January 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Jakka S, Veena S, Rao AR, Eisenhut M.Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels and adverse neurological outcome in pediatric tuberculous meningitis. Infection. 2005 Aug;33(4):264-6.

Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Huntingdon, UK.

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on the prognostic significance of changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in tuberculous meningitis. Our objective was to determine whether changes in CSF parameters are associated with poor neurological outcome in tuberculous meningitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on children admitted with a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis to Government General Hospital in Kakinada, India. On admission, CSF parameters including cell count with fraction of lymphocytes and neutrophil leukocytes, glucose, protein, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels were measured. We compared levels in children with and without adverse neurological outcome. RESULTS: A total of 26 children was enrolled over a 2-year period. Ten had an adverse neurological outcome. Six had permanent neurological deficits (four hemiplegia and two cranial nerve palsies), two a hydrocephalus and two died. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in age, gender and in CSF parameters, including cell count, lymphocyte and neutrophil leukocyte fraction, glucose, protein, and LDH levels between patients with and without adverse neurological outcome. Patients with adverse outcome had with a mean (SD) of 17.1 (3.2) IU/l a significantly higher ADA level than patients without, who had a mean (SD) level of 11.3 (2.7) IU/l (p<0.001, t-test). CONCLUSION: Adverse neurological outcome in childhood tuberculous meningitis is associated with increased cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

13383.  Al-Nakkas A, Mustafa AS, Wright SG. Large-scale evaluation of a single-tube nested PCR for the laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis in Kuwait. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Aug;54(Pt 8):727-30.

13384. Avery RA, Frank G, Eppes SC. Diagnostic utility of Borrelia burgdorferi cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction in children with Lyme meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Aug;24(8):705-8.

13385.  Guleria R, Nisar N, Chawla TC, Biswas NR. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and central nervous system complications: a review. J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):55-63. Review.

13386.  Hui AC, Ng KC, Tong PY, Mok V, Chow KM, Wu A, Wong LK. Bacterial meningitis in Hong Kong: 10-years' experience. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005 Aug;107(5):366-70.

13387.  Jakka S, Veena S, Rao AR, Eisenhut M. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels and adverse neurological outcome in pediatric tuberculous meningitis. Infection. 2005 Aug;33(4):264-6. 

13388.  Leimkugel J, Adams Forgor A, Gagneux S, Pfluger V, Flierl C, Awine E, Naegeli M, Dangy JP, Smith T, Hodgson A, Pluschke G. An outbreak of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in northern Ghana with features that are characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis meningitis epidemics. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 15;192(2):192-9.

13389.  Ng'walali PM, Kibayashi K, Mbonde MP, Harada S, Mwakagile D, Kitinya JN, Tsunenari S. Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection: a forensic autopsy study in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Jul 16;151(2-3):133-8.

13390.  Poppert S, Essig A, Stoehr B, Steingruber A, Wirths B, Juretschko S, Reischl U, Wellinghausen N. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jul;43(7):3390-7.


13391.  Alp H, Tan H, Orbak Z, Keskin H. Acute hydrocephalus caused by mumps meningoencephalitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jul;24(7):657-8.

13392.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: interim guidance for minimizing risk for human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection associated with pet rodents. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Aug 19;54(32):799-801.

13393.  Ohkusu K, Nash KA, Inderlied CB. Molecular characterisation of Haemophilus influenzae type a and untypeable strains isolated simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid and blood: novel use of quantitative real-time PCR based on the cap copy number to determine virulence. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005 Aug;11(8):637-43.

13394.  Tenenbaum T, Bloier C, Adam R, Reinscheid DJ, Schroten H. Adherence to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells are promoted by fibrinogen-binding protein FbsA of Streptococcus agalactiae. Infect Immun. 2005 Jul;73(7):4404-9.


13395.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Direct and indirect effects of routine vaccination of children with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease--United States, 1998-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Sep 16;54(36):893-7.

13396.  Clemens J, Jodar L. Hib vaccines for all the world's children? Lancet. 2005 Jul 9-15;366(9480):101-3.

13397.  Finn A, Heath P. Conjugate vaccines. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Jul;90(7):667-9. Review.


13398.  Simmons CP, Thwaites GE, Quyen NT, Chau TT, Mai PP, Dung NT, Stepniewska K, White NJ, Hien TT, Farrar J. The clinical benefit of adjunctive dexamethasone in tuberculous meningitis is not associated with measurable attenuation of peripheral or local immune responses. J Immunol. 2005 Jul 1;175(1):579-90. 


