January 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


 Teles FR, Prazeres DM, Lima-Filho JL. Trends in dengue diagnosis Rev Med Virol. 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):287-302

Laboratorio de Imunopatologia Keizo-Asami (LIKA), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego 1235, Campus Universitario, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE-CEP: 50670-901, Brazil.

The conventional diagnosis of dengue virus infections includes the detection of the virus in serum or tissue samples, both by isolation in culture or through detection of specific viral molecules (genome RNA or dengue antigens) and detection of specific anti-dengue antibodies (serology). Isolation of dengue virus provides the most direct and conclusive approach to diagnosis, despite the demand for high-level equipment, technical skills and manpower. However, it is useless in early diagnosis because several days are required to isolate and classify the virus. Serology, despite being simpler, is not able to afford an accurate early diagnosis in primary infections because 4-5 days are required for the immune system to produce a sufficient amount of antibodies. Moreover, it leads to misleading results in secondary infections owing to cross-reactivity among serotype-specific antibodies and with other flavivirus antibodies. The RT-PCR and other PCR-based techniques are fast, serotype-discriminating, more sensitive and easier to carry out than conventional nucleic-acid hybridisation, but are handicapped by easy sample contamination and high technological demands. Recently, advances in bioelectronics have generated commercial kits and new techniques for detection of dengue antibodies and RNA, based on biosensor technology. Most of them are rapid, easy to operate, reusable, cheap, sensitive and serotype-specific. Nevertheless, their accuracy is still questionable because most still lack validation and standardisation. This review summarises and describes the techniques currently employed and anticipated in the near future for diagnosis of dengue disease. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wills BA, Nguyen MD, Ha TL, Dong TH, Tran TN, Le TT, Tran VD, Nguyen TH, Nguyen VC, Stepniewska K, White NJ, Farrar JJ. Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 1;353(9):877-89

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

BACKGROUND: Dengue shock syndrome is characterized by severe vascular leakage and disordered hemostasis and progresses to death in 1 to 5 percent of cases. Although volume replacement is recognized as the critical therapeutic intervention, World Health Organization management guidelines remain empirical rather than evidence-based. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized comparison of three fluids for initial resuscitation of Vietnamese children with dengue shock syndrome. We randomly assigned 383 children with moderately severe shock to receive Ringer's lactate, 6 percent dextran 70 (a colloid), or 6 percent hydroxyethyl starch (a colloid) and 129 children with severe shock to receive one of the colloids. The primary outcome measure was requirement for rescue colloid at any time after administration of the study fluid. RESULTS: Only one patient died (<0.2 percent mortality). The primary outcome measure--requirement for rescue colloid--was similar for the different fluids in the two severity groups. The relative risk of requirement for rescue colloid was 1.08 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.47; P=0.65) among children with moderate shock who received Ringer's lactate as compared with either of the colloid solutions, 1.13 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.74; P=0.59) among children who received dextran as compared with starch in the group with severe shock, and 0.88 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 1.17; P=0.38) among children who received dextran as compared with starch in the combined analysis. Although treatment with Ringer's lactate resulted in less rapid improvement in the hematocrit and a marginally longer time to initial recovery than did treatment with either of the colloid solutions, there were no differences in all other measures of treatment response. Only minor differences in efficacy were detected between the two colloids, but significantly more recipients of dextran than of starch had adverse reactions. Bleeding manifestations, coagulation derangements, and severity of fluid overload were similar for all fluid-treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Initial resuscitation with Ringer's lactate is indicated for children with moderately severe dengue shock syndrome. Dextran 70 and 6 percent hydroxyethyl starch perform similarly in children with severe shock, but given the adverse reactions associated with the use of dextran, starch may be preferable for this group. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

13202.  Carlos CC, Oishi K, Cinco MT, Mapua CA, Inoue S, Cruz DJ, Pancho MA, TanigCZ, Matias RR, Morita K, Natividad FF, Igarashi A, Nagatake T. Comparison of clinical features and hematologic abnormalities between dengue fever and dengue emorrhagic fever among children in the Philippines. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug;73(2):435-40.

