Selected abstracts:

1.                  Abel M, Sene D, Pol S, Bourliere M, Poynard T, Charlotte F, Cacoub P, Caillat-Zucman S. Intrahepatic virus-specific IL-10-producing CD8 T cells prevent liver damage during chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2006 Dec;44(6):1607-16. 

INSERM, U561 Equipe AVENIR, Paris, France.

CD8 T cell killing of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected hepatocytes is thought to contribute to liver damage during chronic HCV infection, whereas the participation of HCV-nonspecific immune cells is unclear. To visualize the spatial relationship of HCV-specific CD8 T cells with parenchymal target cells, and to examine their local functional activity in relation to hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis, we used HLA tetramers and confocal microscopy in biopsies from 23 HLA-A2 or HLA-B7 patients with chronic HCV infection. Intrahepatic tetramer+ (HCV-specific) CD8 T cells protected from hepatic necroinflammatory disease activity, independently of age, gender, viral load, and viral genotype. Indeed, tetramer+ cells were scattered in the liver within regions of weak fibrosis (low laminin expression) and low hepatocellular apoptosis (TUNEL method), and expressed IL-10 but not IFNgamma. By contrast, tetramer-negative CD8 T cells were associated with active necroinflammatory liver disease, colocalized with strong laminin expression and hepatocellular apoptosis, and expressed more frequently IFNgamma than IL-10. Overall, liver regions harboring HCV-specific CD8 T cells tended to be healthier than areas containing only inflammatory cells of undefined specificity. In conclusion, HCV-specific IL-10-producing CD8 T cells, although not cytotoxic and unable to control viral replication, can attenuate hepatocellular necrosis, liver fibrosis, and inflammation mediated by bystander T cells, and may thus represent antigen-induced regulatory CD8 T cells. Therapeutic modulation of the intrahepatic balance between specific and bystander CD8 T cells might be beneficial in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

2.                  El-Sayed Zaki M, El-Deen Zaghloul MH, El Sayed O.  Acute sporadic hepatitis E in children: diagnostic relevance of specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G compared with nested reverse transcriptase PCR. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006 Oct;48(1):16-20. 

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. May_s65@hotmail.com

This study was carried out to investigate the putative role played by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) in acute hepatic dysfunction in paediatric patients with acute non-A-C hepatitis. We also evaluated the diagnostic value for anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays relative to nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for HEV RNA detection. Sixty-four children with acute hepatitis were included in the study, in addition to sixteen healthy children with matched age and sex. All studied subjects were negative for IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, IgM antibody to hepatitis B virus core antigen, antibody to hepatitis C virus, and by RT-PCR for HCV RNA. HEV RNA was detected in 23.4% of patients, followed by detection of specific IgM in 17.2% and IgG in 12.5% of patients. Two cases were positive for IgG in the control group (12.5%). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 26.7%, 85.7%, 71.9%, respectively, for IgM, and 26.7%, 91.8%, and 76.6%, respectively, for IgG. From this study we can conclude that HEV is a frequent virus found sporadically with acute hepatitis among paediatric patients. We cannot depend upon serology alone for diagnosis; rather, both molecular and serological methods must be applied for accurate diagnosis.

3.                  El-Zayadi AR.  Heavy smoking and liver. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct 14;12(38):6098-101. Review.

Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Ain Shams University and Director of Cairo Liver Center. 5, El-Gergawy St. Dokki, Giza, Egypt. clcz@tedata.net.eg

Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necro-inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF- alpha) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes. Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis. Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with suppression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache, fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation, pruritus and arthralgia.

4.                  Koay LB, Lin CY, Tsai SL, Lee C, Lin CN, Sheu MJ, Kuo HT, Sun CS.  Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis in Taiwan: diagnosis using the revised criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Nov;51(11):1978-84.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, 901 Chung Hwa Road, Yung Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC. 860316@mail.chimei.org.tw

