Some Selected Abstracts: 


McBride AJ, Athanazio DA, Reis MG, Ko AI. Leptospirosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;18(5):376-86. Review.

Goncalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Rua Waldemar Falcao 121, 40295-001 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, has been recognized as an important emerging infectious disease in the last 10 years. This review addresses the issues in the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical management which confront public health responses, and highlights the progress made towards understanding the Leptospira genome, biology and pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Leptospirosis has spread from its traditional rural base to become the cause of epidemics in poor urban slum communities in developing countries. Mortality from severe disease forms, Weil's disease and severe pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome, is high (>10% and >50%, respectively) even when optimal treatment is provided. Moreover, the overall disease burden is underestimated, since leptospirosis is a significant cause of undifferentiated fever and frequently not recognized. Barriers to addressing this problem have been the lack of an adequate diagnostic test and effective control measures. China and Brazil, countries in which leptospirosis is a major health problem, have completed the sequence of the Leptospira interrogans genome. Together with new genetic tools and proteomics, new insights have been made into the biology of Leptospira and the mechanisms used to adapt to host and external environments. Surface-exposed proteins and putative virulence determinants have been identified which may serve as sub-unit vaccine candidates. SUMMARY: Major progress has been made in the basic research of leptospirosis. Future challenges will be to translate these advances into public health measures for developing countries. Yet the most effective responses may be interventions that directly address the determinants of poverty, such as poor sanitation, which are often responsible for transmission.

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:  

13907.  Bruce MG, Sanders EJ, Leake JA, Zaidel O, Bragg SL, Aye T, Shutt KA, Deseda CC, Rigau-Perez JG, Tappero JW, Perkins BA, Spiegel RA, Ashford DA. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico. Acta Trop. 2005 Oct;96(1):36-46.  


13908.     Edwards CN. Leptospirosis: the need for clinical research. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;73(4):651.

13909.   Liborio AB. Can rhabdomyolysis be the only cause of acute renal failure in leptospirosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005 Nov;20(11):2580-1.

13910.   Spichler A, Moock M, Chapola EG, Vinetz J. Weil's disease: an unusually fulminant presentation characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug;9(4):336-40.  


13911.     Narita M, Fujitani S, Haake DA, Paterson DL. Leptospirosis after recreational exposure to water in the Yaeyama islands, Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Oct;73(4):652-6.