April 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Kumar R, Dwivedi A, Kumar P, Kohli N. Tuberculous meningitis in BCG vaccinated and unvaccinated children. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Nov;76(11):1550-4.

Department of Pediatrics, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India 226003.

BACKGROUND: A modified clinical presentation of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children vaccinated with BCG has been described in the literature. However, most reports are old and not based on actual comparisons and tests of significance. Also, neuroimaging features were not compared. With large scale BCG coverage, it becomes pertinent to describe the "modified" presentation and identify any significant differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated children with TBM. METHODS: A total of 150 consecutive hospitalised children (96 unvaccinated, 54 vaccinated) were enrolled. They all satisfied predefined criteria for diagnosis of TBM. Clinical and radiological features of children with/without a BCG scar were compared. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that the vaccinated children with TBM had significantly lower rates of altered sensorium (68.5% v 85.4% unvaccinated; OR 2.2 (1.1 to 6.2); p = 0.019) and focal neurological deficits (20.3% v 39.5% unvaccinated; OR 2.6 (1.1 to 6.0); p = 0.016), and higher mean (SD) Glasgow Coma Scale score (10.2 (3.4) v 8.76 (2.7) unvaccinated; p = 0.010) and cerebrospinal fluid cell count (210.9 v 140.9 unvaccinated; p = 0.019). No significant radiological differences were seen. Short term outcome was significantly better in the vaccinated group with 70% of the total severe sequelae and 75% of the total deaths occurring in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Children with TBM who have been vaccinated with BCG appear to maintain better mentation and have a superior outcome. This may in part be explained by the better immune response to infection, as reflected in the higher CSF cell counts in this group in the present study.


Saito T, Iinuma Y, Takakura S, Fujihara N, Inoue J, Hamaguchi Y, Ichiyama S.  Feasibility of flow cytometry for the detection of bacteria from body fluid samples. J Infect Chemother. 2005 Oct;11(5):220-5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Shogoin, Kyoto, Japan.

The detection of microorganisms in body fluids is indispensable for identifying the source of infection and is one of the important examinations that influence subsequent treatment. In order to quickly detect bacteria in body fluid samples, a flow cytometry-based experimental automated bacteria counter (BF-FCM), was tested to determine its clinical value. The results for detectability obtained with the BF-FCM were compared with those obtained by conventional culture and Gram-staining techniques. We evaluated a total of 318 body fluid samples, excluding bile samples from which fungus alone was isolated. The samples consisted of 176 bile, 64 ascites, 42 pleural fluid, and 36 cerebrospinal fluid samples. Among the 318 samples, 154 (48.4%) were culture-positive. Of these 154, the BF-FCM identified 130 as positive (sensitivity, 84.4%). Of the 164 samples that were culture-negative, 141 were negative by the BF-FCM (specificity, 86.0%). Based on the culture results, the BF-FCM detected bacteria with a positive predictive value of 85.0% (130 of 153 samples), a negative predictive value of 85.5% (141 of 165 samples), and percent agreement of 85.2%. Although there were 23/164 (14.0%) false-positive samples, we consider that the BF-FCM, in combination with Gram staining and conventional cultures, would be helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients with diseases such as bacterial meningitis that present emergently.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

13938.   Antinori S, Radice A, Galimberti L, Magni C, Fasan M, Parravicini C. The role of cryptococcal antigen assay in diagnosis and monitoring of cryptococcal meningitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5828-9. 

13939.   Hara T, Fukuma T. Diagnosis of the primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Parasitol Int. 2005 Dec;54(4):219-21.

13940.   Helbok R, Pongpakdee S, Yenjun S, Dent W, Beer R, Lackner P, Bunyaratvej P, Prasert B, Vejjajiva A, Schmutzhard E. Chronic meningitis in Thailand. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data and outcome in patients with specific reference to tuberculosis and cryptococcosis. Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26(1):37-44. 

13941.   Lins H, Wallesch CW, Wunderlich MT. Sequential analyses of neurobiochemical markers of cerebral damage in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in CNS infections. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005 Nov;112(5):303-8.

13942.   Nair PK, Bobade O, Kappikar GV. Tuberculous meningitis. Indian Practitioner. 2005 Jun; 58(6): 379-381.

13943.   Nayak B S, Bhat R. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase andglutamine in meningitis. Indian J Physiol Pharmac 2005; 49(1): 108-10.