13203.  Lambeth CR, White LJ, Johnston RE, de Silva AM. Flow cytometry-based assay for titrating dengue virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jul;43(7):3267-72.

13204.   Teles FR, Prazeres DM, Lima-Filho JL. Trends in dengue diagnosis. Rev Med Virol. 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):287-302. Review.

13205.  Videa E, Coloma MJ, Dos Santos FB, Balmaseda A, Harris E. Immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant polypeptides for diagnosis of dengue. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Jul;12(7):882-4.


13206.     Alcon-LePoder S, Drouet MT, Roux P, Frenkiel MP, Arborio M, Durand-Schneider AM, Maurice M, Le Blanc I, Gruenberg J, Flamand M. The secreted form of dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 is endocytosed by hepatocytes and accumulates in late endosomes: implications for viral infectivity. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):11403-11.

13207. Navarro-Sanchez E, Despres P, Cedillo-Barron L. Innate immune responses to dengue virus. Arch Med Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;36(5):425-35. Review.

13208.  Pai HH, Lu YL, Hong YJ, Hsu EL. The differences of dengue vectors and human behavior between families with and without members having dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005 Aug;15(4):263-9.

13209.  Peterson AT, Martinez-Campos C, Nakazawa Y, Martinez-Meyer E. Time-specific ecological niche modeling predicts spatial dynamics of vector insects and human dengue cases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Sep;99(9):647-55.


13210.  Guzman MG. Global voices of science. Deciphering dengue: the Cuban experience. Science. 2005 Sep 2;309(5740):1495-7.

13211.  Stephenson JR. The problem with dengue. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Sep;99(9):643-6.


13212.    Chadee DD, Williams FL, Kitron UD. Impact of vector control on a dengue fever outbreak in Trinidad, West Indies, in 1998. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Aug;10(8):748-54.

13213.    Chiu YC, Wu KL, Kuo CH, Hu TH, Chou YP, Chuah SK, Kuo CM, Kee KM,  hangchien CS, Liu JW, Chiu KW. Endoscopic findings and management of dengue patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug;73(2):441-4.

13214.   Wills BA, Nguyen MD, Ha TL, Dong TH, Tran TN, Le TT, Tran VD, Nguyen TH, Nguyen VC, Stepniewska K, White NJ, Farrar JJ. Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 1;353(9):877-89.



 April 2006

Some Selected Abstracts:


1.        Cummings DA, Schwartz IB, Billings L, Shaw LB, Burke DS. Dynamiceffects of antibody-dependent enhancement on the fitness of viruses. ProcNatl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 18;102(42):15259-64.

 Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of PublicHealth, The Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore,MD 21205, USA.
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon inwhich viral replication is increased rather than decreased by immune sera,has been observed in vitro for a large number of viruses of public healthimportance, including flaviviruses, coronaviruses, and retroviruses. Themost striking in vivo example of ADE in humans is dengue hemorrhagicfever, a disease in which ADE is thought to increase the severity ofclinical manifestations of dengue virus infection by increasing virusreplication. We examine the epidemiological impact of ADE on theprevalence and persistence of viral serotypes. Using a dynamical systemmodel of n cocirculating dengue serotypes, we find that ADE may provide acompetitive advantage to those serotypes that undergo enhancement comparedwith those that do not, and that this advantage increases with increasingnumbers of cocirculating serotypes. Paradoxically, there are limits to theselective advantage provided by increasing levels of ADE, because greaterlevels of enhancement induce large amplitude oscillations in incidence ofall dengue virus infections, threatening the persistence of both theenhanced and non enhanced serotypes. Although the models presented hereare specifically designed for dengue, our results are applicable to anyepidemiological system in which partial immunity increases pathogenreplication rates. Our results suggest that enhancement is mostadvantageous in settings where multiple serotypes circulate and where alarge host population is available to support pathogen persistence duringthe deep troughs of ADE-induced large amplitude oscillations of virusreplication.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

   13745.     Basilio-de-Oliveira CA, Aguiar GR, Baldanza MS, Barth OM, Eyer-Silva WA, Paes MV. Pathologic study of a fatal case of dengue-3 virus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug;9(4):341-7.

