube feeding. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 Nov;80(11):1461-76. Review.

14014.   McNaughton SA, Bolton-Smith C, Mishra GD, Jugdaohsingh R, Powell JJ. Dietary silicon intake in post-menopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):813-7.

14015.   Mercadante S, Ferrera P, Girelli D, Casuccio A. Patients' and relatives' perceptions about intravenous and subcutaneous hydration. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 Oct;30(4):354-8.

14016.   Miller M, Zhan M, Havas S. High attributable risk of elevated C-reactive protein level to conventional coronary heart disease risk factors: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Oct 10;165(18):2063-8.

14017.   Mitka M. Experts: target heart disease from birth. JAMA. 2005 Nov 23;294(20):2558-63.  .

14018.   Mosley EE, Wright AL, McGuire MK, McGuire MA. trans Fatty acids in milk produced by women in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1292-7.

14019.   Nicol AA. Understanding peanut allergy: an overview of medical and lifestyle concerns. Adv Nurse Pract. 2005 Oct;13(10):63-8. Review. 

14020.   Parker R. Turner's syndrome and breastfeeding. Breastfeed Rev. 2005 Nov;13(3):23-5.  .

14021.   Paul Y. Study of drugs in Indian children. Indian Pediatr. 2005 Oct;42(10):1007; discussion 1007-8. 

14022.   Philip AG. The evolution of neonatology. Pediatr Res. 2005 Oct;58(4):799-815.  

14023.   Poindexter BB. Early amino acid administration for premature neonates. J Pediatr. 2005 Oct;147(4):420-1.

14024.   Riley MR, Bass NM, Rosenthal P, Merriman RB. Underdiagnosis of pediatric obesity and underscreening for fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome by pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. J Pediatr. 2005 Dec;147(6):839-42.

14025.   Rodriguez G, Moreno LA, Blay MG, Blay VA, Fleta J, Sarria A, Bueno M; AVENA-Zaragoza Study Group. Body fat measurement in adolescents: comparison of skinfold thickness equations with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;59(10):1158-66.

14026.   Rousset S, Deiss V, Juillard E, Schlich P, Droit-Volet S. Emotions generated by meat and other food products in women. Br J Nutr. 2005 Oct;94(4):609-19.

14027.   Sabate J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):859-64.

14028.   Sachithananthan V, Chandrasekhar U. Nutritional status and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children in urban slums of Chennai city . Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2005 Jun; 42( 6): 259-265.

14029.   Schack-Nielsen L, Molgaard C, Larsen D, Martyn C, Michaelsen KF. Arterial stiffness in 10-year-old children: current and early determinants. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):1004-11.

14030.   Schneider JM, Fujii ML, Lamp CL, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia in 12-36-mo-old children from low-income families. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1269-75.

14031.   Shaukat A, Freudenheim JL, Grant BJ, Muti P, Ochs-Balcom HM, McCann SE, Trevisan M, Iacoviello L, Schunemann HJ. Is being breastfed as an infant associated with adult pulmonary function? J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Oct;24(5):327-33. 

14032.   Smith SL, Doig AK, Dudley WN. Impaired parasympathetic response to feeding in ventilated preterm babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Nov;90(6):F505-8.  

14033.   Song Y, Manson JE, Cook NR, Albert CM, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Oct 15;96(8):1135-41.  

14034.   Stone SE, Morris TA. Pulmonary embolism during and after pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct;33(10 Suppl):S294-300. Review.

14035.   Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB.  Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2005 Nov 23;294(20):2601-10.

14036.   Thorsdottir I. Supplement and stimulation for stunted children. Lancet. 2005 Nov 19;366(9499):1756-8. 

14037.   Wall CR, Grant CC, Taua N, Wilson C, Thompson JM. Milk versus medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in hospitalised infants. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Oct;90(10):1033-8.  

14038.   Wang RY, Bates MN, Goldstein DA, Haynes SG, Hench KD, Lawrence RA, Paul IM, Qian Z.   Human milk research for answering questions about human health. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Oct 22;68(20):1771-801. 

14039.  Washington R. One way to decrease an obesogenic environment. J Pediatr. 2005 Oct;147(4):417-8.  .

14040.  Wight NE. Donor milk: down but not out. Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):1610; author reply 1610-1. 

