Some Selected Abstracts:


Amexo M, Tolhurst R, Barnish G, Bates I. Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. Lancet. 2004 Nov 20;364(9448):1896-8.  

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

CONTEXT: Effective and affordable treatment is recommended for all cases of malaria within 24 h of the onset of illness. Most cases of "malaria" (ie, fever) are self-diagnosed and most treatments, and deaths, occur at home. The most ethical and cost-effective policy is to ensure that newer drug combinations are only used for true cases of malaria. Although it is cost effective to improve the accuracy of malaria diagnosis, simple, accurate, and inexpensive methods are not widely available, particularly in poor communities where they are most needed. STARTING POINT: In a recent study in Uganda, Karin Kallander and colleagues emphasise the difficulty in making a presumptive diagnosis of malaria, and highlight the urgent need for improved diagnostic tools that can be used at community and primary-care level, especially in poorer populations (Acta Trop 2004; 90: 211-14). WHERE NEXT? Health systems need strengthening at referral and community level, so that rapid accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is available for those who are least able to withstand the consequences of illness. Indirect evidence strongly suggests that misdiagnosis of malaria contributes to a vicious cycle of increasing ill-health and deepening poverty. Much better direct evidence is needed about why and how misdiagnosis affects the poor and vulnerable.


Mackintosh CL, Beeson JG, Marsh K. Clinical features and   pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):597-603.

Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

A major change in recent years has been the recognition that severe malaria, predominantly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is a complex multi-system disorder presenting with a range of clinical features. It is becoming apparent that syndromes such as cerebral malaria, which were previously considered relatively clear cut, are not homogenous conditions with a single pathological correlate or pathogenic process. This creates challenges both for elucidating key mechanisms of disease and for identifying suitable targets for adjunctive therapy. The development of severe malaria probably results from a combination of parasite-specific factors, such as adhesion and sequestration in the vasculature and the release of bioactive molecules, together with host inflammatory responses. These include cytokine and chemokine production and cellular infiltrates. This review summarizes progress in several areas presented at a recent meeting.


Richter J, de Bernardis C, Sagir A, Walter S, Savalli E, Haussinger D. Is ultrasound a useful adjunct for assessing malaria patients? Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):349-53.

Tropical Medicine Unit, Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

The value of ultrasonography as an adjunct for diagnosis and monitoring malaria was investigated. In all, 118 patients (male/female 65/53; age 2-78 years, median 29 years) with malaria underwent a standardised abdominal ultrasound examination at baseline. In 62 out of 118 patients, ultrasonography was repeated 21 days later. In the results at baseline, huge splenomegaly with firm organ consistency, consistent with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly syndrome, was observed in two Cameroonese children. In the other 116 patients, the most common finding was non-specific splenomegaly (96/116, 82.76%), occurring more frequently in non-immune patients (71/78, 91.03%) than in patients who had grown up in malaria-endemic areas (25/38, 65.79%; P<0.002). No correlation was found between liver or spleen size and any clinical parameter. The results on day 21 show that, although splenomegaly after therapy persisted more frequently in patients with malaria recrudescence or relapse (8/8, 100%) than in patients cured (32/54, 59.26%; P<0.0421), the practical value of this finding is questionable. Ultrasonography cannot be regarded as a first-line diagnostic method in patients with malaria.


Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Sasiprapha T, Sangkharomya S, Khaewsathien P, Supakalin P, Tang DB, Jarasrumgsichol P, Cherdchu C, Edstein MD, Rieckmann KH, Brewer TG. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;190(8):1456-63.

Department of Immunology and Medicine, United States Army Medical Component, Bangkok, Thailand.

We assessed monthly doses of tafenoquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 205 Thai soldiers received either a loading dose of tafenoquine 400 mg (base) daily for 3 days, followed by single monthly 400-mg doses (n = 104), or placebo (n = 101), for up to 5 consecutive months. In volunteers completing follow-up (96 tafenoquine and 91 placebo recipients), there were 22 P. vivax, 8 P. falciparum, and 1 mixed infection. All infections except 1 P. vivax occurred in placebo recipients, giving tafenoquine a protective efficacy of 97% for all malaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%), 96% for P. vivax malaria (95% CI, 76%-99%), and 100% for P. falciparum malaria (95% CI, 60%-100%). Monthly tafenoquine was safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in preventing P. vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in Thai soldiers during 6 months of prophylaxis. Copyright 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America


Ayi K, Turrini F, Piga A, Arese P. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant erythrocytes: a common mechanism that may explain protection against falciparum malaria in sickle trait and beta-thalassemia trait. Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3364-71.

Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Italy.

High frequency of erythrocyte (red blood cell [RBC]) genetic disorders such as sickle cell trait, thalassemia trait, homozygous hemoglobin C (Hb-C), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in regions with high incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and case-control studies support the protective role of those conditions. Protection has been attributed to defective parasite growth or to enhanced removal of the parasitized RBCs. We suggested enhanced phagocytosis of rings, the early intraerythrocytic form of the parasite, as an alternative explanation for protection in G6PD deficiency. We show here that P falciparum developed similarly in normal RBCs and in sickle trait, beta- and alpha-thalassemia trait, and HbH RBCs. We also show that membrane-bound hemichromes, autologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3c fragments, aggregated band 3, and phagocytosis by human monocytes were remarkably higher in rings developing in all mutant RBCs considered except alpha-thalassemia trait. Phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant RBCs was predominantly complement mediated and very similar to phagocytosis of senescent or damaged normal RBCs. Trophozoite-parasitized normal and mutant RBCs were phagocytosed similarly in all conditions examined. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant RBCs may represent the common mechanism for malaria protection in nonimmune individuals affected by widespread RBC mutations, while individuals with alpha-thalassemia trait are likely protected by a different mechanism.


Crabb BS, Cooke BM. Molecular approaches to malaria: MAM 2004 and beyond. : Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):547.

This special issue of Trends in Parasitology comprises a collection of timely reviews arising from the 2nd Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting held 1-5 February 2004 in Lorne, Australia, four years after the successful inaugural meeting. As the name suggests, Molecular Approaches to Malaria focused on the latest molecular developments in malaria research, and their biological and clinical implications. By no means is this special issue intended to represent a comprehensive recapitulation of all of the presentations at the meeting. Rather, the articles address, in more general terms, recent advances on broader themes that were prominent at Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting 2004

Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Immunodiagnosis & Immunodiagnostics:

11550.    Abegunde AT. Monkey malaria in man. Lancet. 2004 Oct 2;364(9441):1217.

11551.    Adam I, Ali DA, Alwaseila A, Kheir MM, Elbashir MI. Mefloquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria during pregnancy in Eastern Sudan. Saudi Med J. 2004 Oct;25(10):1400-2.

11552.   Amexo M, Tolhurst R, Barnish G, Bates I. Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. Lancet. 2004 Nov 20;364(9448):1896-8.

11553.   Attaran A. Rescuing malaria treatment, or not? Lancet. 2004 Nov 27;364(9449):1922-3.

11554.   Bharat Bhushan. Measurement of blood glucose level at the time of admission in severe and complicated malaria. Indian Med J 2003, 97 (60): 158-9.

11555.   Bhattarai A, Maini-Thapar M, Ali AS, Bjorkman A. Amodiaquine during pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;4(12):721-2; discussion 722.

11556.   Challis K, Osman NB, Cotiro M, Nordahl G, Dgedge M, Bergstrom S. Impact of a double dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to reduce prevalence of pregnancy malaria in southern Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1066-73.

11557.   Chayani N, Das B, Sur M, Bajoria S. Comparison of Parasite lactate dehydrogenase based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (optimal) with microscopy for detection of malaria parasites. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2004 Apr; 22(2): 104-106.

11558.   Demirev PA. Mass spectrometry for malaria diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2004 Nov;4(6):821-9. Review.

11559.    Ganesh K N, Urmila J, Vijayan V A. Pyrethroid susceptibility & enzyme activity in two malaria vectors, Anoheles stephensi (Liston). Indian J med Res 2003, 117 (Jan), 30-8.

11560.   Mackintosh CL, Beeson JG, Marsh K. Clinical features and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):597-603. Review.