13944.   Sugiura Y, Homma M, Yamamoto T. Difficulty in diagnosing chronic meningitis caused by capsule-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;76(10):1460-1.

13945.  Zaia A, Griffith JM, Hogan TR, Tapsall JW, Bainbridge P, Neill R, Tribe D.  Molecular tests can allow confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease when isolates yield atypical maltose, glucose or gamma-glutamyl peptidase test results. Pathology. 2005 Oct;37(5):378-9.


13946.      Bonacorsi S, Bingen E. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli causing neonatal meningitis. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005 Oct;295(6-7):373-81. Review.

13947.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in a newborn nursery and maternity ward--New York City, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Dec 23;54(50):1280-3.

13948.  Chen TL, Thien PF, Liaw SC, Fung CP, Siu LK. First report of Salmonella enterica serotype panama meningitis associated with consumption of contaminated breast milk by a neonate. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5400-2.

13949.   Nicol MP, Sola C, February B, Rastogi N, Steyn L, Wilkinson RJ. Distribution of strain families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease in hospitalized children in Cape Town, South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5779-81.

13950.  Nicolas P, Norheim G, Garnotel E, Djibo S, Caugant DA. Molecular epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis isolated in the African Meningitis Belt between 1988 and 2003 shows dominance of sequence type 5 (ST-5) and ST-11 complexes. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5129-35.

13951.  Rock JD, Mahnane MR, Anjum MF, Shaw JG, Read RC, Moir JW. The pathogen Neisseria meningitidis requires oxygen, but supplements growth by denitrification. Nitrite, nitric oxide and oxygen control respiratory flux at genetic and metabolic levels. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Nov;58(3):800-9.

13952.  Wiendl H, Feger U, Mittelbronn M, Jack C, Schreiner B, Stadelmann C, Antel J, Brueck W, Meyermann R, Bar-Or A, Kieseier BC, Weller M. Expression of the immune-tolerogenic major histocompatibility molecule HLA-G in multiple sclerosis: implications for CNS immunity. Brain. 2005 Nov;128(Pt 11):2689-704. 


13953.   Huo Z, Sinha R, McNeela EA, Borrow R, Giemza R, Cosgrove C, Heath PT, Mills KH, Rappuoli R, Griffin GE, Lewis DJ. Induction of protective serum meningococcal bactericidal and diphtheria-neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunoglobulin A in volunteers by nasal insufflations of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Cpolysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine mixed with chitosan. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec;73(12):8256-65.

13954.   Rajshekhar V. BCG vaccination and severity of childhood tuberculous meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Nov;76(11):1470. 


13955.      Blaivas AJ, Lardizabal A, Macdonald R. Two unusual sequelae of tuberculous meningitis despite treatment. South Med J. 2005 Oct;98(10):1028-30.

13956.   Hanly JG, Harrison MJ. Management of neuropsychiatric lupus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005 Oct;19(5):799-821. Review. 

13957.   Hoey J. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. CMAJ. 2005 Oct 25;173(9):1033. 

13958.   Pitisuttithum P, Negroni R, Graybill JR, Bustamante B, Pappas P, Chapman  Hare RS, Hardalo CJ. Activity of posaconazole in the treatment of central nervous system fungal  infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Oct;56(4):745-55. 

13959.   Zagvazdina Ia, Zagvazdin Y, Willis GE, Gonzalez JH, Lesser W, Dickinson GM.  Rare infections are just an airplane trip away: Salmonella typhi meningitis in a recent immigrant to the United States. Am J Med Sci. 2005 Oct;330(4):198-200. 



July 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


van der Weert EM, Hartgers NM, Schaaf HS, Eley BS, Pitcher RD, Wieselthaler NA, Laubscher R, Donald PR, Schoeman JF. Comparison of diagnostic criteria of tuberculous meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):65-9.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous (TB) meningitis is sometimes difficult to diagnose in young children. The decision to start anti-TB treatment of TB meningitis is usually made on clinical grounds and results of special investigations, such as cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial computerized tomography (CT), because bacteriologic yield is low and the results delayed. AIM: To determine whether the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic criteria used in the diagnosis of TB meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected children apply to HIV-infected children. METHODS: Retrospective, case-control study. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of TB meningitis were compared in 34 HIV-infected and 56 HIV-uninfected patients matched for age and stage of TB meningitis. RESULTS: All clinical differences found between the 2 groups at admission were related to the underlying HIV disease. Neurologic presentation and cerebrospinal fluid findings at admission did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Significantly more HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children had evidence of TB on chest radiography. The classic CT signs of TB meningitis (obstructive hydrocephalus and basal enhancement) were significantly less prominent in the HIV-infected group (P < 005). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic criteria for clinical diagnosis of TB meningitis apply to HIV-infected children. However, cranial CT findings in this group may be misleading and delay the diagnosis of TB meningitis.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14432. Al Dhanhani A, Macaulay R, Maloney B, Hanly JG. Meningeal involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis. J Rheumatol. 2006 Feb;33(2):364-7.