14041.   Zyriax BC, Boeing H, Windler E. Nutrition is a powerful independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in women--The CORA study: a population-based case-control study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;59(10):1201-7.   



July 2006

Some selected abstracts:


Bengmark S. Impact of nutrition on ageing and disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Jan;9(1):2-7.

Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The globe is suffering a tsunami of chronic diseases, affecting especially the elderly and those with a dysfunctioning immune system. The fundamental principles of optimal health and optimal ageing are abstaining from smoking, modest alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and a diet rich in fish and plants and low in condensed calories, sugar and dairy products. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary supply and production of advanced glycation end products leads to the accumulation of these products in the tissues and is strongly associated with ageing of the vascular endothelium, nervous system, eyes and other vital organs. Telomeres, which are not involved in DNA repair, remain unrepaired and loose with time. A decline in innate and acquired immunity is seen with increasing age and maintenance of low basal immune activity (degree of inflammation) seems important for health and longevity: 'people who are predisposed to weak inflammatory activity may live longer'. SUMMARY: Supplementation with vitamins has little effect on ageing/prevention of chronic diseases, but antiinflammatory molecules like polyphenols are more effective, especially when combined with reduced intake of calorie-condensed foods. The effect of probiotics on ageing needs further exploration. The effects of caloric restriction, proven effective in other species to control aging and prolong lifespan, have not been fully explored in humans.


Gupte GL, Beath SV, Kelly DA, Millar AJ, Booth IW. Current issues in the management of intestinal failure. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Mar;91(3):259-64.

Liver Unit, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Successful long term parenteral nutrition has transformed the prognosis for children with irreversible intestinal failure in the last three decades, but has also highlighted the long term complications: intestinal failure associated liver disease; recurrent catheter sepsis; and impaired venous access. Recent advances in small bowel transplantation and non-transplant surgical techniques now offer hope of sustained survival in the future without parenteral nutrition.


14456. Barrow RE, Wolfe RR, Dasu MR, Barrow LN, Herndon DN. The use of beta-adrenergic blockade in preventing trauma-induced hepatomegaly. Ann Surg. 2006 Jan;243(1):115-20.

14457. Bertino E, Giuliani F, Tonetto P, Fabris C, Profeti C, Magnani C, Moro GE, Arslanoglu S. Randomized, controlled trial of breastfeeding versus formula feeding in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar;117(3):985-6; author reply 986-7.

14458. Blakely ML, Tyson JE, Lally KP, McDonald S, Stoll BJ, Stevenson DK, Poole WK, Jobe AH, Wright LL, Higgins RD; NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Laparotomy versus peritoneal drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight infants: outcomes through 18 months adjusted age. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e680-7.

14459. Bramhagen AC, Axelsson I, Hallstrom I. Mothers' experiences of feeding situations - an interview study. J Clin Nurs. 2006 Jan;15(1):29-34.

14460. Burdette HL, Whitaker RC, Hall WC, Daniels SR. Breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods, and adiposity at 5 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):550-8.

14461. Carmona RH. Healthy children: putting prevention first. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan;106(1):17.

14462. Chantry CJ, Howard CR, Auinger P. Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children. Pediatrics. 2006 Feb;117(2):425-32.

14463. Dunham L, Kollar LM. Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents. J Pediatr Health Care. 2006 Jan-Feb;20(1):27-34. Review.

14464. Erdogan M, Ustuner I, Cengiz B, Soylemez F, Cavdar AO. Effects of nutrition on zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels during pregnancy. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Feb;109(2):105-13.

14465. Fenton TR, Hanley DA. Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: an inaccurate conclusion. Pediatrics. 2006 Jan;117(1):259-60; author reply 260-1.

14466. Fox MK, Reidy K, Karwe V, Ziegler P. Average portions of foods commonly eaten by infants and toddlers in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan;106(1 Suppl 1):S66-76.

14467. Goulet O, Ruemmele F. Causes and management of intestinal failure in children. Gastroenterology. 2006 Feb;130(2 Suppl 1):S16-28. Review.

14468. Heird WC, Ziegler P, Reidy K, Briefel R. Current electrolyte intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan;106(1 Suppl 1):S43-51.

14469. Hendricks K, Briefel R, Novak T, Ziegler P. Maternal and child characteristics associated with infant and toddler feeding practices. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan;106(1 Suppl 1):S135-48.

