Selected abstract:

3. Byrd TF, Davis LE. Multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007 Nov;7(6):470-5. Review.

Department of Medicine, New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 1501 San Pedro SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis is now appearing worldwide, including in the United States, and is difficult to diagnose and treat. We discuss methods to diagnose tuberculous meningitis, review current and experimental assays for determining drug resistance, and consider approaches to management of the patient. We review the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in both pulmonary and meningeal infections, discuss promising molecular methods for determining drug resistance, and review current approaches toward treatment of patients. The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis is increasing, and diagnosing and treating these patients will be a major challenge. There is a need to improve rapid methods of isolating the organism from cerebrospinal fluid, to advance molecular methods to rapidly test the isolate for antibiotic sensitivity, and to develop new antituberculosis drugs, especially ones that cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

4. Pace D, Pollard AJ. Meningococcal A, C, Y and W-135 polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Oct;92(10):909-15. Review.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK.

Serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccines, first launched in the UK in 1999, have been used successfully in Australia, Canada and several other European countries. Combination conjugate vaccines, containing more than one meningococcal polysaccharide, have been developed to broaden protection against the disease. A tetravalent meningococcal A, C, Y and W-135 conjugate vaccine was licensed for use in 11-55 year old adolescents and adults in the US in January 2005, and subsequently also in 2-11 year old children in Canada in May 2006. This article discusses the different glycoconjugate meningococcal vaccines which have been developed and the potential for their use to control disease caused by serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 of Neisseria meningitidis.

5. Prasad K, Kumar A, Gupta PK, Singhal T. Third generation cephalosporins versus conventional antibiotics for treating acute bacterial meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD001832. Review.

Background Antibiotic therapy for suspected acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) needs to be started immediately, even before the results of cerebrospinal fluid culture and antibiotic sensitivity are available. It is not clear whether the available evidence supports the choice of third generation cephalosporins over the conventional antibiotic combination of ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Immediate institution of effective treatment through intravenous route may reduce death and disability in survivors. Objectives The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness and safety of the third generation cephalosporins and conventional treatment with penicillin/ampicillin- chloramphenicol in patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2003) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group trials register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to November 2003), and EMBASE (January 1990 to November 2003). We also searched the reference list of review articles and textbook chapters and contacted experts for any unpublished trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing ceftriaxone or cefotaxime with conventional antibiotics as empirical therapy of acute bacterial meningitis. Data collection and analysis Two independent reviewers applied the study selection criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Main results Eighteen trials included 993 patients in the analysis. The kappa (chance-corrected agreement) between the observers in study selection and data extraction was substantial. There was no heterogeneity of results among the studies in any outcome except diarrhoea. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the risk of death (risk difference -1%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -4% to +3%), risk of deafness (risk difference -4%; 95% CI -9% to +1%), risk of treatment failure (risk difference -2%; 95% CI -5% to +2%). However, there were significantly decreased risk of culture positivity of CSF after 10-48 hours (risk difference - 6%; 95% CI -11% to 0%) and statistically significant increased in the risk of diarrhoea between the groups (risk difference +8%; 95% CI +3% to +13%) with the third generation cephalosporins. The risk of neutropenia and ski rash were not significantly different between the two groups. However, all the studies have been conducted in the eighties except two, which have been conducted in 1993 and 1996. Authors' conclusions Although the review shows no clinically important difference between ceftriaxone or cefotaxime and conventional antibiotics, the studies are done decades ago and may not apply to current routine practice. However, in situations where ceftriaxone or cefotaxime are not available or affordable, ampicillin-chloramphenicol combination may be used as an alternative. The antimicrobial resistance pattern against various antibiotics needs to be closely monitored in developing as well as developed countries. The factors determining overuse of antibiotics in developing countries and educational interventions to limit such practice are priority area for research in developing countries. (author's)

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis, Immunodiagnostics & Moleculardiagnostics:

17208. Bergallo M, Costa C, Margio S, Sidoti F, Terlizzi ME, Cavallo R. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of major human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid. Can J Microbiol. 2007 Oct;53(10):1117-22.

17209. Carter JE, Mizell KN, Evans TN. Neisseria sicca meningitis following intracranial hemorrhage and ventriculostomy tube placement. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007 Dec;109(10):918-21.

17210. Cohen DM, Lorch SA, King RL, Hodinka RL, Cohn KA, Shah SS. Factors influencing the decision to test young infants for herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Dec;26(12):1156-8.

17211. Foerster BR, Thurnher MM, Malani PN, Petrou M, Carets-Zumelzu F, Sundgren PC. Intracranial infections: clinical and imaging characteristics. Acta Radiol. 2007 Oct;48(8):875-93. Review.