11561.   Menendez C, Schellenberg D, Quinto L, Kahigwa E, Alvarez L, Aponte JJ, Alonso PL.  The effects of short-term iron supplementation on iron status in infants in malaria-endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):434-40.

11562.    Nsungwa-Sabiiti J, Kallander K, Nsabagasani X, Namusisi K, Pariyo G, Johansson A, Tomson G, Peterson S. Local fever illness classifications: implications for home management of malaria strategies. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Nov;9(11):1191-9.

11563.   Okeke IN. Stopping the spread of drug-resistant malaria. Science. 2004 Dec 17;306(5704):2039-40; author reply 2039-40.

11564.   Orduna TA. Mapping malaria. CMAJ. 2004 Oct 26;171(9):1023; author reply 1023-4.

11565.   Owusu-Ofori A, Agbenyega T, Ansong D, Scheld WM. Routine lumbar puncture in children with febrile seizures in Ghana: should it continue? Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov;8(6):353-61.

11566.   Ozsoy MF, Oncul O, Pekkafali Z, Pahsa A, Yenen OS. Splenic complications in malaria: report of two cases from Turkey. J Med Microbiol. 2004 Dec;53(Pt 12):1255-8. Review.

11567.   Pamba A, Maitland K. Capillary refill: prognostic value in Kenyan children. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Oct;89(10):950-5.

11568.   Pavithra SR, Banumathy G, Joy O, Singh V, Tatu U. Recurrent fever promotes Plasmodium falciparum development in human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 5;279(45):46692-9.

11569.   Pilkington H, Mayombo J, Aubouy N, Deloron P. Malaria, from natural to supernatural: a qualitative study of mothers' reactions to fever (Dienga, Gabon). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Oct;58(10):826-30.

11570.   Ravi Kumar K, Sudarshan KS. Clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit (Paracheck-Pf) for diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum in Karnataka state of India.  Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine. 2004 Jan-Jun; 35(1 and 2): 10-14.

11571.  Richter J, de Bernardis C, Sagir A, Walter S, Savalli E, Haussinger D. Is ultrasound a useful adjunct for assessing malaria patients? Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):349-53.

11572.   Richter J, Gobels K, Muller-Stover I, Hoppenheit B, Haussinger D. Co-reactivity of plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 and aldolase on a combined immuno-chromographic-malaria dipstick (ICT) as a potential semi-quantitative marker of high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):384-5.

11573.   Rwagacondo CE, Karema C, Mugisha V, Erhart A, Dujardin JC, Van Overmeir C, Ringwald P, D'Alessandro U. Is amodiaquine failing in Rwanda? Efficacy of amodiaquine alone and combined with artesunate in children with uncomplicated malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1091-8.

11574.   Schellenberg D, Kahigwa E, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Mshinda H, Alonso P, Menendez C. A randomized comparison of two anemia treatment regimens in Tanzanian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):428-33.

11575.   Smithuis F, Shahmanesh M, Kyaw MK, Savran O, Lwin S, White NJ. Comparison of chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine and mefloquine-artesunate for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Kachin State, North Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Nov;9(11):1184-90.

11576.   Stepniewska K, Taylor WR, Mayxay M, Price R, Smithuis F, Guthmann JP, Barnes K, Myint HY, Adjuik M, Olliaro P, Pukrittayakamee S, Looareesuwan S, Hien TT, Farrar J, Nosten F, Day NP, White NJ.  In vivo assessment of drug efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: duration of follow-up. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4271-80.

11577.   Vokaer M, Bier JC, David P, Grand S, Supiot F, Ventura M, Bartholome EJ. Striatal lesions: an underestimated complication of cerebral malaria? Eur J Neurol. 2004 Oct;11(10):715-6.

11578.   Vreugdenhil CJ, Scheper FY, Hoogstraatte SR, Smolders M, Gikunda S, Cobelens FG, Kager PA. Comparison of the parasitologic efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Bungoma District of western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):537-41.

11579.   Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Sasiprapha T, Sangkharomya S, Khaewsathien P, Supakalin P, Tang DB, Jarasrumgsichol P, Cherdchu C, Edstein MD, Rieckmann KH, Brewer TG.   Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;190(8):1456-63. 