14470. Hoe FM, Thornton PS, Wanner LA, Steinkrauss L, Simmons RA, Stanley CA. Clinical features and insulin regulation in infants with a syndrome of prolonged neonatal hyperinsulinism. J Pediatr. 2006 Feb;148(2):207-12.

14471. Kairamkonda V. Does continuous insulin infusion improve glycaemic control and nutrition in hyperglycaemic very low birth weight infants? Arch Dis Child. 2006 Jan;91(1):76-9. Review.

14472. Kaneko A, Kaneita Y, Yokoyama E, Miyake T, Harano S, Suzuki K, Ibuka E, Tsutsui T, YukoYamamoto, Ohida T. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan: for activities to support child-rearing with breast-feeding. J Epidemiol. 2006 Mar;16(2):57-63.

14473. Lamondy AM. Hyperemesis gravidarum and the role of the infusion nurse. J Infus Nurs. 2006 Mar-Apr;29(2):89-100. Review.

14474. Posthauer ME. Hydration: does it play a role in wound healing? Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006 Mar;19(2):74-6.

14475. Premji SS, Fenton TR, Sauve RS. Higher versus lower protein intake in formula-fed low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD003959. Review.

14476. Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Linde J, Bompadre S, Battino M, Narbona E, Maldonado J, Mataix J. Coenzyme Q concentration and total antioxidant capacity of human milk at different stages of lactation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. Free Radic Res. 2006 Feb;40(2):199-206.

14477. Revel-Vilk S. Central venous line-related thrombosis in children. Acta Haematol. 2006;115(3-4):201-6. Review.

14478. Sharieff W, Zlotkin S, Tondeur M, Feldman B, Tomlinson G. Physiologic mechanisms can predict hematologic responses to iron supplements in growing children: a computer simulation model. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):681-7.

14479. Wall A. What choice in infant feeding methods? J Fam Health Care. 2006;16(1):13-5.

14480. Zlotkin S. A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):502S-506S.



October 2006


Some selected abstracts:


Agren J, Sjors G, Sedin G. Ambient humidity influences the rate of skin barrier maturation in extremely preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2006 May;148(5):613-7.
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the level of relative humidity (RH) in which preterm infants are nursed might influence their postnatal skin maturation. STUDY DESIGN: In 22 preterm infants (GA 23-27 weeks), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was determined at postnatal ages (PNA) of 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. At a PNA of 7 days, the infants were randomized to care at either 50% or 75% RH. RESULTS: TEWL decreased at a slower rate in infants nursed at the higher RH. At a PNA of 28 days, TEWL was about twice as high in infants nursed at 75% RH (22 +/- 2 g/m2 h) than in those nursed at 50% RH (13 +/- 1 g/m2 h; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the level of RH influences skin barrier development, with more rapid barrier formation in infants nursed at a lower RH. The findings have an impact on strategies for promoting skin barrier integrity in extremely preterm infants.


Becquet R, Leroy V, Ekouevi DK, Viho I, Castetbon K, Fassinou P, Dabis F, Timite-Konan M; ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus Study Group. Complementary feeding adequacy in relation to nutritional status among early weaned breastfed children who are born to HIV-infected mothers: ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e701-10.
Unite INSERM 593, Institut de Sante Publique Epidemiologie
et Developpement, Universite Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France.
OBJECTIVE: In high HIV prevalence resource-constrained settings, exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation is one of the conceivable interventions aimed at the prevention of HIV through breast milk. Nevertheless, this intervention has potential adverse effects, such as the inappropriateness of complementary feeding to take over breast milk. The purpose of our study first was to describe the nature and the ages of introduction of complementary feeding among early weaned breastfed infants up to their first birthday and second was to assess the nutritional adequacy of these complementary foods by creating a child feeding index and to investigate its association with child nutritional status. METHODS: A prospective cohort study in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, was conducted in HIV-infected pregnant women who were willing to breastfeed and had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis. They were requested to practice exclusive breastfeeding and initiate early cessation of breastfeeding from the fourth month to reduce breast milk HIV transmission. Nature and ages of introductory complementary feeding were described in infants up to their first birthday by longitudinal compilation of 24-hour and 7-day recall histories. These recalls were done weekly until 6 weeks of age, monthly until 9 months of age, and then quarterly. We created an index to synthesize the nutritional adequacy of infant feeding practices (in terms of quality of the source of milk, dietary diversity, food, and meal frequencies) ranging from 0 to 12. The association of this feeding index with growth outcomes in children was investigated. RESULTS: Among the 262 breastfed children included, complete cessation of breastfeeding occurred in 77% by their first birthday, with a median duration of 4 months. Most of the complementary foods were introduced within the seventh month of life, except for infant food and infant formula that were introduced at age 4 months. The feeding index was relatively low (5 of 12) at age 6 months, mainly as a result of insufficient dietary diversity, but was improved in the next 6 months (8.5 of 12 at 12 months of age). Inadequate complementary feeding at age 6 months was associated with impaired growth during the next 12 months, with a 37% increased probability of stunting. CONCLUSION: Adequate feeding practices around the weaning period are crucial to achieving optimal child growth. HIV-infected women should turn to early cessation of breastfeeding only when they are counseled properly to provide adequate complementary feeding to take over breast milk. Our child feeding index could contribute to the assessment of the nutritional adequacy of complementary feeding around the weaning period and therefore help to detect children who are at risk for malnutrition.