 13746.     Bruce MG, Sanders EJ, Leake JA, Zaidel O, Bragg SL, Aye T, Shutt KA, Deseda CC, Rigau-Perez JG, Tappero JW, Perkins BA, Spiegel RA, Ashford DA. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico. Acta Trop. 2005 Oct;96(1):36-46.

 13747.     Chutinimitkul S, Payungporn S, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y. Dengue typing assay based on real-time PCR using SYBR Green I. J Virol Methods. 2005 Oct;129(1):8-15.

 13748.     Matheus S, Deparis X, Labeau B, Lelarge J, Morvan J, Dussart P. Use of four dengue virus antigens for determination of dengue immune status by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin G avidity. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5784-6. 


   13749.  Helt AM, Harris E. S-phase-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 replication in mosquito cells, but    not in human cells. J Virol. 2005 Nov;79(21):13218-30.

 13750.     Owais M, Gupta CM. Targeted drug delivery to macrophages in parasitic infections. Curr Drug Deliv. 2005 Oct;2(4):311-8. Review.

 13751.     Salda LT, Parquet MD, Matias RR, Natividad FF, Kobayashi N, Morita K. Molecular epidemiology of dengue 2 viruses in the Philippines: genotype shift and local evolution. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;73(4):796-802.


 13752.     Pugachev KV, Guirakhoo F, Monath TP. New developments in flavivirus vaccines with special attention to yellow fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;18(5):387-94. Review.


 13753.     Mani TR, Arunachalam N, Rajendran R, Satyanarayana K, Dash AP. Efficacy of thermal fog application of deltacide, a synergized mixture of pyrethroids, against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Dec;10(12):1298-304.

 13754.     Zinderman CE, Wise R, Landow L. Fluid solutions in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 8;353(23):2510-1; 



July 2006

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

14303. Anandarao R, Swaminathan S, Fernando S, Jana AM, Khanna N. Recombinant multiepitope protein for early detection of dengue infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Jan;13(1):59- 67.

14304. Barkham TM, Chung YK, Tang KF, Ooi EE. The performance of RT-PCR compared with a rapid serological assay for acute dengue fever in a diagnostic laboratory. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Feb;100(2):142-8.

14305. Chadwick D, Arch B, Wilder-Smith A, Paton N. Distinguishing dengue fever from other infections on the basis of simple clinical and laboratory features: application of logistic regression analysis. J Clin Virol. 2006 Feb;35(2):147-53.

14306. Chatrvedi UC, Shrivastava R, Nagar R. Dengue vaccines: problems and prospects. In dian J med Res. 2005; 121(5):639-52.

14307. Gupta E, Dar L, Narang P, Srivastva VK, Broor S. Serodiagnosis of dengue during anoutbreak at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121(1):36-8.

14308. Jayakeerthi RS, Potula RV, Srinivasan S, Badrinath S. Shell Vial Culture assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis. Virol J. 2006 Jan 6;3:2.


14309. Chen LC, Lei HY, Liu CC, Shiesh SC, Chen SH, Liu HS, Lin YS, Wang ST, Shyu HW, Yeh TM. Correlation of serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with disease severity and clinical outcome in dengue patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jan;74(1):142-7.

14310. Liew KJ, Chow VT. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses of a novel set of differ entially expressed human genes in ECV304 endothelial-like cells infected with dengue virus type 2. J Virol Methods. 2006 Jan;131(1):47-57.

14311. Malavige GN, Ranatunga PK, Velathanthiri VG, Fernando S, Karunatilaka DH, Aaskov J, Seneviratne SL. Patterns of disease in Sri Lankan dengue patients. Arch Dis Child. 2006 May;91(5):396-400.

14312. Khanam S, Etemad B, Khanna N, Swaminathan S. Induction of neutralizing antibodies specific to dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 by a bivalent antigen composed of linked envelope domains III of these two serotypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Feb;74(2):266-77

14313. Rumyantsev AA, Chanock RM, Murphy BR, Pletnev AG. Comparison of live and inactivated tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Vaccine. 2006 Jan 12;24(2):133-43.



