January 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Allahverdiyev AM, Bagirova M, Uzun S, Alabaz D, Aksaray N, Kocabas E, Koksal F. The value of a new microculture method for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by using bone marrow and peripheral blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug;73(2):276-80.

Cukurova University, Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Adana, Turkey.

We have demonstrated that the microculture method (MCM) enables the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with samples from both the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB). The MCM is superior to the traditional culture method (TCM) as determined by its higher sensitivity in the detection of promastigotes and the more rapid time for emergence of promastigotes. The sensitivity of MCM (100% in BMs and 77.8-100% in PB) was considerably higher than that of the TCM (37.5-100% in BMs and 0-100% in PB) according to decreasing parasite density (P < 0.05). The concentration of parasites in buffy coats has increased the sensitivity of both methods, especially that of the MCM. Detection of promastigotes by MCM requires lower amounts of culture media (25-50 microL) and shorter incubation periods (2-7 days) than TCM (2.5-3.5 mL and 15-35 days, respectively). MCM was found to be valuable with the advantages of simplicity and sensitivity, in addition to being cost-effective in the routine diagnosis for VL in Adana Turkey.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

 13328.  Allahverdiyev AM, Bagirova M, Uzun S, Alabaz D, Aksaray N, Kocabas E, Koksal F. The value of a new microculture method for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by using bone marrow and peripheral blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug;73(2):276-80.

13329.   Manna M, Majumder HK, Sundar S, Bhaduri AN. The molecular characterization of clinical isolates from Indian Kala-azar patients by MLEE and RAPD-PCR. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jul;11(7):BR220-7.

13330.  Maurya R, Singh RK, Kumar B, Salotra P, Rai M, Sundar S. Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of Indian kala-azar and assessment of cure. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jul;43(7):3038-41.

13331.  Quispe-Tintaya KW, Laurent T, Decuypere S, Hide M, Banuls AL, De Doncker S, Rijal S, Canavate C, Campino L, Dujardin JC. Fluorogenic assay for molecular typing of the Leishmania donovani complex: taxonomic and clinical applications. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 15;192(4):685-92.

13332.  Roscoe M. Leishmaaniasis: early diagnosis is key. JAAPA. 2005 Jul;18(7):47-50, 53-4. Review.


13333.   Castellucci L, Cheng LH, Araujo C, Guimaraes LH, Lessa H, Machado P, Almeida MF, Oliveira A, Ko A, Johnson WD, Wilson ME, Carvalho EM, DE Jesus AR. Familial aggregation of mucosal leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jul;73(1):69-73.

13334.  Xavier MB, Silveira FT, Demachki S, Ferreira MM, do Nascimento JL. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: a quantitative analysis of Langerhans cells presents important differences between L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus. Acta Trop. 2005 Jul;95(1):67-73.


13335.     Velez ID, Gilchrist K, Arbelaez MP, Rojas CA, Puerta JA, Antunes CM, Zicker F, Modabber F. Failure of a killed Leishmania amazonensis vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug;99(8):593-8.


13336.  Brown M, Noursadeghi M, Boyle J, Davidson RN. Successful liposomal amphotericin B treatment of Leishmania braziliensis cutaneous leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Jul;153(1):203-5.

13337.  Eastman RT, Barrett LK, Dupuis K, Buckner FS, Van Voorhis WC.  Leishmania inactivation in human pheresis platelets by a psoralen (amotosalen HCl) and long-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation. Transfusion. 2005 Sep;45(9):1459-63.

13338.  Guthmann JP, Arlt D, Garcia LM, Rosales M, de Jesus Sanchez J, Alvarez E, Lonlas S, Conte M, Bertoletti G, Fournier C, Huari R, Torreele E, Llanos-Cuentas A. Control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease: results of a control programme in Satipo Province, Peru. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Sep;10(9):856-62.