Gibson A, Carney S, Wales JK. Growth and the premature baby. Horm Res. 2006;65 Suppl 3:75-81.
Jessop Wing, Sheffield, UK.
There is considerable evidence to show that babies born prematurely have poor postnatal growth, and the more premature the baby, the greater the impairment is likely to be and the longer it will persist. Nutrition has been shown to play an important part in this, but adequate nutrition is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in these infants. In the most immature infants, growth retardation may continue for many months and catch-up may be delayed and incomplete. Evidence from long-term studies suggests that preterm infants will be shorter and lighter than term controls and that reduced stature and head size may be linked with lower intelligence. Although there is evidence linking better growth to better neurodevelopmental outcome, with reports suggesting that this can be achieved with dietary manipulation, there are also data that suggest that there could be a link between increased postnatal growth and increased morbidity and mortality in later childhood and adult life. Here, we provide an overview of current understanding of growth impairment in infants born prematurely and the effects in later life. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Hazel R. The psychosocial impact on parents of tube feeding their child. Paediatr Nurs. 2006 May;18(4):19-22. Review.
Luton and Dunstable Hospital.
A review of 13 papers investigating parents' experience of long-term tube feeding in disabled children and young people identified
a significant impact on parents and families related to oral feeding, decision making and tube feeding itself. Mixed messages and pressure from health professionals and relatives made decision making about tube feeding more difficult for parents. Making the decision to tube feed or proceed to gastrostomy was described in terms of 'giving in'. Parents expressed a need for consistent, accurate information. Once tube feeding was established there is a positive impact on the lives of the child and family - although some parents reported reduced support and continued feelings of inadequacy. The significance parents attach to oral feeding and their information and respite care needs when tube feeding must be recognised and further explored.


James P. Marabou 2005: nutrition and human development. Nutr Rev. 2006 May;64(5 Pt 2):S1-11; discussion S72-91.
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
Nutrition is now becoming once more of intense interest to biological and medical scientists working on the control of development and human health. It is also now of ever greater public health interest. Few scientists, however, recognize that the same interest for those involved in fundamental science and public health developed a century ago focusing on the way in which nutrition and specific micronutrients, as well as general energy and protein intakes, were crucial to infant growth and appropriate development. The discovery of vitamins was matched by the proposition that stunted children in poor communities in the Western world were suffering from poverty-related poor diets. The critical role of nutrition was established by feeding studies, which then led to major food and agricultural policy changes during the Second World War, when food supplies were scarce throughout Europe. The success of these wartime policies led to a revolution in governmental thinking and a cheap food policy, together with a major boost in national agricultural production as an issue of national security. Nutritionists transferred their scientific interest to the study of childhood malnutrition in the developing world. The promotion of intensive agriculture and the food industry led to a revolution in food supplies, with the intense promotion of meat, milk, butter, and sugar production and consumption. The resulting escalation in cardiovascular disease related to the dietary change slowly altered public health policies, but as cardiovascular deaths decreased in the developed world, obesity and diabetes progressively increased. Now the lower- and middle-income countries (i.e., the developing world) have far more cardiovascular disease as Western diets and cultural habits are imported. The remarkable escalation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, particularly in populations currently and previously subjected to malnutrition, now reveals unusual susceptibility to these diseases. This susceptibility is increasingly related to the conjunction of fetal malnutrition and later inappropriate diets. The alarming escalation in the health burden suggests that two-thirds of the world's population is super-sensitive to weight gain, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and perhaps many cancers. New evidence on epigenetics and the structural changes in the fetus in response to inappropriate maternal diets provides mechanisms to explain this. Unfortunately, a vicious intergenerational cycle of maternal and fetal epigenetic change seems to herald markedly increased future burdens of disease. The nutrition field is therefore challenged not only in terms of science, but also in new dimensions of public health of immense economic significance.