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is rare in Asian countries compared to the West, and an exceptionally low prevalence was noted previously in Taiwan. Using the revised criteria of the IAIHG, 48 cases of AIH patients were diagnosed. All patients were consecutively diagnosed over a period of 5 years. Detailed medical histories including disease onset, hepatitis B and C, alcohol, drugs, blood transfusion, and family history of autoimmune disease were recorded. Clinical manifestations, result of steroid therapy, outcome, and survival rate were investigated and analyzed. Clinical data on AIH patients with cirrhosis and without cirrhosis were compared and analyzed for their outcome. The statistical methods used were Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Kaplan-Meier curve. Forty-eight patients were diagnosed as AIH type 1, with a median age of 58 years and a female:male ratio of 37:11. The most common clinical features at presentation were fatigue, jaundice, and anorexia. Ninety-eight percent of patients were ANA positive, and most of the patients showed elevated values of AST, ALT, serum globulin, and bilirubin. A substantial proportion of patients presented with poor liver function at entry and 35% of patients had liver cirrhosis, with relatively prolonged PT (P=0.001) and poorer outcome (P=0.005) compared to the noncirrhotics. As a whole there was a favorable treatment response and the overall survival rate was 85%. We conclude that the incidence of AIH in Taiwan is much higher than previously presumed and AIH type 1 is the predominant type of the disease. Although a substantial proportion of AIH patients presented with poor hepatic function at entry, as a whole there was a favorable clinical outcome.

5.                  Liu CH, Lin JW, Tsai FC, Yang PM, Lai MY, Chen JH, Kao JH, Chen DS.  Noninvasive tests for the prediction of significant hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferases. Liver Int. 2006 Nov;26(9):1087-94. 

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic value of Doppler and various noninvasive indices in predicting significant hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferases (PNALT) is unknown. METHODS: Seventy-nine treatment-naive HCV carriers with PNALT, who received Doppler ultrasonography and percutaneous liver biopsies, were enrolled in the study. Doppler indices, including portal vein velocity (PVV), hepatic arterial resistive index (HARI), hepatic arterial pulsatility index (HAPI), splenic arterial resistive index (SARI), and splenic arterial pulsatility index (SAPI), were compared with known biochemical indices used in HCV carriers with elevated ALT levels, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), age-platelet index (API), and AST to ALT ratio (AAR), for the diagnostic accuracy of significant hepatic fibrosis. RESULTS: SAPI was the most discriminatory index among the Doppler indices (P<0.001). By comparing areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) of SAPI with various biochemical indices, SAPI was superior to APRI, API, and AAR for predicting significant fibrosis (> or =F2) (0.862 vs. 0.673, 0.639, 0.504). SAPI set at 0.85 and 1.10 had a sensitivity of 96.7% and 66.7%, a specificity of 44.6% and 96.0%, a positive predictive value of 41.4% and 87.1%, and an negative predictive value of 97% and 87.7% in predicting significant fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that SAPI is the most useful index among Doppler and biochemical indices for the detection of significant hepatic fibrosis in HCV carriers with PNALT levels.

6.                  Lu YW, Tan TL, Chan V, Chen WN.  The HBSP gene is expressed during HBV replication, and its coded BH3-containing spliced viral protein induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Dec 8;351(1):64-70.

School of Biological Sciences, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637722, Singapore.

The mechanisms of liver injury in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are defined to be due not to the direct cytopathic effects of viruses, but to the host immune response to viral proteins expressed by infected hepatocytes. We showed here that transfection of mammalian cells with a replicative HBV genome causes extensive cytopathic effects, leading to the death of infected cells. While either necrosis or apoptosis or both may contribute to the death of infected cells, results from flow cytometry suggest that apoptosis plays a major role in HBV-induced cell death. Data mining of the four HBV protein sequences reveals the presence of a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) in HBSP, a spliced viral protein previously shown to be able to induce apoptosis and associated with HBV pathogenesis. HBSP is expressed at early stage of our cell-based HBV replication. When transfected into HepG2 cells, HBSP causes apoptosis in a caspase dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested a direct involvement of HBV viral proteins in cellular apoptosis, which may contribute to liver pathogenesis.

7.                  Moreau I, Hegarty S, Levis J, Sheehy P, Crosbie O, Kenny-Walsh E, Fanning LJ. Serendipitous identification of natural intergenotypic recombinants of hepatitis C in Ireland.  Virol J. 2006 Nov 15;3:95.

