Some Selected Abstracts:


Bellini WJ, Harcourt BH, Bowden N, Rota PA. Nipah virus: an emergent paramyxovirus causing     severe encephalitis in humans. J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):481-7. Review.

Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. wbellini@cdc.gov

Nipah virus is a recently emergent paramyxovirus that is capable of causing severe disease in both humans and animals. The first outbreak of Nipah virus occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999 and, more recently, outbreaks were detected in Bangladesh. In humans, Nipah virus causes febrile encephalitis with respiratory syndrome that has a high mortality rate. The reservoir for Nipah virus is believed to be fruit bats, and humans are infected by contact with infected bats or by contact with an intermediate animal host such as pigs. Person to person spread of the virus has also been described. Nipah virus retains many of the genetic and biologic properties found in other paramyxoviruses, though it also has several unique characteristics. However, the virologic characteristics that allow the virus to cause severe disease over a broad host range, and the epidemiologic, environmental and virologic features that favor transmission to humans are unknown. This review summarizes what is known about the virology, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and control of this novel pathogen.







1.                   Hasko G, Pacher P, Vizi ES, Illes P. Adenosine receptor signaling in the brain immune system. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Oct;26(10):511-6. Review.

Department of Surgery, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. haskoge@umdnj.edu

The brain immune system, which consists mainly of astrocytes, microglia and infiltrating immune cells, is quiescent normally, but it is activated in response to pathophysiological events such as ischemia, trauma, inflammation and infection. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that is generated at sites that are subjected to these "stressful" conditions. Adenosine interacts with specific G-protein- coupled receptors on astrocytes, microglia and infiltrating immune cells to regulate the function of the immune system in the brain. Although many of the effects of adenosine on immune-  competent cells in the brain protect neuronal integrity, adenosine might also aggravate neuronal injury by promoting inflammatory processes. A more complete understanding of adenosine receptor function in the brain immune system should help develop novel therapeutic ways to treat brain disorders that are associated with a dysfunctional immune response.         


             Mackenzie JS. Emerging zoonotic encephalitis viruses: lessons from Southeast Asia and Oceania. J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):434-40. Review.

Australian Biosecurity CRC, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Mackenzie@curtin.edu.au

The last decade of the 20th Century saw the introduction of an unprecedented number of encephalitic viruses emerge or spread in the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions (Mackenzie et al, 2001; Solomon, 2003a). Most of these viruses are zoonotic, either being arthropod-borne viruses or bat-borne viruses. Thus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has spread through the Indonesian archipelago to Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to the islands of the Torres Strait of northern Australia, to Pakistan, and to new areas in the Indian subcontinent; a strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was described for the first time in Hokkaido, Japan; and a novel mosquito-borne alphavirus, Me Tri virus, was described from Vietnam. Three novel bat-borne viruses emerged in Australia and Malaysia; two, Hendra and Nipah viruses, represent the first examples of a new genus in the family Paramyxoviridae, the genus Henipaviruses, and the third, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is new lyssavirus closely related to classical rabies virus. These viruses will form the body of this brief review.



         Marchetti B, Abbracchio MP. To be or not to be (inflamed)--is that the question in anti-inflammatory drug therapy of neurodegenerative disorders? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Oct;26(10):517-25. Review.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Sassari Medical School, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. biancamarchetti@libero.it

A sustained inflammatory reaction is present in acute (e.g. stroke) and chronic (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis) neurodegenerative disorders. Inflammation, which is fostered by both residential glial cells and blood-circulating cells that infiltrate the diseased brain, probably starts as a time- and site-specific defense mechanism that could later evolve into a destructive and uncontrolled reaction. In this article, we review the crucial dichotomy of brain inflammation, where failure to resolve an acute beneficial response could lead to a vicious and anarchic state of chronic activation. The possible use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the management of neurode- generative diseases is discussed in light of recent data demonstrating a neuroprotective role of local innate and adaptive immune responses. Novel therapeutic approaches must rely on potentiation of endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways, identification of early markers of neuronal deterioration and a combination treatment involving immune modulation and anti-inflammatory therapies.3.                   


            McIver CJ, Jacques CF, Chow SS, Munro SC, Scott GM, Roberts JA, Craig ME, Rawlinson WD. Development of multiplex PCRs for detection of common viral pathogens and agents of congenital infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5102-10.

             Department of Microbiology, South Eastern Area Laboratory Service, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales 2031, Australia.

            Potential causes of congenital infection include Toxoplasma gondii and viruses such as cytome- galovirus  (CMV), enterovirus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), human herpesvirus types 6, 7, and 8, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, parvovirus, rubella virus, and varicella-zoster virus. Testing for each of these agents using nucleic acid tests is time consuming and the availability of clinical samples such as amniotic fluid or neonatal blood is often limited. The aim of this study was to develop multiplex PCRs (mPCRs) for detection of DNA and RNA agents in the investigation of congenital infection and an mPCR for the viruses most commonly requested in a diagnostic virology laboratory (CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, enterovirus, HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus). The assays were assessed using known pathogen-positive tissues (cultures, placentae, plasma, and amniotic fluid) and limits of detection were determined for all the agents studied using serial dilutions of plasmid targets. Nested PCR was performed as the most sensitive assay currently available, and detection of the amplicons using hybridization to labeled probes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection was incorporated into three of the four assays. This allowed detection of 10 to 10(2) copies of each agent in the samples processed. In several patients, an unexpected infection was diagnosed, including a case of encephalitis where HSV was the initial clinical suspicion but CMV was detected. In the majority of these cases the alternative agent could be confirmed using reference culture, serology, or fluorescence methods and was of relevance to clinical care of the patient. The methods described here provide useful techniques for diagnosing congenital infections and a paradigm for assessment of new multiplex PCRs for use in the diagnostic laboratory

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

 13768.     Chanama S, Sukprasert W, Sa-ngasang A, A-nuegoonpipat A, Sangkitporn S, Kurane I, Anantapreecha S. Detection of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific IgM in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from JE patients. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;58(5):294-6.