Moss RL, Dimmitt RA, Barnhart DC, Sylvester KG, Brown RL, Powell DM, Islam S, Langer JC, Sato TT, Brandt ML, Lee H, Blakely ML, Lazar EL, Hirschl RB, Kenney BD, Hackam DJ, Zelterman D, Silverman BL. Laparotomy versus peritoneal drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis and perforation. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 25;354(21):2225-34.
Section of Pediatric Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06520-8062, USA.
BACKGROUND: Perforated necrotizing enterocolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, and the optimal treatment is uncertain. We designed this multicenter randomized trial to compare outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage with laparotomy and bowel resection in preterm infants with perforated necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 117 preterm infants (delivered before 34 weeks of gestation) with birth weights less than 1500 g and perforated necrotizing enterocolitis at 15 pediatric centers to undergo primary peritoneal drainage or laparotomy with bowel resection. Postoperative care was standardized. The primary outcome was survival at 90 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included dependence on parenteral nutrition 90 days postoperatively and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: At 90 days postoperatively, 19 of 55 infants assigned to primary peritoneal drainage had died (34.5 percent), as compared with 22 of 62 infants assigned to laparotomy (35.5 percent, P=0.92). The percentages of infants who depended on total parenteral nutrition were 17 of 36 (47.2 percent) in the peritoneal-drainage group and 16 of 40 (40.0 percent) in the laparotomy group (P=0.53). The mean (+/-SD) length of hospitalization for the 76 infants who were alive 90 days after operation was similar in the primary peritoneal-drainage and laparotomy groups (126+/-58 days and 116+/-56 days, respectively; P=0.43). Subgroup analyses stratified according to the presence or absence of radiographic evidence of extensive necrotizing enterocolitis (pneumatosis intestinalis), gestational age of less than 25 weeks, and serum pH less than 7.30 at presentation showed no significant advantage of either treatment in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The type of operation performed for perforated necrotizing enterocolitis does not influence survival or other clinically important early outcomes in preterm infants. ( number, NCT00252681.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Ong KK. Size at birth, postnatal growth and risk of obesity. Horm Res. 2006;65 Suppl 3:65-9.
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, UK.
Epidemiological studies over the last 15 years have shown that size at birth, early postnatal catch-up growth and excess childhood weight gain are associated with an increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. At the same time, rising rates of obesity and overweight in children, even at pre-school ages, have shifted efforts towards the identification of very early factors that predict risk of subsequent obesity, which may allow early targeted interventions. Overall, higher birth weight is positively associated with subsequent greater body mass index in childhood and later life; however, the relationship is complex. Higher birth weight is associated with greater subsequent lean mass, rather than fat mass. In contrast, lower birth weight is associated with a subsequent higher ratio of fat mass to lean mass, and greater central fat and insulin resistance. This paradoxical effect of lower birth weight is at least partly explained by the observation that infants who have been growth restrained in utero tend to gain weight more rapidly, or 'catch up', during the early postnatal period, which leads to increased central fat deposition. There is still debate as to whether there are critical early periods for obesity: does excess weight gain during infancy, childhood or even very early neonatal life have a greater impact on long-term fat deposition and insulin resistance? Early identification of childhood obesity risk will be aided by identification of maternal and fetal genes that regulate fetal nutrition and growth, and postnatal genes that regulate appetite, energy expenditure and the partitioning of energy intake into fat or lean tissue growth. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Valverde E, Pellicer A, Madero R, Elorza D, Quero J, Cabanas F. Dopamine versus epinephrine for cardiovascular support in low birth weight infants: analysis of systemic effects and neonatal clinical outcomes. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun;117(6):e1213-22.
Department of Neonatology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal adaptation to transitional circulation in low birth weight infants frequently is associated with low blood pressure and decreased blood flow to organs. Catecholamines have been used widely as treatment, despite remarkably little empirical evidence on the effects of vasopressor/inotropic support on circulation and on clinically important outcomes in sick newborn infants. AIMS: To explore the effectiveness of low/moderate-dose dopamine and epinephrine in the treatment of early systemic hypotension in low birth weight infants, evaluate the frequency of adverse drug effects, and examine neonatal clinical outcomes of patients in relation to treatment. DESIGN/METHODS: Newborns of <1501-g birth weight or <32 weeks of gestational age, with a mean blood pressure lower than gestational age in the first 24 hours of life, were assigned randomly to receive dopamine (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg per minute; n = 28) or epinephrine (0.125, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.5 microg/kg per minute; n = 32) at doses that were increased stepwise every 20 minutes until optimal mean blood pressure was attained and maintained (responders). If this treatment was unsuccessful (nonresponders), sequential rescue therapy was started, consisting first of the addition of the second study drug and then hydrocortisone. OUTCOME MEASURES: These included: (1) short-term changes (first 96 hours, only responders) in heart rate, mean blood pressure, acid-base status, lactate, glycemia, urine output, and fluid-carbohydrate debit; and (2) medium-term morbidity, enteral nutrition tolerance, gastrointestinal complications, severity of lung disease, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral ultrasound diagnoses, retinopathy of prematurity, and mortality. RESULTS: Patients enrolled in this trial did not differ in birth weight or gestational age (1008 +/- 286 g and 28.3 +/- 2.3 weeks in the dopamine group; 944 +/- 281 g and 27.7 +/- 2.4 weeks in the epinephrine group). Other main antenatal variables were also comparable. However, responders and nonresponders differed significantly with respect to the need for cardiorespiratory resuscitation at birth (3% vs 23%), Critical Risk Index for Babies score (3.8 +/- 3 vs 7 +/- 5), and premature rupture of membranes >24 hours (39.5% vs 13.6%), respectively. No differences were found in the rate of treatment failure (dopamine: 36%; epinephrine: 37%) or need for rescue therapy according to treatment allocation. Groups did not differ in age at initiation of therapy (dopamine: 5.3 +/- 3.9 hours; epinephrine: 5.2 +/- 3.3 hours), but withdrawal was significantly later in the dopamine group. For short-term changes, mean blood pressure showed a significant increase from baseline throughout the first 96 hours with no differences between groups. However, epinephrine produced a greater increase in heart rate than dopamine. After treatment began, epinephrine patients showed higher plasma lactate (first 36 hours) and lower bicarbonate and base excess (first 6 hours) and received more bicarbonate. Patients in the epinephrine group also had higher glycemia (first 24 hours) and needed insulin therapy more often. Groups did not differ in urine output or fluid-carbohydrate supply during the first 96 hours. For medium-term morbidity, there were no differences in neonatal clinical outcomes in responders. However, significant differences were found in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, need for high-frequency ventilation, occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and death between responders and nonresponders. CONCLUSIONS: Low/moderate-dose epinephrine is as effective as low/moderate-dose dopamine for the treatment of hypotension in low birth weight infants, although it is associated with more transitory adverse effects.