11580.   Willcox ML, Bodeker G. Traditional herbal medicines for malaria. BMJ. 2004 Nov 13;329(7475):1156-9. Review. 

11581. Williams HA, Durrheim D, Shretta R. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies. Health Policy Plan. 2004 Nov;19(6):356-70. Review.


11582.     Ayi K, Turrini F, Piga A, Arese P. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant erythrocytes: a common mechanism that may explain protection against falciparum malaria in sickle trait and beta-thalassemia trait. Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3364-71.

11583.   Baird JK. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4075-83. Review.

11584.   Becker K, Kirk K. Of malaria, metabolism and membrane transport. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):590-6. Review.

11585.   Blackman MJ. Proteases in host cell invasion by the malaria parasite. Cell Microbiol. 2004 Oct;6(10):893-903. Review.

11586.   Borrmann S, Issifou S, Esser G, Adegnika AA, Ramharter M, Matsiegui PB, Oyakhirome S, Mawili-Mboumba DP, Missinou MA, Kun JF, Jomaa H, Kremsner PG. Fosmidomycin-clindamycin for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 1;190(9):1534-40.

11587.   Cooke BM, Coppel RL. Blue skies or stormy weather: what lies ahead for malaria research? Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):611-4. Review.

11588.   Cooke BM, Lingelbach K, Bannister LH, Tilley L. Protein trafficking in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):581-9. Review.

11589.   Coppel RL, Roos DS, Bozdech Z. The genomics of malaria infection. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):553-7. Review.

11590.   Crabb BS, Cooke BM. Molecular approaches to malaria: MAM 2004 and beyond. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):547.

11591.   Craig MH, Kleinschmidt I, Le Sueur D, Sharp BL. Exploring 30 years of malaria case data in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: part II. The impact of non-climatic factors. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1258-66.

11592.   Deitsch KW, Hviid L. Variant surface antigens, virulence genes and the pathogenesis of malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):562-6. Review.

11593.   Dodd RY. Current safety of the blood supply in the United States. Int J Hematol. 2004 Nov;80(4):301-5. Review.

11594.   Dorsey G, Gasasira AF, Machekano R, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Hubbard A. The impact of age, temperature, and parasite density on treatment outcomes from antimalarial clinical trials in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;71(5):531-6.

11595.   Ehrhardt S, Wichmann D, Hemmer CJ, Burchard GD, Brattig NW. Circulating concentrations of cardiac proteins in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1099-103.

11596.   Eipe N. Malaria and postoperative fever. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004 Oct;48(9):1217.

11597.   Gatton ML, Cheng Q. Modeling the development of acquired clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infect Immun. 2004 Nov;72(11):6538-45.

11598.   Guyatt HL, Snow RW. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):760-9.

11599.   Hallett RL, Sutherland CJ, Alexander N, Ord R, Jawara M, Drakeley CJ, Pinder M, Walraven G, Targett GA, Alloueche A. Combination therapy counteracts the enhanced transmission of drug-resistant malaria parasites to mosquitoes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Oct;48(10):3940-3.

11600.   Hampton T. Malaria vaccine shows promise. JAMA. 2004 Dec 8;292(22):2703-4.

11601.   Khan SM, Waters AP. Malaria parasite transmission stages: an update. Trends Parasitol. 2004 Dec;20(12):575-80. Review.

11602.   Mebrahtu T, Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Jape JK, Savioli L, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM. Low-dose daily iron supplementation for 12 months does not increase the prevalence of malarial infection or density of parasites in young Zanzibari children. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3037-41.

11603.   Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Gellert S, Otchwemah RN, Dietz E, Anemana SD, Bienzle U. Alpha(+)-thalassemia protects African children from severe malaria. Blood. 2004 Oct 1;104(7):2003-6.

11604.   Newman RD, Parise ME, Barber AM, Steketee RW. Malaria-related deaths among U.S. travelers, 1963-2001. Ann Intern Med. 2004  Oct 5;141(7):547-55. Review.

11605.   Rich SM. The unpredictable past of Plasmodium vivax revealed in its genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 2;101(44):15547-8.