April 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


Faria DR, Gollob KJ, Barbosa J Jr, Schriefer A, Machado PR, Lessa H, Carvalho LP, Romano-Silva MA, de Jesus AR, Carvalho EM, Dutra WO. Decreased in situ expression of interleukin-10 receptor is correlated with the exacerbated inflammatory and cytotoxic responses observed in mucosal leishmaniasis. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec;73(12):7853-9.

Department of Morphology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Human infection with Leishmania braziliensis can lead to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). We hypothesize that the intense tissue destruction observed in ML is a consequence of an uncontrolled exacerbated inflammatory immune response, with cytotoxic activity. For the first time, this work identifies the cellular sources of inflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, the expression of effector molecules, and the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) receptor in ML and CL lesions by using confocal microscopy. ML lesions displayed a higher number of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing cells than did CL lesions. In both ML and CL, CD4+ cells represented the majority of IFN-gamma-producing cells, followed by CD8+ cells and CD4- CD8- cells. The numbers of tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive cells, as well as those of IL-10-producing cells, were similar in ML and CL lesions. The effector molecule granzyme A showed greater expression in ML than in CL lesions, while inducible nitric oxide synthase did not. Finally, the expression of IL-10 receptor was lower in ML than in CL lesions. Thus, our data identified distinct cytokine and cell population profiles for CL versus ML patients and provide a possible mechanism for the development of ML disease through the demonstration that low expression of IL-10 receptor is present in conjunction with a cytotoxic and inflammatory profile in ML.


Murray HW, Berman JD, Davies CR, Saravia NG. Advances in leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2005 Oct 29-Nov 4;366(9496):1561-77. Review.

Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, USA. hwmurray@med.cornell.edu

Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral). Symptomatic disease is subacute or chronic and diverse in presentation and outcome. Clinical characteristics vary further by endemic region. Despite T-cell-dependent immune responses, which produce asymptomatic and self-healing infection, or appropriate treatment, intracellular infection is probably life-long since targeted cells (tissue macrophages) allow residual parasites to persist. There is an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and Pakistan and of visceral infection in India and Sudan. Diagnosis relies on visualising parasites in tissue or serology; culture and detection of parasite DNA are useful in the laboratory. Pentavalent antimony is the conventional treatment; however, resistance of visceral infection in India has spawned new treatment approaches--amphotericin B and its lipid formulations, injectable paromomycin, and oral miltefosine. Despite tangible advances in diagnosis, treatment, and basic scientific research, leishmaniasis is embedded in poverty and neglected. Current obstacles to realistic prevention and proper management include inadequate vector (sandfly) control, no vaccine, and insufficient access to or impetus for developing affordable new drugs.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

 13885.  Chargui N, Bastien P, Kallel K, Haouas N, Akrout FM, Masmoudi A, Zili J, Chaker E, Othman AD, Azaiez R, Crobu L, Mezhoud H, Babba H. Usefulness of PCR in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;99(10):762-8.

13886.  Fontes CO, Carvalho MA, Nicoli JR, Hamdan JS, Mayrink W, Genaro O, Carmo LS, Farias LM.  Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Nov;54(Pt 11):1071-6.

13887.  Guddo F, Gallo E, Cillari E, La Rocca AM, Moceo P, Leslie K, Colby T, Rizzo AG. Detection of Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA in laryngeal tissue from an immunocompetent patient. Hum Pathol. 2005 Oct;36(10):1140-2. 

13888.   Passos S, Carvalho LP, Orge G, Jeronimo SM, Bezerra G, Soto M, Alonso C, Carvalho EM. Recombinant leishmania antigens for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Oct;12(10):1164-7.

13889.   Singh R, Subba Raju BV, Jain RK, Salotra P. Potential of direct agglutination test based on promastigote and amastigote antigens for serodiagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Oct;12(10):1191-4.

13890.   Theinert SM, Basu R, Forgber M, Roy S, Sundar S, Walden P. Identification of new antigens in visceral leishmaniasis by expression cloning and immunoblotting with sera of kala-azar patients from Bihar, India. Infect Immun. 2005 Oct;73(10):7018-21.