Molecular Virology Diagnostic & Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Clinical Sciences Building, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. i.moreau@ucc.ie BACKGROUND: Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been reported. Diagnostically recombinants represent an intriguing challenge. Hepatitis C genotype is defined by interrogation of the sequence composition of the 5' untranslated region [5'UTR]. Occasionally, ambiguous specimens require further investigation of the genome, usually by interrogation of the NS5B region. The original purpose of this study was to confirm the existence of a suspected mixed genotype infection of genotypes 2 and 4 by clonal analysis at the NS5B region of the genome in two specimens from two separate individuals. This initial identification of genotype was based on analysis of the 5'UTR of the genome by reverse line probe hybridisation [RLPH]. RESULTS: The original diagnosis of a mixed genotype infection was not confirmed by clonal analysis of the NS5B region of the genome. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both specimens were natural intergenotypic recombinant forms of HCV. The recombination was between genotypes 2k and 1b for both specimens. The recombination break point was identified as occurring within the NS2 region of the genome. CONCLUSION: The viral recombinants identified here resemble the recombinant form originally identified in Russia. The RLPH pattern observed in this study may be a signature indicative of this particular type of intergenotype recombinant of hepatitis C meriting clonal analysis of NS2.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

15357.  Bal R, Das S, Mondal P. Hepatitis E in pregnancy- Its effects on maternal health. Indian med J 2006, 100(30), 94-6.

15358.  Ceccanti M, Attili A, Balducci G, Attilia F, Giacomelli S, Rotondo C, Sasso GF, Xirouchakis E, Attilia ML.   Acute alcoholic hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;40(9):833-41. Review.

15359.  Cholongitas E, Quaglia A, Samonakis D, Senzolo M, Triantos C, Patch D, Leandro G, Dhillon AP, Burroughs AK.  Transjugular liver biopsy: how good is it for accurate histological interpretation? Gut. 2006 Dec;55(12):1789-94.

15360.  Christensen C, Bruden D, Livingston S, Deubner H, Homan C, Smith K, Oh E, Gretch D, Williams J, McMahon B.  Diagnostic accuracy of a fibrosis serum panel (FIBROSpect II) compared with Knodell and Ishak liver biopsy scores in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Viral Hepat. 2006 Oct;13(10):652-8. 

15361.  Cobbold JF, Wylezinska M, Cunningham C, Crossey ME, Thomas HC, Cox IJ, Patel N, Taylor-Robinson SD.  Non-invasive evaluation of hepatic fibrosis using magnetic resonance and ultrasound techniques. Gut. 2006 Nov;55(11):1670.

15362.  Devi B, Jindal N, Aggarwal A, Aggarwal L. Serological evidence of HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C viral infections and syphilis in pregnant women of Amritsar (Punjab). JAcad clin Microbiol 2005, 7(1), 21-5.

15363.  Dhalluin-Venier V, Besson C, Dimet S, Thirot-Bibault A, Tchernia G, Buffet C.  Imatinib mesylate-induced acute hepatitis with autoimmune features. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Nov;18(11):1235-7.  

15364.  El NM, Wahib AA, Mangoud AM, El SA, Morsy AT.  HCV/PCR positivity in bile and doudenal aspiration of fascioliasis and/or HCV patients. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006 Dec;36(3):779-94. 

15365.  Hsieh TH, Liu CJ, Chen DS, Chen PJ.  Natural course and treatment of hepatitis D virus infection. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Nov;105(11):869-81. Review. 

15366.  Imanishi H, Tsuruta D, Kobayashi H, Ishii M.  Yellow urticaria associated with hepatitis type-C liver cirrhosis. J Dermatol. 2006 Nov;33(11):823-4. 

15367.  Kerkar N, Annunziato RA, Foley L, Schmeidler J, Rumbo C, Emre S, Shneider B, Shemesh E.  Prospective analysis of nonadherence in autoimmune hepatitis: a common problem. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Nov;43(5):629-34. 

15368.  Liu D, Shi M, Huang H, Long Z, Zhou X, Qin J, Lin B.  Isotachophoresis preconcentration integrated microfluidic chip for highly sensitive genotyping of the hepatitis B virus. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Nov 21;844(1):32-8.

15369.  Lu SN, Wang JH, Liu SL, Hung CH, Chen CH, Tung HD, Chen TM, Huang WS, Lee CM, Chen CC, Changchien CS.  Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate for cirrhosis and a marker for the identification of patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2212-22. 