October 2006 

Some selected abstract:


Malavige GN, Ranatunga PK, Velathanthiri VG, Fernando S, Karunatilaka DH, Aaskov J, Seneviratne SL.  Patterns of disease in Sri Lankan dengue patients. Arch Dis Child. 2006 May;91(5):396-400.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka.

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito borne viral infection in the world. Nearly 90% of infections occur in children. At present, prospective information on clinical and laboratory findings in South Asian children with dengue is generally lacking. AIM: To describe patterns of clinical disease in a cohort of children hospitalised with dengue during a major dengue epidemic in Sri Lanka. RESULTS: A total of 104 children were studied during a three month period. Eighteen had dengue fever (DF) and 86 had dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Of those with DHF, 34, 23, 27, and 2 had DHF grade I, II, III, and IV respectively. Based on dengue serology testing, 13 of the DF patients had a primary infection and 5 had secondary dengue infections. In contrast, 68 of the children with DHF had secondary and 18 had primary dengue infections. Oral candidiasis was seen in 19 children. The odds ratio for children with secondary dengue infection to develop DHF was 9.8 (95% CI 3.1 to 31.2). CONCLUSION: Studies on patterns of paediatric dengue disease in different regions should help clinicians and health administrators make more informed and evidence based health planning decisions. It should also help towards mapping out dengue trends on a global scale. Oral candidiasis has not been previously documented in children suffering with acute dengue in Sri Lanka or elsewhere. Studying underlying reasons for this manifestation during future dengue epidemics may provide useful leads in understanding overall dengue pathogenesis.



Rigau-Perez JG.  Severe dengue: the need for new case definitions. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 May;6(5):297-302. Review.

Dengue Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, PR, USA.
Dengue fever imposes a societal burden that is difficult to measure because of the disease's non-specific symptoms and the lack of easily applied case definitions for its more severe manifestations. An efficacy trial of a tetravalent vaccine is expected in the near future, but only one of the severe dengue syndromes-the continuum of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome-is well defined. One of the results of the focus on dengue haemorrhagic fever is the false perception of low disease burden in the Americas, which is an obstacle to the mobilisation of political and economic resources to fight the disease. Three improvements are necessary to standardise the dengue haemorrhagic fever definition and to allow it to do well in different populations: (1) redefine the threshold for thrombocytopenia, (2) clarify the standard practice and value of the tourniquet test, and (3) incorporate a criterion to measure intravenous fluid replacement. In addition, for an accurate estimation of dengue burden, locally appropriate definitions of severe dengue must be devised and standardised so they will be considered valid in the global research community.


Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

14696.  Balasubramanian S, Janakiraman L, Kumar SS, Muralinath S, Shivbalan S. A reappraisal of the criteria to diagnose plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic       fever. Indian Pediatr. 2006 Apr;43(4):334-9.

14697.  Gomes-Ruiz AC, Nascimento RT, de Paula SO, Lopes da Fonseca BA.  SYBR green and TaqMan real-time PCR assays are equivalent for the diagnosis of dengue virus type 3 infections. J Med Virol. 2006 Jun;78(6):760-3.

14698.  Grobusch MP, Niedrig M, Gobels K, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Teichmann D.  Evaluation of the use of RT-PCR for the early diagnosis of dengue fever. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Apr;12(4):395-7.


14699.  Finsterer J, Kongchan K.  Severe, persisting, steroid-responsive Dengue myositis. J Clin Virol. 2006 Apr;35(4):426-8.

14700.  Khor BS, Liu JW, Lee IK, Yang KD.  Dengue hemorrhagic fever patients with acute abdomen: clinical experience of 14 cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 May;74(5):901-4.

14701.  Mendes Wda S, Branco Mdos R, Medeiros MN. Clinical case report: Dengue hemorrhagic fever in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 May;74(5):905-7.

14702.  Nguyen TH, Nguyen TL, Lei HY, Lin YS, Le BL, Huang KJ, Lin CF, Do QH, Vu TQ, Lam TM, Yeh TM, Huang JH, Liu CC, Halstead SB. Volume replacement in infants with dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr;74(4):684-91.