Zhang J, Wu TX, Liu GJ. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005126. Review.
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a common disorder of pregnancy with uncertain etiology. In Chinese herbal medicines, a number of herbs are used for treating pre-eclampsia. Traditional Chinese medicine considers that, when a woman is pregnant, most of the blood of the mother is directed to the placenta to provide the baby with the required nutrition; other maternal organs may in consequence be vulnerable to damage. These organs include the liver, the spleen, and the kidneys. The general effects of Chinese herbal medicines that can protect these organs may be valuable in pre-eclampsia by encouraging vasodilatation, increasing blood flow, and decreasing platelet aggregation. The use of Chinese herbal medicine is often based on the individual and presence of traditional Chinese medicine symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of Chinese herbal medicine for treating pre-eclampsia and compare it with that of placebo, no treatment or Western medicine. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trial Register (31 March 2024), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE (1969 to December 2004), EMBASE (1984 to March 2004) and CBM (1978 to February 2005) and we handsearched several main journals published in China. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials in which Chinese herbal medicine was used for treating pre-eclampsia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author assessed trials for inclusion. The trials were also assessed by a second review author if there was any doubt about whether or not to include the trial. Analysis was not performed as there were no trials included in this review. MAIN RESULTS: No trials were suitable for inclusion in this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of Chinese herbal medicine for treating pre-eclampsia remains unclear. There are currently no randomized controlled trials to address the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of pre-eclampsia. Well conducted randomized controlled trials are required.