 13769.     Lee DH, Mathew J, Pfahler W, Ma D, Valinsky J, Prince AM, Andrus L. Individual donor nucleic acid amplification testing for detection of West Nile virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5111-6.

 13770.     Lolli F, Mazzanti B, Pazzagli M, Peroni E, Alcaro MC, Sabatino G, Lanzillo R, Brescia Morra V, Santoro L, Gasperini C, Galgani S, D'Elios MM, Zipoli V, Sotgiu S, Pugliatti M, Rovero P, Chelli M, Papini AM. The glycopeptide CSF114(Glc) detects serum antibodies in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Oct;167(1-2):131-7.

 13771.     Marciniak C, Rosenfeld EL. Serial electrodiagnostic studies in West Nile virus-associated acute flaccid paralysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Nov;84(11):904-10.

 13772.     Pawar SD, Singh A, Gangodkar SV, Rao BL. Propagation of Chandipura virus in chick embryos. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;43(10):930-2.

 13773.     Rand K, Houck H, Lawrence R. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and cost savings from earlier hospital discharge. J Mol Diagn. 2005 Oct;7(4):511-6.


 13774.     Best SM, Morris KL, Shannon JG, Robertson SJ, Mitzel DN, Park GS, Boer E, Wolfinbarger JB, Bloom ME. Inhibition of interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling by a tick-borne flavivirus and identification of NS5 as an interferon antagonist. J Virol. 2005 Oct;79(20):12828-39.

 13775.     Briese T, Bernard KA. West Nile virus--an old virus learning new tricks? J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):469-75. Review.

 13776.     Chatterjee P. Japanese encephalitis outbreak in India. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Nov;4(11):700.

 13777.     Cruz-Pacheco G, Esteva L, Montano-Hirose JA, Vargas C. Modelling the dynamics of West Nile Virus. Bull Math Biol. 2005 Nov;67(6):1157-72.

 13778.     Custer B, Busch MP, Marfin AA, Petersen LR. The cost-effectiveness of screening the U.S. blood supply for West Nile virus. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Oct 4;143(7):486-92. Summary for patients in: Ann Intern Med. 2005 Oct 4;143(7):I44.

 13779.     Hanna SL, Pierson TC, Sanchez MD, Ahmed AA, Murtadha MM, Doms RW. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. J Virol. 2005 Nov;79(21):13262-74. 

 13780.     Lee DH, Mathew J, Pfahler W, Ma D, Valinsky J, Prince AM, Andrus L. Individual donor nucleic acid amplification testing for detection of West Nile virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5111-6.

 13781.     Olival KJ, Daszak P. The ecology of emerging neurotropic viruses. J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):441-6. Review.

 13782.     Ota MO, Moss WJ, Griffin DE. Emerging diseases: measles. J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):447-54. Review.

 13783.     Soldan SS, Gonzalez-Scarano F. Emerging infectious diseases: the Bunyaviridae. J Neurovirol. 2005 Oct;11(5):412-23. Review.


 13784.     Hombach J, Solomon T, Kurane I, Jacobson J, Wood D. Report on a WHO consultation on immunological endpoints for evaluation of new Japanese encephalitis vaccines, WHO, Geneva, 2-3 September, 2004. Vaccine. 2005 Nov 1;23(45):5205-11.

 13785.     Marfin AA, Gubler DJ. Japanese encephalitis: the need for a more effective vaccine. Lancet. 2005 Oct 15-21;366(9494):1335-7.

 13786.     Ohrr H, Tandan JB, Sohn YM, Shin SH, Pradhan DP, Halstead SB. Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunisation in Nepalese children with Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. Lancet. 2005 Oct 15-21;366(9494):1375-8.

 13787.     Pugachev KV, Guirakhoo F, Monath TP. New developments in flavivirus vaccines with special attention to yellow fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;18(5):387-94. Review. 

 13788.     Sejvar JJ, Labutta RJ, Chapman LE, Grabenstein JD, Iskander J, Lane JM.  Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States, 2002-2004. JAMA. 2005 Dec 7;294(21):2744-50. Erratum in: JAMA. 2005 Dec 28;294(24):3092.

 13789.     Zenz W, Pansi H, Zoehrer B, Mutz I, Holzmann H, Kraigher A, Berghold A, Spork D.  Tick-borne encephalitis in children in Styria and Slovenia between 1980 and 2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Oct;24(10):892-6.


 13790.     Hanly JG, Harrison MJ. Management of neuropsychiatric lupus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005 Oct;19(5):799-821. Review.

 13791.     Openshaw H, Cantin EM. Corticosteroids in herpes simplex virus encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Nov;76(11):1469.   

 13792.     RamachandranNair R, Parameswaran M, Girija AS. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis treated with plasmapheresis. Singapore Med J. 2005 Oct;46(10):561-3.