11606.   Schapira A. DDT still has a role in the fight against malaria. Nature. 2004 Nov 25;432(7016):439.

11607.   Sharma SK, Chattopadhyay R, Chakrabarti K, Pati SS, Srivastava VK, Tyagi PK, Mahanty S, Misra SK, Adak T, Das BS, Chitnis CE. Epidemiology of malaria transmission and development of natural immunity in a malaria-endemic village, San Dulakudar, in Orissa state, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;71(4):457-65.

11608.   Smith JD, Deitsch KW. Pregnancy-associated malaria and the prospects for syndrome-specific antimalaria vaccines. J Exp Med. 2004 Nov 1;200(9):1093-7.

11609.   Tarantola AP, Rachline AC, Konto C, Houze S, Lariven S, Fichelle A, Ammar D, Sabah-Mondan C, Vrillon H, Bouchaud O, Pitard F, Bouvet E; Group d'Etude des Risques d'Exposition des Soignants aux agents infectieux. Occupational malaria following needlestick injury. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;10(10):1878-80

11610.   Vernick KD, Waters AP. Genomics and malaria control. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 28;351(18):1901-4. Review.

11611. Yuda M, Ishino T. Liver invasion by malarial parasites--how do malarial parasites break through the host barrier? Cell Microbiol. 2004 Dec;6(12):1119-25. Review.


11612.   Van de Perre P, Dedet JP. Vaccine efficacy: winning a battle (not war) against malaria. Lancet. 2004 Oct 16;364(9443):1380-3.


11613.   Bhatnagar S, Natchu UC. Zinc in child health and disease. Indian J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;71(11):991-5. Review.

11614.   Bradbury J. Synthetic antimalaria drug enters clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;4(10):598.

11615.   Cyranoski D. Campaign to fight malaria hit by surge in demand for medicine. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):259.

11616.   Dondorp AM, Newton PN, Mayxay M, Van Damme W, Smithuis FM, Yeung S, Petit A, Lynam AJ, Johnson A, Hien TT, McGready R, Farrar JJ, Looareesuwan S, Day NP, Green MD, White NJ. Fake antimalarials in Southeast Asia are a major impediment to malaria control: multinational cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of fake antimalarials. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1241-6.

11617.   Duong S, Lim P, Fandeur T, Tsuyuoka R, Wongsrichanalai C. Importance of protection of antimalarial combination therapies. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1754-5.

11618.   Goklany IM. Climate change and malaria. Science. 2004 Oct 1;306(5693):55-7; author reply 55-7.

11619.   Graham K. New tools to control malaria in refugee camps. J R Soc Health. 2004 Nov;124(6):253-5.

11620.   Haynes RK, Krishna S. Artemisinins: activities and actions. Microbes Infect. 2004 Nov;6(14):1339-46. Review.

11621.   Hien TT, Davis TM, Chuong LV, Ilett KF, Sinh DX, Phu NH, Agus C, Chiswell GM, White NJ, Farrar J. Comparative pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artesunate and artemether in patients with severe falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4234-9.

11622.   Korenromp EL, Armstrong-Schellenberg JR, Williams BG, Nahlen BL, Snow RW. Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1050-65. Review.

11623.   Maitland K, Makanga M, Williams TN. Falciparum malaria: current therapeutic challenges. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;17(5):405-12. Review.

11624.   Meyer CG, Marks F, May J. Editorial: Gin tonic revisited. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec;9(12):1239-40.

11625.   Nathan R, Masanja H, Mshinda H, Schellenberg JA, de Savigny D, Lengeler C, Tanner M, Victora CG. Mosquito nets and the poor: can social marketing redress inequities in access? Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct;9(10):1121-6.

11626.   Noor N, Rattani A. Chlorproguanil-dapsone for malaria. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1753-4.

11627.   Pussard E, Straczek C, Kabore I, Bicaba A, Balima-Koussoube T, Bouree P, Barennes H. Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4422-6.

11628.   Standing JF, Wong IC. Chlorproguanil-dapsone for malaria. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13;364(9447):1752-3; author reply 1753.

11629.   Yasir M, Mahmood A. Quinine based combination therapy (QCT): first choice! J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Oct;14(10):643.