15370.  Mancini N, Carletti S, Perotti M, Romano L, Craxi RD, Craxi A, Zanetti AR, Clementi M, Burioni R.   Modulation of epitope-specific anti-hepatitis C virus E2 (anti-HCV/E2) antibodies by anti-viral treatment. J Med Virol. 2006 Oct;78(10):1304-11. 

15371.  Ngo Y, Munteanu M, Messous D, Charlotte F, Imbert-Bismut F, Thabut D, Lebray P, Thibault V, Benhamou Y, Moussalli J, Ratziu V, Poynard T.  A prospective analysis of the prognostic value of biomarkers (FibroTest) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Chem. 2006 Oct;52(10):1887-96.

15372.  Parikh S, Shah F, Parikh B, Shah C, Shah N. Analytical profile of seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C & syphilis amongst voluntary and replacement blood donors - a five years study. Guj med J 2005, 62(1), 29-33.

15373.  Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Messous D, Munteanu M, Imbert-Bismut F, Massard J, Bonyhay L, Tahiri M, Thabut D, Cadranel JF, Le Bail B, de Ledinghen V; LIDO Study Group; CYTOL study group.   Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (NashTest) for the prediction of non alcoholo steato hepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov 10;6:34.

15374.   Reddy AK, Dakshinamurty KV, Lakshmi V. Utility of HCV core antigen ELISA in the screening for hepatitis c virus infection in patients on hemodialysis  Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2006 Jan; 24(1): 55-7.

15375.  Shihabi ZK.  Cryoglobulins: an important but neglected clinical test. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2006 Autumn;36(4):395-408. Review. 

15376.  Somi MH, Najafi L, Noori BN, Alizadeh AHM, Aghah MR, Shavakhi A, Ehsani MJ, Aghazadeh R, Masoodi M, Baladast M, Zali MR. Tumor necrosisfactor-alpha gene promoter polymorphism in Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Indian J Gastroenterol 2006, 25(1), 14-15.

15377.   Van Huyen JP, Batisse D, Heudes D, Belair MF, Piketty C, Gonzalez-Canali G, Weiss L, Kazatchkine MD, Bruneval P.  Alteration of cytochrome oxidase subunit I labeling is associated with severe mitochondriopathy in NRTI-related hepatotoxicity in HIV patients. Mod Pathol. 2006 Oct;19(10):1277-88.

15378.  Yu JW, Wang GQ, Li SC.  Prediction of the prognosis in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis using the MELD scoring system. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct;21(10):1519-24. 

15379.  Zhang F, Li X, Li Z, Harrison TJ, Chong H, Qiao S, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhuang H, Wang Y.  Detection of HEV antigen as a novel marker for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. J Med Virol. 2006 Nov;78(11):1441-8. 


15380.  Qin X, Gao B.  The complement system in liver diseases. Cell Mol Immunol. 2006 Oct;3(5):333-40. Review. 

15381.  Rakic B, Clarke J, Tremblay TL, Taylor J, Schreiber K, Nelson KM, Abrams SR, Pezacki JP.  A small-molecule probe for hepatitis C virus replication that blocks protein folding. Chem Biol. 2006 Oct;13(10):1051-60.

15382.  Saukkonen JJ, Cohn DL, Jasmer RM, Schenker S, Jereb JA, Nolan CM, Peloquin CA, Gordin FM, Nunes D, Strader DB, Bernardo J, Venkataramanan R, Sterling TR; ATS (American Thoracic Society) Hepatotoxicity of Antituberculosis Therapy Subcommittee.  An official ATS statement: hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct 15;174(8):935-52. Review.

15383.  Wheelhouse NM, Dowidar N, Dejong CH, Garden OJ, Powell JJ, Barber MD, Sangster K, Maingay JP, Ross JA.  The effects of macrophage migratory inhibitory factor on acute-phase protein production in primary human hepatocytes. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):957-61. 

15384.  Wisniewska-Ligier M, Wozniakowska-Gesicka T, Glowacka E, Lewkowicz P, Banasik M, Tchorzewski H.   Involvement of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C in children. Scand J Immunol. 2006 Oct;64(4):425-32.