17212. Kanaji N, Bandoh S, Nagamura N, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T. Significance of an epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in cerebrospinal fluid for carcinomatous meningitis. Intern Med. 2007;46(19):1651-5.

17213. Kim SR, Kwon MJ, Lee JH, Lee NY. Chronic meningitis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J Med Microbiol. 2007 Oct;56(Pt 10):1405-6.

17214. Nesseler N, Polard E, Arvieux C, Coquerel N, Michelet C, Tattevin P. Aseptic meningitis associated with lamotrigine: report of two cases. Eur J Neurol. 2007 Dec;14(12):e3-4.

17215. Nguyen TH, Tran TH, Thwaites G, Ly VC, Dinh XS, Ho Dang TN, Dang QT, Nguyen DP, Nguyen HP, To SD, Nguyen VC, Nguyen MD, Campbell J, Schultsz C, Parry C, Torok ME, White N, Nguyen TC, Tran TH, Stepniewska K, Farrar JJ. Dexamethasone in Vietnamese adolescents and adults with bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 13;357(24):2431-40.

17216. Plakogiannis R, Nogid A. Acute interstitial nephritis associated with coadministration of vancomycin and ceftriaxone: case series and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Oct;27(10):1456-61. Review.

17217. Pérez-Vélez CM, Anderson MS, Robinson CC, McFarland EJ, Nix WA, Pallansch MA, Oberste MS, Glodé MP. Outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 15;45(8):950-7.

17218. Scarborough M, Gordon SB, Whitty CJ, French N, Njalale Y, Chitani A, Peto TE, Lalloo DG, Zijlstra EE. Corticosteroids for bacterial meningitis in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 13;357(24):2441-50.

17219. Steichen O, Martinez-Almoyna L. Prediction rules for bacterial meningitis. J Infect. 2007 Oct;55(4):383.


17220. Michaelis M, Kleinschmidt MC, Doerr HW, Cinatl J Jr. Minocycline inhibits West Nile virus replication and apoptosis in human neuronal cells. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Nov;60(5):981-6.

17221. Tavakoli NP, Nattanmai S, Hull R, Fusco H, Dzigua L, Wang H, Dupuis M. Detection and typing of human herpesvirus 6 by molecular methods in specimens from patients diagnosed with encephalitis or meningitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Dec;45(12):3972-8.


17222. Cuevas LE, Savory EC, Hart CA, Thomson MC, Yassin MA. Effect of reactive vaccination on meningitis epidemics in Southern Ethiopia. J Infect. 2007 Nov;55(5):425-30.

17223. Dellicour S, Greenwood B. Systematic review: Impact of meningococcal vaccination on pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Dec;12(12):1409-21.

17224. Dubos F, Marechal I, Husson MO, Courouble C, Aurel M, Martinot A; Hospital Network for Evaluating the Management of Common Childhood Diseases. Decline in pneumococcal meningitis after the introduction of the heptavalent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in northern France. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Nov;92(11):1009-12.

17225. Hosking J, Rasanathan K, Mow FC, Jackson C, Martin D, O'Hallahan J, Oster P, Ypma E, Reid S, Aaberge I, Crengle S, Stewart J, Lennon D. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Nov;14(11):1393-9.

17226. Rossi IA, Zuber PL, Dumolard L, Walker DG, Watt J. Introduction of Hib vaccine into national immunization programmes: a descriptive analysis of global trends. Vaccine. 2007 Oct 10;25(41):7075-80.

17227. Wilder-Smith A. Meningococcal vaccine in travelers. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct;20(5):454-60. Review.

Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Management & Drugs:

17228. Chottanapund S, Singhasivanon P, Kaewkungwal J, Chamroonswasdi K, Manosuthi W. Survival time of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Oct;90(10):2104-11.

17229. Dauchy FA, Gruson D, Chêne G, Viot J, Bebear C, Maugein J, Bézian MC, Dutronc H, Dupon M. Prognostic factors in adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a 4-year retrospective study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Oct;26(10):743-6.

17230. Peltola H, Roine I, Fernández J, Zavala I, Ayala SG, Mata AG, Arbo A, Bologna R, Miño G, Goyo J, López E, de Andrade SD, Sarna S. Adjuvant glycerol and/or dexamethasone to improve the outcomes of childhood bacterial meningitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 15;45(10):1277-86.

17231. Sáez-Llorens X, McCracken GH Jr. Glycerol and bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 15;45(10):1287-9.

17232. Trachtenberg JD, Kambugu AD, McKellar M, Semitala F, Mayanja-Kizza H, Samore MH, Ronald A, Sande MA. The medical management of central nervous system infections in Uganda and the potential impact of an algorithm-based approach to improve outcomes. Int J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov;11(6):524-30.