13891.   Van der Meide WF, Schoone GJ, Faber WR, Zeegelaar JE, de Vries HJ, Ozbel Y, Lai A Fat RF, Coelho LI, Kassi M, Schallig HD. Quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based assay as a new molecular tool for detection and quantification of Leishmania parasites in skin biopsy samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5560-6.


13892.     Barnett PG, Singh SP, Bern C, Hightower AW, Sundar S. Virgin soil: the spread of visceral leishmaniasis into Uttar Pradesh, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;73(4):720-5.

13893.   Padmanabhan PK, Mukherjee A, Singh S, Chattopadhyaya S, Gowri VS, Myler PJ, Srinivasan N, Madhubala R. Glyoxalase I from Leishmania donovani: a potential target for anti-parasite drug. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 2;337(4):1237-48. 


13894 .     Breton M, Tremblay MJ, Ouellette M, Papadopoulou B. Live nonpathogenic  arasitic vector as a candidate vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis. Infect Immun.  005 Oct;73(10):6372-82.


13895.     Barratt G, Legrand P. Comparison of the efficacy and pharmacology of formulations of amphotericin B used in treatment of leishmaniasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Dec;18(6):527-30. Review.

13896.    Bimal S, Singh SK, Das VN, Sinha PK, Gupta AK, Bhattacharya SK, Das P.   Leishmania donovani: effect of therapy on expression of CD2 antigen and secretion of macrophage migration inhibition factor by T-cells in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Exp Parasitol. 2005 Oct;111(2):130-2. 

13897.    Olliaro PL, Guerin PJ, Gerstl S, Haaskjold AA, Rottingen JA, Sundar S.  Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980-2004. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Dec;5(12):763-74. Review.

13898.    Wasunna MK, Rashid JR, Mbui J, Kirigi G, Kinoti D, Lodenyo H, Felton JM, Sabin AJ, Horton J. A phase II dose-increasing study of sitamaquine for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Nov;73(5):871-6. 



July 2006

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

14371. Caldas AJ, Costa J, Aquino D, Silva AA, Barral-Netto M, Barral A. Are there differences in clinical and laboratory parameters between children and adults with American visceral leishmaniasis? Acta Trop. 2006 Mar;97(3):252-8.

14372. Chappuis F, Rijal S, Jha UK, Desjeux P, Karki BM, Koirala S, Loutan L, Boelaert M. Field validity, reproducibility and feasibility of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis in rural Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Jan;11(1):31-40.

14373. Hailu A, Schoone GJ, Diro E, Tesfaye A, Techane Y, Tefera T, Assefa Y, Genetu A, Kebede Y, Kebede T, Schallig HD. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jan;100(1):48-52.

14374. Ihalamulla RL, Rajapaksa US, Karunaweera ND. Microculture for the isolation of Leishmania, modified to increase efficacy: a follow-up to a previous study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006 Jan;100(1):87-9.

14375. Sinha PK, Pandey K, Bhattacharya SK. Diagnosis & management of leishmania/HIVco- infection. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(4):407-14.

14376. Ritmeijer K, Melaku Y, Mueller M, Kipngetich S, O'keeffe C, Davidson RN. Evaluation of a new recombinant K39 rapid diagnostic test for Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jan;74(1):76-80.

14377. Rocha RD, Gontijo CM, Eloi-Santos SM, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Correa-Oliveira R, Ferrari TC, Marques MJ, Mayrink W, Martins-Filho OA. Clinical value of anti-live Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis immunoglobulin G subclasses, detected by flow cytometry, for diagnosing active localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Feb;11(2):156-66.

14378. Rotureau B, Ravel C, Couppie P, Pratlong F, Nacher M, Dedet JP, Carme B. Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the main new world  Leishmania species and analyze their taxonomic properties and polymorphism by application of the assay to clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Feb;44(2):459-67.


14379. Mayrink W, Botelho AC, Magalhaes PA, Batista SM, Lima Ade O, Genaro O, Costa CA, Melo MN, Michalick MS, Williams P, Dias M, Caiaffa WT, Nascimento E, Machado-Coelho GL. Immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006 Jan-Feb;39(1):14-21.