15385.  Capone S, Zampaglione I, Vitelli A, Pezzanera M, Kierstead L, Burns J, Ruggeri L, Arcuri M, Cappelletti M, Meola A, Ercole BB, Tafi R, Santini C, Luzzago A, Fu TM, Colloca S, Ciliberto G, Cortese R, Nicosia A, Fattori E, Folgori A.  Modulation of the immune response induced by gene electrotransfer of a hepatitis C virus DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15;177(10):7462-71. 

15386.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Vaccination coverage among children entering school--United States, 2005-06 school year. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Oct 20;55(41):1124-6. 

15387.  Han X, Ye LB, Li BZ, Bo G, Cai WJ, Hong Z, She YL, Li Y, Kong LB, Wu ZH. Expression, purification and characterization of the Hepatitis B virus entire envelope large protein in Pichia pastoris. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Oct;49(2):168-75.

15388.  Jaffe D, Papadopoulos EB, Young JW, O'reilly RJ, Prockop S, Kernan NA, Jakubowski A, Boulad F, Perales MA, Castro-Malaspina H, Small TN.  Immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (rHBV) in recipients of unrelated or related allogeneic hematopoietic cell (HC) transplants. Blood. 2006 Oct 1;108(7):2470-5.

15389. Johri AK, Tandon A, Lee JW, Nandy M, Grover G. An open label, non-comparative, multicentric, single group study to evaluate the immune response of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine obtained from genetically engineered saccharomyces cervisiae in healthcare workers in India Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. 2006 Apr-Jun; 7(2): 123-9.

15390.  Mast EE, Weinbaum CM, Fiore AE, Alter MJ, Bell BP, Finelli L, Rodewald LE, Douglas JM Jr, Janssen RS, Ward JW; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part II: immunization of adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Dec 8;55(RR-16):1-33.

15391.  Shokrgozar MA, Sam MR, Amirkhani A, Shokri F.  Frequency analysis of HBsAg-specific B lymphocytes in high-responder individuals to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: comparison of LDA and ELISPOT assays. Scand J Immunol. 2006 Nov;64(5):536-43.  

15392.  Zuckerman JN.  Vaccination against hepatitis A and B: developments, deployment and delusions. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct;19(5):456-9. Review. 


15393.  Benyounes M, Sempoux C, Daumerie C, Rahier J, Geubel AP.  Propylthiouracyl-induced severe liver toxicity: an indication for alanine aminotransferase monitoring? World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct 14;12(38):6232-4. 

15394.  Bronowicki JP, Ouzan D, Asselah T, Desmorat H, Zarski JP, Foucher J, Bourliere M, Renou C, Tran A, Melin P, Hezode C, Chevalier M, Bouvier-Alias M, Chevaliez S, Montestruc F, Lonjon-Domanec I, Pawlotsky JM.  Effect of ribavirin in genotype 1 patients with hepatitis C responding to pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology. 2006 Oct;131(4):1040-8.

15395.  Cebon J; Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Ag0001H Investigators.  Somatostatin receptor expression, tumour response, and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with long-acting octreotide. Br J Cancer. 2006 Oct 9;95(7):853-61.

15396.  Cornberg M, Deterding K, Manns MP.  Present and future therapy for hepatitis C virus. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Oct;4(5):781-93. Review. 

15397.  Doyle SE, Schreckhise H, Khuu-Duong K, Henderson K, Rosler R, Storey H, Yao L, Liu H, Barahmand-pour F, Sivakumar P, Chan C, Birks C, Foster D, Clegg CH, Wietzke-Braun P, Mihm S, Klucher KM.    Interleukin-29 uses a type 1 interferon-like program to promote antiviral responses in human hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):896-906.

15398.  Flink HJ, Hansen BE, Heathcote EJ, Feinman SV, Simsek H, Karayalcin S, Mach T, Leemans WF, de Man RA, Verhey E, Schalm SW, Janssen HL; HBV 99-01 Study Group.  Successful treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b of HBeAg-positive HBV non-responders to standard interferon or lamivudine. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;101(11):2523-9. 

15399.  Hartman C, Berkowitz D, Eshach-Adiv O, Hino B, Rimon N, Satinger I, Kra-Oz T, Shamir R. Long-term lamivudine therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection in children unresponsive to interferon. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Oct;43(4):494-8. 