14433. Avery RA, Frank G, Glutting JJ, Eppes SC. Prediction of Lyme meningitis in children from a Lyme disease-endemic region: a logistic-regression model using history, physical, and laboratory findings. Pediatrics. 2006 Jan;117(1):e1-7.

14434. Bonsu BK, Harper MB. Corrections for leukocytes and percent of neutrophils do not match observations in blood-contaminated cerebrospinal fluid and have no value over uncorrected cells for diagnosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):8-11. Erratum in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Mar;25(3):207.

14435. Deutch S, Pedersen LN, Podenphant L, Olesen R, Schmidt MB, Moller JK, Ostergaard L. Broad-range real time PCR and DNA sequencing for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(1):27-35.

14436. Faella FS, Pagliano P, Attanasio V, Rossi M, Rescigno C, Scarano F, Conte M, Fusco U. Factors influencing the presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in childhood. In Vivo. 2006 Jan-Feb;20(1):187-91.

14437. Mandal J, Singhi PD, Khandelwal N, Malla N. Evaluation of ELISA and dot blots for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis, in children found to have single or multiple enhancing lesions in computerized tomographic scans of the brain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006 Jan;100(1):39-48.

14438. Mukai AO, Krebs VL, Bertoli CJ, Okay TS. TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the diagnosis of bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Jan;34(1):25-9.

14439. Petitjean J, Vabret A, Dina J, Gouarin S, Freymuth F. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay on the LightCycler for the rapid detection of enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid specimens. J Clin Virol. 2006 Mar;35(3):278-84.

14440. Schestatsky P, Chedid MF, Amaral OB, Unis G, Oliveira FM, Severo LC. Isolated central nervous system histoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts: a series of 11 cases. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(1):43-8.

14441. Smith PB, Cotten CM, Garges HP, Tiffany KF, Lenfestey RW, Moody MA, Li JS, Benjamin DK Jr. A comparison of neonatal Gram-negative rod and Gram-positive cocci meningitis. J Perinatol. 2006 Feb;26(2):111-4.

14442. Takayanagui OM, Odashima NS. Clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S111-5.

14443. Thompson MJ, Ninis N, Perera R, Mayon-White R, Phillips C, Bailey L, Harnden A, Mant D, Levin M. Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease in children and adolescents. Lancet. 2006 Feb 4;367(9508):397-403.

14444. Tyler KL, Pape J, Goody RJ, Corkill M, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. CSF findings in 250 patients with serologically confirmed West Nile virus meningitis and encephalitis. Neurology. 2006 Feb 14;66(3):361-5.

14445. van de Beek D, de Gans J, Tunkel AR, Wijdicks EF. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 5;354(1):44-53. Review.


14446. Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Talan DA. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 30;354(13):1429-32;

14447. Jain N, Li L, McFadden DC, Banarjee U, Wang X, Cook E, Fries BC. Phenotypic switching in a Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii strain is associated with changes in virulence and promotes dissemination to the central nervous system. Infect Immun. 2006 Feb;74(2):896-903.

14448. Kupila L, Vuorinen T, Vainionpaa R, Hukkanen V, Marttila RJ, Kotilainen P. Etiology of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in an adult population. Neurology. 2006 Jan 10;66(1):75-80.

14449. Manchanda V, Gupta S, Bhalla P. Meningococcal disease: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevention. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jan;24(1):7-19. Review.


14450. Bos JM, Rumke HC, Welte R, Spanjaard L, van Alphen L, Postma MJ. Combination vaccine against invasive meningococcal B and pneumococcal infections: potential epidemiological and economic impact in the Netherlands. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24(2):141-53.

14451. Harrison LH. Prospects for vaccine prevention of meningococcal infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):142-64. Review.