14380. Colakoglu M, Fidan Yaylali G, Yalcin Colakoglu N, Yilmaz M. Successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with fluconazole and allopurinol in a patient with renal failure. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(3):208-10.

14381. Colakoglu M, Yaylali GF, Colakoglu NY, Yilmaz M. Successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with fluconazole and allopurinol in a patient with renal failure. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(2):152-4.

14382. Consigli J, Danielo C, Gallerano V, Papa M, Guidi A. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: successful treatment with itraconazole. Int J Dermatol. 2006 Jan;45(1):46-9.

14383. Correa JE, Rios CH, del Rosario Castillo A, Romero LI, Ortega-Barria E, Coley PD, Kursar TA, Heller MV, Gerwick WH, Rios LC. Minor alkaloids from Guatteria dumetorum with antileishmanial activity. Planta Med. 2006 Feb;72(3):270-2.

14384. Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):111-26. Review.

14385. Dujardin JC. Risk factors in the spread of leishmaniases: towards integrated monitoring? Trends Parasitol. 2006 Jan;22(1):4-6.

14386. Linares GE, Ravaschino EL, Rodriguez JB. Progresses in the field of drug design to combat tropical protozoan parasitic diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(3):335-60. Review.

14387. Teixeira MJ, Teixeira CR, Andrade BB, Barral-Netto M, Barral A. Chemokines in host- parasite interactions in leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol. 2006 Jan;22(1):32-40.



October 2006

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14734.  Kurkjian KM, Mahmutovic AJ, Kellar KL, Haque R, Bern C, Secor WE. Multiplex analysis of circulating cytokines in the sera of patients with different clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Cytometry A. 2006 May;69(5):353-8.

14735.  Ansari NA, Saluja S, Salotra P. Elevated levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and interleukin-6 during active disease in Indian kala azar. Clin Immunol. 2006 Jun;119(3):339-45.


14736.  Sakru N, Ozensoy Toz S, Korkmaz M, Kavakli T, Alkan MZ, Ozbel Y. The infection risk of visceral leishmaniasis among household members of active patients. Parasitol Int. 2006 Jun;55(2):131-3.


14737.  Michel MY, Fathy FM, Hegazy EH, Hussein ED, Eissa MM, Said DE. The  djuvant effects of IL-12 and BCG on autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006 Apr;36(1):159-76, following 76.

14738.  Titus RG, Bishop JV, Mejia JS. The immunomodulatory factors of arthropod saliva and the potential for these factors to serve as vaccine targets to prevent pathogen transmission. Parasite Immunol. 2006 Apr;28(4):131-41. Review.


14739.  Hadighi R, Mohebali M, Boucher P, Hajjaran H, Khamesipour A, Ouellette M. Unresponsiveness to Glucantime treatment in Iranian cutaneous leishmaniasis due to drug-resistant Leishmania tropica parasites. PLoS Med. 2006 May;3(5):e162.

14740.  Hartzell JD, Aronson NE, Nagaraja S, Whitman T, Hawkes CA, Wortmann G. Varicella zoster virus meningitis complicating sodium stibogluconate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr;74(4):591-2.

14741.  Kuryshev YA, Wang L, Wible BA, Wan X, Ficker E. Antimony-based antileishmanial compounds prolong the cardiac action potential by an increase in cardiac calcium currents. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;69(4):1216-25. 

14742.  Ozkan U, Oguzkurt L, Tercan F, Tokmak N. Percutaneous transhepatic hrombolysis in the treatment of acute portal venous thrombosis. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2006 Jun;12(2):105-7.

14743.  Rojas R, Valderrama L, Valderrama M, Varona MX, Ouellette M, Saravia NG. Resistance to antimony and treatment failure in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection. J Infect Dis. 2006 May 15;193(10):1375-83.

14744.  Schwartz E, Hatz C, Blum J. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis in travellers. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):342-9. Review.