15400.  He Q, Graham CS, Mangoni ED, Koziel MJ. Differential expression of toll-like receptor mRNA in treatment non-responders and sustained virologic responders at baseline in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2006 Nov;26(9):1100-10. 

15401.  Homoncik M, Sieghart W, Formann E, Schmid M, Ferenci P, Gangl A, Jilma B, Peck-Radosavljevic M.   Erythropoietin treatment is associated with more severe thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;101(10):2275-82. 

15402.  Honda M, Kawashima Y, Kawamura H, Fujikawa H, Kikuchi K, Ohashi H, Mori Y, Miyakawa H, Ishibashi M.  Acute liver dysfunction complicated with uncontrollable glycemia due to insulin antibody: successful treatment with glucocorticoid and lispro insulin. Intern Med. 2006;45(21):1225-9. 

15403.  Lai AR, Tashima KT, Taylor LE.  Antiretroviral medication considerations for individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006 Oct;20(10):678-92. Review. 

15404.  Lanford RE, Guerra B, Lee H.  Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b chimeric replicon containing genotype 3 NS5A domain. Virology. 2006 Nov 25;355(2):192-202.

15405.  Mancuso ME, Rumi MG, Santagostino E, Linari S, Coppola A, Mannucci PM, Colombo M; Hepatitis Study Group of the Association of Italian Hemophilia Centers.  High efficacy of combined therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in patients with hemophilia and chronic hepatitis C. Haematologica. 2006 Oct;91(10):1367-71.

15406.  Modica S, Moschetta A.  Nuclear bile acid receptor FXR as pharmacological target: are we there yet? FEBS Lett. 2006 Oct 9;580(23):5492-9.

15407.  Moriyama M, Matsumura H, Fukushima A, Ohkido K, Arakawa Y, Nirei K, Yamagami H, Kaneko M, Tanaka N, Arakawa Y.  Clinical significance of evaluation of serum zinc concentrations in C-viral chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Nov;51(11):1967-77.

15408.  Peters MG, Andersen J, Lynch P, Liu T, Alston-Smith B, Brosgart CL, Jacobson JM, Johnson VA, Pollard RB, Rooney JF, Sherman KE, Swindells S, Polsky B; ACTG Protocol A5127 Team.  Randomized controlled study of tenofovir and adefovir in chronic hepatitis B virus and HIV infection: ACTG A5127. Hepatology. 2006 Nov;44(5):1110-6.

15409.  Qian YB, Zhang JB, Wu WZ, Fang HB, Jia WD, Zhuang PY, Zhang BH, Pan Q, Xu Y, Wang L, Tang ZY, Sun HC.  P48 is a predictive marker for outcome of postoperative interferon-alpha treatment in patients with hepatitis B virus infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1562-9. 

15410.  Sherman M, Yoshida EM, Deschenes M, Krajden M, Bain VG, Peltekian K, Anderson F, Kaita K, Simonyi S, Balshaw R, Lee SS; Canadian Pegasys Study Group. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients who failed previous interferon therapy. Gut. 2006 Nov;55(11):1631-8.

15411.  Shi M, Yang ZJ, Wang RS, Zhang H, Zhu YF, Xu YP, Lin QY, Jin LJ.  Rapid quantitation of lamivudine-resistant mutants in lamivudine treated and untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Nov;373(1-2):172-5.

15412.  Shiah HS, Chao Y, Chen LT, Yao TJ, Huang JD, Chang JY, Chen PJ, Chuang TR, Chin YH, Whang-Peng J, Liu TW.  Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of oral thalidomide in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;58(5):654-64.

15413.  Tilg H, Kaser A, Moschen AR. How to modulate inflammatory cytokines in liver diseases. Liver Int. 2006 Nov;26(9):1029-39. Review. 

15414.  Yee HS, Currie SL, Darling JM, Wright TL.   Management and treatment of hepatitis C viral infection: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center program and the National Hepatitis C Program office. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;101(10):2360-78.

15415.  Yuen MF, Lai CL.  Recommendations and potential future options in the treatment of hepatitis B. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;7(16):2225-31. Review.