14452. Stein DM, Robbins J, Miller MA, Lin FY, Schneerson R. Are antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis group B and Escherichia coli K1 associated with immunopathology? Vaccine. 2006 Jan 16;24(3):221-8.



October 2006


Some selected abstract:


Garges HP, Moody MA, Cotten CM, Smith PB, Tiffany KF, Lenfestey R, Li JS, Fowler VG Jr, Benjamin DK Jr.  Neonatal meningitis: what is the correlation among cerebrospinal fluid cultures, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid parameters? Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):1094-100.

Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.


BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Clinicians frequently use the presence of positive blood cultures to determine whether neonates should undergo lumbar puncture. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters are often used to predict neonatal meningitis and determine length and type of antibiotic therapy in neonates with a positive blood culture and negative CSF culture. METHODS: We evaluated the first lumbar puncture of 9111 neonates at > or =34 weeks' estimated gestational age from 150 NICUs, managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group, Inc. CSF culture results were compared with results of blood cultures and CSF parameters (white blood cells [WBCs], glucose, and protein) to establish the concordance of these values in culture-proven meningitis. CSF cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci and other probable contaminants, as well as fungal and viral pathogens, were excluded from analyses. RESULTS: Meningitis was confirmed by culture in 95 (1.0%) neonates. Of the 95 patients with meningitis, 92 had a documented blood culture. Only 57 (62%) of 92 patients had a concomitant-positive blood culture; 35 (38%) of 92 had a negative blood culture. In neonates with both positive blood and CSF cultures, the organisms isolated were discordant in 2 (3.5%) of 57 cases. In each case, the CSF pathogen required different antimicrobial therapy than the blood pathogen. For culture-proven meningitis, CSF WBC counts of >0 cells per mm3 had sensitivity at 97% and specificity at 11%. CSF WBC counts of >21 cells per mm3 had sensitivity at 79% and specificity at 81%. Culture-proven meningitis was not diagnosed accurately by CSF glucose or by protein. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal meningitis frequently occurs in the absence of bacteremia and in the presence of normal CSF parameters. No single CSF value can reliably exclude the presence of meningitis in neonates. The CSF culture is critical to establishing the diagnosis of neonatal meningitis.


Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14774.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Survey of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus diagnosis and testing--Connecticut, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Apr 14;55(14):398-9.

14775.  Eisenhut M. Comment on "Pretreatment intracerebral and peripheral blood immune responses in Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis: diagnostic value and relationship to disease severity and outcome". J Immunol. 2006 May 1;176(9):5137.

14776.  Hsiao AL, Chen L, Baker MD. Incidence and predictors of serious bacterial infections among 57- to 180-day-old infants. Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1695-701.

14777.  Jones SE, Belsley NA, McLoud TC, Mullins ME. Rheumatoid meningitis: radiologic and pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Apr;186(4):1181-3.

14778.  Odetola FO, Tilford JM, Davis MM. Variation in the use of intracranial-pressure monitoring and mortality in critically ill children with meningitis in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun;117(6):1893-900.

14779.  Offiah CE, Turnbull IW. The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients. Clin Radiol. 2006 May;61(5):393-401.

14780.  Weisfelt M, de Gans J, van der Poll T, van de Beek D.  Pneumococcal meningitis in adults: new approaches to management and prevention. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Apr;5(4):332-42.


14781.  Yao K, Mandel M, Akyani N, Maynard K, Sengamalay N, Fotheringham J, Ghedin E, Kashanchi F, Jacobson S. Differential HHV-6A gene expression in T cells and primary human astrocytes based on multi-virus array analysis. Glia. 2006 Jun;53(8):789-98.


14782.  Guirola M, Carmenate T, Menendez T, Alvarez A, Gonzalez S, Guillen G. Comparison of three ELISA protocols to measure antibody responses elicited against serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide in mouse, monkey and human sera. J Microbiol Methods. 2006 Apr;65(1):135-43.

14783.  Mehlhorn AJ, Balcer HE, Sucher BJ. Update on prevention of meningococcal disease: focus on tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Apr;40(4):666-73.

14784.  Ostergaard C, O'Reilly T, Brandt C, Frimodt-Moller N, Lundgren JD. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 27;6:78.

14785.  Wilson-Clark SD, Squires S, Deeks S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Bacterial meningitis among cochlear implant recipients--Canada, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Apr 28;55 Suppl 1:20-4.