14792.  Anderson PM, Butcher KE.  Childhood obesity: trends and potential causes. Future Child. 2006 Spring;16(1):19-45. Review.

14793.  Berger J, Ninh NX, Khan NC, Nhien NV, Lien DK, Trung NQ, Khoi HH. Efficacy of combined iron and zinc supplementation on micronutrient status and growth in Vietnamese infants. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;60(4):443-54.

14794.  Blakely ML, Tyson JE, Lally KP, McDonald S, Stoll BJ, Stevenson DK, Poole WK, Jobe AH, Wright LL, Higgins RD; NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Laparotomy versus peritoneal drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight infants: outcomes through 18 months adjusted age. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e680-7.

14795.  Chapman DJ. Does maternal diet contribute to colic among breastfed infants? J Hum Lact. 2006 May;22(2):236-7.

14796.  Garlick PJ.  Toxicity of methionine in humans. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1722S-1725S. Review.

14797.  Henriksen T. Nutrition and pregnancy outcome. Nutr Rev. 2006 May;64(5 Pt 2):S19-23; discussion S72-91. Review.

14798.     Islam MM, Peerson JM, Ahmed T, Dewey KG, Brown KH. Effects of varied energy density of complementary foods on breast-milk intakes and total energy consumption by healthy, breastfed Bangladeshi children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):851-8.

14799.     Jyothi DV, Umamaheshwari K. Health status and prevalence of anaemia among the adolescent girls of integrated child development services projectarea. J Res ANGRAU 2005, 33(1), 74111-7.

14800.     Lakshmi Devi N, Khader V, Vimala V. Nutritional Status of the Institutionalized Elderly in Andhra Pradesh. Indian J clin Pract 2005, 16(4), 14-19.

14801.  Lawrence RA. Lower breastfeeding rates among supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants: a call for action. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):1432-3.

14802.  Lindsay AC, Sussner KM, Kim J, Gortmaker S.  The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity. Future Child. 2006 Spring;16(1):169-86.

14803.  Lovelady CA, Stephenson KG, Kuppler KM, Williams JP. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jun;106(6):908-12.

14804.  Miech RA, Kumanyika SK, Stettler N, Link BG, Phelan JC, Chang VW. Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents, 1971-2004. JAMA. 2006 May 24;295(20):2385-93. 

14805.  Reilly JK, Lanou AJ, Barnard ND, Seidl K, Green AA. Acceptability of soymilk as a calcium-rich beverage in elementary school children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Apr;106(4):590-3.

14806.  Reiter PD, Novak K, Valuck RJ, Rosenberg AA, Fish D. Effect of a closed drug-delivery system on the incidence of nosocomial and catheter-related bloodstream infections in infants. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Apr;134(2):285-91.

14807.  Shaheen R, de Francisco A, El Arifeen S, Ekstrom EC, Persson LA. Effect of prenatal food supplementation on birth weight: an observational study from Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1355-61.

14808.  Taylor C. Lactose intolerance in infants. Nurs Times. 2006 Apr 25-May 1;102(17):43-4. Review.

14809.  Uauy R, Dangour AD. Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids. Nutr Rev. 2006 May;64(5 Pt 2):S24-33; discussion S72-91. Review.

14810.  Wright K, Coverston C, Tiedeman M, Abegglen JA. Formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA): a critical review of the research. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2006 Apr;11(2):100-12; discussion 112-3. Review. 

14811.  Zhou SJ, Gibson RA, Crowther CA, Baghurst P, Makrides M. Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 y of age: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):1112-7.

14812.  Zlotkin SH, Schauer C, Owusu Agyei S, Wolfson J, Tondeur MC, Asante KP, Newton S, Serfass RE, Sharieff W.  Demonstrating zinc and iron bioavailability from intrinsically labeled microencapsulated ferrous fumarate and zinc gluconate Sprinkles in young children. J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):920-5.